diff options
authorKali Kaneko (leap communications) <>2016-09-30 15:44:33 -0400
committerKali Kaneko (leap communications) <>2016-09-30 16:03:05 -0400
commit3fd5e3d5e9785a7e309c3021f174c3ff52bcc363 (patch)
parent80484cd8e32c9c4117860824e82baebf071492d2 (diff)
[pkg] change the build behavior
- link against system libsqlcipher by default - vendor amalgamation - control its build with --bundled flag - allow to pass amalgamation folder with --amalgamation=
6 files changed, 199991 insertions, 56 deletions
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index e7ec942..c72b8f1 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -1,4 +1,3 @@
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..127461d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+install: clean
+ python install
+install_bundle: clean
+ python install --bundled
+ rm -rf build dist
diff --git a/README.rst b/README.rst
index 4b140cd..0a1f1dc 100644
--- a/README.rst
+++ b/README.rst
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@ linux environments). It links against against libsqlcipher.
Original code (c) 2004-2007 Gerhard Häring
-Packaging for SQLCipher (c) 2013-2014 Kali Kaneko
+Packaging for SQLCipher (c) 2013-2016 Kali Kaneko
@@ -31,17 +31,25 @@ You can quickly verify that your database file in indeed encrypted::
77 bf e3 1d 65 b5 ea f7 d2 fc 98 31 23 66 a0 1e |w...e......1#f..|
a4 4f fa 66 49 36 84 a1 3e 0c 21 98 84 07 eb 07 |.O.fI6..>.!.....|
-Build against libsqlcipher
-For convenience, this package uses a sqlcipher amalgamation during the regular
+Build against bundled libsqlcipher
+The default behaviour is to link against libsqlcipher in the system.
+For convenience, this package includes a sqlcipher amalgamation during the regular
install. See
-For production use, you should build against ``libsqlcipher`` installed in your
-system, you can do it like this::
+If you don't have sqlcipher installed in the system, you can use the bundled
+ python install --bundled
+You can also pass a different amalgamation path, that you have previously
- python build_sqlcipher
+ python install --bundled --amalgamation=/tmp/path/to/amalgamation
-And then::
+If you are installing from pip but for some reason you prefer to use the bundled
+sqlcipher, you should pass the option along::
- python install
+ pip install pysqlcipher --install-option="--bundled"
diff --git a/amalgamation/sqlite3.c b/amalgamation/sqlite3.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..95245c5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/amalgamation/sqlite3.c
@@ -0,0 +1,191252 @@
+** This file is an amalgamation of many separate C source files from SQLite
+** version 3.11.0. By combining all the individual C code files into this
+** single large file, the entire code can be compiled as a single translation
+** unit. This allows many compilers to do optimizations that would not be
+** possible if the files were compiled separately. Performance improvements
+** of 5% or more are commonly seen when SQLite is compiled as a single
+** translation unit.
+** This file is all you need to compile SQLite. To use SQLite in other
+** programs, you need this file and the "sqlite3.h" header file that defines
+** the programming interface to the SQLite library. (If you do not have
+** the "sqlite3.h" header file at hand, you will find a copy embedded within
+** the text of this file. Search for "Begin file sqlite3.h" to find the start
+** of the embedded sqlite3.h header file.) Additional code files may be needed
+** if you want a wrapper to interface SQLite with your choice of programming
+** language. The code for the "sqlite3" command-line shell is also in a
+** separate file. This file contains only code for the core SQLite library.
+#define SQLITE_CORE 1
+# define SQLITE_PRIVATE static
+/************** Begin file sqliteInt.h ***************************************/
+** 2001 September 15
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code. In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+** May you do good and not evil.
+** May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+** May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+** Internal interface definitions for SQLite.
+#ifndef _SQLITEINT_H_
+#define _SQLITEINT_H_
+** Include the header file used to customize the compiler options for MSVC.
+** This should be done first so that it can successfully prevent spurious
+** compiler warnings due to subsequent content in this file and other files
+** that are included by this file.
+/************** Include msvc.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ******************/
+/************** Begin file msvc.h ********************************************/
+** 2015 January 12
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code. In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+** May you do good and not evil.
+** May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+** May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+** This file contains code that is specific to MSVC.
+#ifndef _MSVC_H_
+#define _MSVC_H_
+#if defined(_MSC_VER)
+#pragma warning(disable : 4054)
+#pragma warning(disable : 4055)
+#pragma warning(disable : 4100)
+#pragma warning(disable : 4127)
+#pragma warning(disable : 4130)
+#pragma warning(disable : 4152)
+#pragma warning(disable : 4189)
+#pragma warning(disable : 4206)
+#pragma warning(disable : 4210)
+#pragma warning(disable : 4232)
+#pragma warning(disable : 4244)
+#pragma warning(disable : 4305)
+#pragma warning(disable : 4306)
+#pragma warning(disable : 4702)
+#pragma warning(disable : 4706)
+#endif /* defined(_MSC_VER) */
+#endif /* _MSVC_H_ */
+/************** End of msvc.h ************************************************/
+/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
+** Special setup for VxWorks
+/************** Include vxworks.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ***************/
+/************** Begin file vxworks.h *****************************************/
+** 2015-03-02
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code. In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+** May you do good and not evil.
+** May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+** May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+** This file contains code that is specific to Wind River's VxWorks
+#if defined(__RTP__) || defined(_WRS_KERNEL)
+/* This is VxWorks. Set up things specially for that OS
+#include <vxWorks.h>
+#include <pthread.h> /* amalgamator: dontcache */
+#define OS_VXWORKS 1
+#define SQLITE_OS_OTHER 0
+#define HAVE_UTIME 1
+/* This is not VxWorks. */
+#define OS_VXWORKS 0
+#define HAVE_FCHOWN 1
+#define HAVE_READLINK 1
+#define HAVE_LSTAT 1
+#endif /* defined(_WRS_KERNEL) */
+/************** End of vxworks.h *********************************************/
+/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
+** These #defines should enable >2GB file support on POSIX if the
+** underlying operating system supports it. If the OS lacks
+** large file support, or if the OS is windows, these should be no-ops.
+** Ticket #2739: The _LARGEFILE_SOURCE macro must appear before any
+** system #includes. Hence, this block of code must be the very first
+** code in all source files.
+** Large file support can be disabled using the -DSQLITE_DISABLE_LFS switch
+** on the compiler command line. This is necessary if you are compiling
+** on a recent machine (ex: Red Hat 7.2) but you want your code to work
+** on an older machine (ex: Red Hat 6.0). If you compile on Red Hat 7.2
+** without this option, LFS is enable. But LFS does not exist in the kernel
+** in Red Hat 6.0, so the code won't work. Hence, for maximum binary
+** portability you should omit LFS.
+** The previous paragraph was written in 2005. (This paragraph is written
+** on 2008-11-28.) These days, all Linux kernels support large files, so
+** you should probably leave LFS enabled. But some embedded platforms might
+** lack LFS in which case the SQLITE_DISABLE_LFS macro might still be useful.
+** Similar is true for Mac OS X. LFS is only supported on Mac OS X 9 and later.
+# define _LARGE_FILE 1
+# define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
+# endif
+/* What version of GCC is being used. 0 means GCC is not being used */
+#ifdef __GNUC__
+# define GCC_VERSION (__GNUC__*1000000+__GNUC_MINOR__*1000+__GNUC_PATCHLEVEL__)
+# define GCC_VERSION 0
+/* Needed for various definitions... */
+#if defined(__GNUC__) && !defined(_GNU_SOURCE)
+# define _GNU_SOURCE
+#if defined(__OpenBSD__) && !defined(_BSD_SOURCE)
+# define _BSD_SOURCE
+** For MinGW, check to see if we can include the header file containing its
+** version information, among other things. Normally, this internal MinGW
+** header file would [only] be included automatically by other MinGW header
+** files; however, the contained version information is now required by this
+** header file to work around binary compatibility issues (see below) and
+** this is the only known way to reliably obtain it. This entire #if block
+** would be completely unnecessary if there was any other way of detecting
+** MinGW via their preprocessor (e.g. if they customized their GCC to define
+** some MinGW-specific macros). When compiling for MinGW, either the
+** _HAVE_MINGW_H or _HAVE__MINGW_H (note the extra underscore) macro must be
+** defined; otherwise, detection of conditions specific to MinGW will be
+** disabled.
+#if defined(_HAVE_MINGW_H)
+# include "mingw.h"
+#elif defined(_HAVE__MINGW_H)
+# include "_mingw.h"
+** For MinGW version 4.x (and higher), check to see if the _USE_32BIT_TIME_T
+** define is required to maintain binary compatibility with the MSVC runtime
+** library in use (e.g. for Windows XP).
+#if !defined(_USE_32BIT_TIME_T) && !defined(_USE_64BIT_TIME_T) && \
+ defined(_WIN32) && !defined(_WIN64) && \
+ defined(__MSVCRT__)
+# define _USE_32BIT_TIME_T
+/* The public SQLite interface. The _FILE_OFFSET_BITS macro must appear
+** first in QNX. Also, the _USE_32BIT_TIME_T macro must appear first for
+** MinGW.
+/************** Include sqlite3.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ***************/
+/************** Begin file sqlite3.h *****************************************/
+** 2001 September 15
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code. In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+** May you do good and not evil.
+** May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+** May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+** This header file defines the interface that the SQLite library
+** presents to client programs. If a C-function, structure, datatype,
+** or constant definition does not appear in this file, then it is
+** not a published API of SQLite, is subject to change without
+** notice, and should not be referenced by programs that use SQLite.
+** Some of the definitions that are in this file are marked as
+** "experimental". Experimental interfaces are normally new
+** features recently added to SQLite. We do not anticipate changes
+** to experimental interfaces but reserve the right to make minor changes
+** if experience from use "in the wild" suggest such changes are prudent.
+** The official C-language API documentation for SQLite is derived
+** from comments in this file. This file is the authoritative source
+** on how SQLite interfaces are supposed to operate.
+** The name of this file under configuration management is "".
+** The makefile makes some minor changes to this file (such as inserting
+** the version number) and changes its name to "sqlite3.h" as
+** part of the build process.
+#ifndef _SQLITE3_H_
+#define _SQLITE3_H_
+#include <stdarg.h> /* Needed for the definition of va_list */
+** Make sure we can call this stuff from C++.
+#if 0
+extern "C" {
+** Provide the ability to override linkage features of the interface.
+# define SQLITE_EXTERN extern
+#ifndef SQLITE_API
+# define SQLITE_API
+# define SQLITE_CDECL
+** These no-op macros are used in front of interfaces to mark those
+** interfaces as either deprecated or experimental. New applications
+** should not use deprecated interfaces - they are supported for backwards
+** compatibility only. Application writers should be aware that
+** experimental interfaces are subject to change in point releases.
+** These macros used to resolve to various kinds of compiler magic that
+** would generate warning messages when they were used. But that
+** compiler magic ended up generating such a flurry of bug reports
+** that we have taken it all out and gone back to using simple
+** noop macros.
+** Ensure these symbols were not defined by some previous header file.
+** CAPI3REF: Compile-Time Library Version Numbers
+** ^(The [SQLITE_VERSION] C preprocessor macro in the sqlite3.h header
+** evaluates to a string literal that is the SQLite version in the
+** format "X.Y.Z" where X is the major version number (always 3 for
+** SQLite3) and Y is the minor version number and Z is the release number.)^
+** ^(The [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER] C preprocessor macro resolves to an integer
+** with the value (X*1000000 + Y*1000 + Z) where X, Y, and Z are the same
+** numbers used in [SQLITE_VERSION].)^
+** The SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER for any given release of SQLite will also
+** be larger than the release from which it is derived. Either Y will
+** be held constant and Z will be incremented or else Y will be incremented
+** and Z will be reset to zero.
+** Since version 3.6.18, SQLite source code has been stored in the
+** <a href="">Fossil configuration management
+** system</a>. ^The SQLITE_SOURCE_ID macro evaluates to
+** a string which identifies a particular check-in of SQLite
+** within its configuration management system. ^The SQLITE_SOURCE_ID
+** string contains the date and time of the check-in (UTC) and an SHA1
+** hash of the entire source tree.
+** See also: [sqlite3_libversion()],
+** [sqlite3_libversion_number()], [sqlite3_sourceid()],
+** [sqlite_version()] and [sqlite_source_id()].
+#define SQLITE_VERSION "3.11.0"
+#define SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER 3011000
+#define SQLITE_SOURCE_ID "2016-02-15 17:29:24 3d862f207e3adc00f78066799ac5a8c282430a5f"
+** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Library Version Numbers
+** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_version, sqlite3_sourceid
+** These interfaces provide the same information as the [SQLITE_VERSION],
+** [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER], and [SQLITE_SOURCE_ID] C preprocessor macros
+** but are associated with the library instead of the header file. ^(Cautious
+** programmers might include assert() statements in their application to
+** verify that values returned by these interfaces match the macros in
+** the header, and thus ensure that the application is
+** compiled with matching library and header files.
+** <blockquote><pre>
+** assert( sqlite3_libversion_number()==SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER );
+** assert( strcmp(sqlite3_sourceid(),SQLITE_SOURCE_ID)==0 );
+** assert( strcmp(sqlite3_libversion(),SQLITE_VERSION)==0 );
+** </pre></blockquote>)^
+** ^The sqlite3_version[] string constant contains the text of [SQLITE_VERSION]
+** macro. ^The sqlite3_libversion() function returns a pointer to the
+** to the sqlite3_version[] string constant. The sqlite3_libversion()
+** function is provided for use in DLLs since DLL users usually do not have
+** direct access to string constants within the DLL. ^The
+** sqlite3_libversion_number() function returns an integer equal to
+** [SQLITE_VERSION_NUMBER]. ^The sqlite3_sourceid() function returns
+** a pointer to a string constant whose value is the same as the
+** [SQLITE_SOURCE_ID] C preprocessor macro.
+** See also: [sqlite_version()] and [sqlite_source_id()].
+SQLITE_API const char sqlite3_version[] = SQLITE_VERSION;
+SQLITE_API const char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_libversion(void);
+SQLITE_API const char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_sourceid(void);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_libversion_number(void);
+** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Library Compilation Options Diagnostics
+** ^The sqlite3_compileoption_used() function returns 0 or 1
+** indicating whether the specified option was defined at
+** compile time. ^The SQLITE_ prefix may be omitted from the
+** option name passed to sqlite3_compileoption_used().
+** ^The sqlite3_compileoption_get() function allows iterating
+** over the list of options that were defined at compile time by
+** returning the N-th compile time option string. ^If N is out of range,
+** sqlite3_compileoption_get() returns a NULL pointer. ^The SQLITE_
+** prefix is omitted from any strings returned by
+** sqlite3_compileoption_get().
+** ^Support for the diagnostic functions sqlite3_compileoption_used()
+** and sqlite3_compileoption_get() may be omitted by specifying the
+** [SQLITE_OMIT_COMPILEOPTION_DIAGS] option at compile time.
+** See also: SQL functions [sqlite_compileoption_used()] and
+** [sqlite_compileoption_get()] and the [compile_options pragma].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_compileoption_used(const char *zOptName);
+SQLITE_API const char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_compileoption_get(int N);
+** CAPI3REF: Test To See If The Library Is Threadsafe
+** ^The sqlite3_threadsafe() function returns zero if and only if
+** SQLite was compiled with mutexing code omitted due to the
+** [SQLITE_THREADSAFE] compile-time option being set to 0.
+** SQLite can be compiled with or without mutexes. When
+** the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE] C preprocessor macro is 1 or 2, mutexes
+** are enabled and SQLite is threadsafe. When the
+** [SQLITE_THREADSAFE] macro is 0,
+** the mutexes are omitted. Without the mutexes, it is not safe
+** to use SQLite concurrently from more than one thread.
+** Enabling mutexes incurs a measurable performance penalty.
+** So if speed is of utmost importance, it makes sense to disable
+** the mutexes. But for maximum safety, mutexes should be enabled.
+** ^The default behavior is for mutexes to be enabled.
+** This interface can be used by an application to make sure that the
+** version of SQLite that it is linking against was compiled with
+** the desired setting of the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE] macro.
+** This interface only reports on the compile-time mutex setting
+** of the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE] flag. If SQLite is compiled with
+** SQLITE_THREADSAFE=1 or =2 then mutexes are enabled by default but
+** can be fully or partially disabled using a call to [sqlite3_config()]
+** or [SQLITE_CONFIG_SERIALIZED]. ^(The return value of the
+** sqlite3_threadsafe() function shows only the compile-time setting of
+** thread safety, not any run-time changes to that setting made by
+** sqlite3_config(). In other words, the return value from sqlite3_threadsafe()
+** is unchanged by calls to sqlite3_config().)^
+** See the [threading mode] documentation for additional information.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_threadsafe(void);
+** CAPI3REF: Database Connection Handle
+** KEYWORDS: {database connection} {database connections}
+** Each open SQLite database is represented by a pointer to an instance of
+** the opaque structure named "sqlite3". It is useful to think of an sqlite3
+** pointer as an object. The [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], and
+** [sqlite3_open_v2()] interfaces are its constructors, and [sqlite3_close()]
+** and [sqlite3_close_v2()] are its destructors. There are many other
+** interfaces (such as
+** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()], [sqlite3_create_function()], and
+** [sqlite3_busy_timeout()] to name but three) that are methods on an
+** sqlite3 object.
+typedef struct sqlite3 sqlite3;
+** CAPI3REF: 64-Bit Integer Types
+** KEYWORDS: sqlite_int64 sqlite_uint64
+** Because there is no cross-platform way to specify 64-bit integer types
+** SQLite includes typedefs for 64-bit signed and unsigned integers.
+** The sqlite3_int64 and sqlite3_uint64 are the preferred type definitions.
+** The sqlite_int64 and sqlite_uint64 types are supported for backwards
+** compatibility only.
+** ^The sqlite3_int64 and sqlite_int64 types can store integer values
+** between -9223372036854775808 and +9223372036854775807 inclusive. ^The
+** sqlite3_uint64 and sqlite_uint64 types can store integer values
+** between 0 and +18446744073709551615 inclusive.
+ typedef SQLITE_INT64_TYPE sqlite_int64;
+ typedef unsigned SQLITE_INT64_TYPE sqlite_uint64;
+#elif defined(_MSC_VER) || defined(__BORLANDC__)
+ typedef __int64 sqlite_int64;
+ typedef unsigned __int64 sqlite_uint64;
+ typedef long long int sqlite_int64;
+ typedef unsigned long long int sqlite_uint64;
+typedef sqlite_int64 sqlite3_int64;
+typedef sqlite_uint64 sqlite3_uint64;
+** If compiling for a processor that lacks floating point support,
+** substitute integer for floating-point.
+# define double sqlite3_int64
+** CAPI3REF: Closing A Database Connection
+** DESTRUCTOR: sqlite3
+** ^The sqlite3_close() and sqlite3_close_v2() routines are destructors
+** for the [sqlite3] object.
+** ^Calls to sqlite3_close() and sqlite3_close_v2() return [SQLITE_OK] if
+** the [sqlite3] object is successfully destroyed and all associated
+** resources are deallocated.
+** ^If the database connection is associated with unfinalized prepared
+** statements or unfinished sqlite3_backup objects then sqlite3_close()
+** will leave the database connection open and return [SQLITE_BUSY].
+** ^If sqlite3_close_v2() is called with unfinalized prepared statements
+** and/or unfinished sqlite3_backups, then the database connection becomes
+** an unusable "zombie" which will automatically be deallocated when the
+** last prepared statement is finalized or the last sqlite3_backup is
+** finished. The sqlite3_close_v2() interface is intended for use with
+** host languages that are garbage collected, and where the order in which
+** destructors are called is arbitrary.
+** Applications should [sqlite3_finalize | finalize] all [prepared statements],
+** [sqlite3_blob_close | close] all [BLOB handles], and
+** [sqlite3_backup_finish | finish] all [sqlite3_backup] objects associated
+** with the [sqlite3] object prior to attempting to close the object. ^If
+** sqlite3_close_v2() is called on a [database connection] that still has
+** outstanding [prepared statements], [BLOB handles], and/or
+** [sqlite3_backup] objects then it returns [SQLITE_OK] and the deallocation
+** of resources is deferred until all [prepared statements], [BLOB handles],
+** and [sqlite3_backup] objects are also destroyed.
+** ^If an [sqlite3] object is destroyed while a transaction is open,
+** the transaction is automatically rolled back.
+** The C parameter to [sqlite3_close(C)] and [sqlite3_close_v2(C)]
+** must be either a NULL
+** pointer or an [sqlite3] object pointer obtained
+** from [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()], or
+** [sqlite3_open_v2()], and not previously closed.
+** ^Calling sqlite3_close() or sqlite3_close_v2() with a NULL pointer
+** argument is a harmless no-op.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_close(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_close_v2(sqlite3*);
+** The type for a callback function.
+** This is legacy and deprecated. It is included for historical
+** compatibility and is not documented.
+typedef int (*sqlite3_callback)(void*,int,char**, char**);
+** CAPI3REF: One-Step Query Execution Interface
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** The sqlite3_exec() interface is a convenience wrapper around
+** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()], [sqlite3_step()], and [sqlite3_finalize()],
+** that allows an application to run multiple statements of SQL
+** without having to use a lot of C code.
+** ^The sqlite3_exec() interface runs zero or more UTF-8 encoded,
+** semicolon-separate SQL statements passed into its 2nd argument,
+** in the context of the [database connection] passed in as its 1st
+** argument. ^If the callback function of the 3rd argument to
+** sqlite3_exec() is not NULL, then it is invoked for each result row
+** coming out of the evaluated SQL statements. ^The 4th argument to
+** sqlite3_exec() is relayed through to the 1st argument of each
+** callback invocation. ^If the callback pointer to sqlite3_exec()
+** is NULL, then no callback is ever invoked and result rows are
+** ignored.
+** ^If an error occurs while evaluating the SQL statements passed into
+** sqlite3_exec(), then execution of the current statement stops and
+** subsequent statements are skipped. ^If the 5th parameter to sqlite3_exec()
+** is not NULL then any error message is written into memory obtained
+** from [sqlite3_malloc()] and passed back through the 5th parameter.
+** To avoid memory leaks, the application should invoke [sqlite3_free()]
+** on error message strings returned through the 5th parameter of
+** sqlite3_exec() after the error message string is no longer needed.
+** ^If the 5th parameter to sqlite3_exec() is not NULL and no errors
+** occur, then sqlite3_exec() sets the pointer in its 5th parameter to
+** NULL before returning.
+** ^If an sqlite3_exec() callback returns non-zero, the sqlite3_exec()
+** routine returns SQLITE_ABORT without invoking the callback again and
+** without running any subsequent SQL statements.
+** ^The 2nd argument to the sqlite3_exec() callback function is the
+** number of columns in the result. ^The 3rd argument to the sqlite3_exec()
+** callback is an array of pointers to strings obtained as if from
+** [sqlite3_column_text()], one for each column. ^If an element of a
+** result row is NULL then the corresponding string pointer for the
+** sqlite3_exec() callback is a NULL pointer. ^The 4th argument to the
+** sqlite3_exec() callback is an array of pointers to strings where each
+** entry represents the name of corresponding result column as obtained
+** from [sqlite3_column_name()].
+** ^If the 2nd parameter to sqlite3_exec() is a NULL pointer, a pointer
+** to an empty string, or a pointer that contains only whitespace and/or
+** SQL comments, then no SQL statements are evaluated and the database
+** is not changed.
+** Restrictions:
+** <ul>
+** <li> The application must ensure that the 1st parameter to sqlite3_exec()
+** is a valid and open [database connection].
+** <li> The application must not close the [database connection] specified by
+** the 1st parameter to sqlite3_exec() while sqlite3_exec() is running.
+** <li> The application must not modify the SQL statement text passed into
+** the 2nd parameter of sqlite3_exec() while sqlite3_exec() is running.
+** </ul>
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_exec(
+ sqlite3*, /* An open database */
+ const char *sql, /* SQL to be evaluated */
+ int (*callback)(void*,int,char**,char**), /* Callback function */
+ void *, /* 1st argument to callback */
+ char **errmsg /* Error msg written here */
+** CAPI3REF: Result Codes
+** KEYWORDS: {result code definitions}
+** Many SQLite functions return an integer result code from the set shown
+** here in order to indicate success or failure.
+** New error codes may be added in future versions of SQLite.
+** See also: [extended result code definitions]
+#define SQLITE_OK 0 /* Successful result */
+/* beginning-of-error-codes */
+#define SQLITE_ERROR 1 /* SQL error or missing database */
+#define SQLITE_INTERNAL 2 /* Internal logic error in SQLite */
+#define SQLITE_PERM 3 /* Access permission denied */
+#define SQLITE_ABORT 4 /* Callback routine requested an abort */
+#define SQLITE_BUSY 5 /* The database file is locked */
+#define SQLITE_LOCKED 6 /* A table in the database is locked */
+#define SQLITE_NOMEM 7 /* A malloc() failed */
+#define SQLITE_READONLY 8 /* Attempt to write a readonly database */
+#define SQLITE_INTERRUPT 9 /* Operation terminated by sqlite3_interrupt()*/
+#define SQLITE_IOERR 10 /* Some kind of disk I/O error occurred */
+#define SQLITE_CORRUPT 11 /* The database disk image is malformed */
+#define SQLITE_NOTFOUND 12 /* Unknown opcode in sqlite3_file_control() */
+#define SQLITE_FULL 13 /* Insertion failed because database is full */
+#define SQLITE_CANTOPEN 14 /* Unable to open the database file */
+#define SQLITE_PROTOCOL 15 /* Database lock protocol error */
+#define SQLITE_EMPTY 16 /* Database is empty */
+#define SQLITE_SCHEMA 17 /* The database schema changed */
+#define SQLITE_TOOBIG 18 /* String or BLOB exceeds size limit */
+#define SQLITE_CONSTRAINT 19 /* Abort due to constraint violation */
+#define SQLITE_MISMATCH 20 /* Data type mismatch */
+#define SQLITE_MISUSE 21 /* Library used incorrectly */
+#define SQLITE_NOLFS 22 /* Uses OS features not supported on host */
+#define SQLITE_AUTH 23 /* Authorization denied */
+#define SQLITE_FORMAT 24 /* Auxiliary database format error */
+#define SQLITE_RANGE 25 /* 2nd parameter to sqlite3_bind out of range */
+#define SQLITE_NOTADB 26 /* File opened that is not a database file */
+#define SQLITE_NOTICE 27 /* Notifications from sqlite3_log() */
+#define SQLITE_WARNING 28 /* Warnings from sqlite3_log() */
+#define SQLITE_ROW 100 /* sqlite3_step() has another row ready */
+#define SQLITE_DONE 101 /* sqlite3_step() has finished executing */
+/* end-of-error-codes */
+** CAPI3REF: Extended Result Codes
+** KEYWORDS: {extended result code definitions}
+** In its default configuration, SQLite API routines return one of 30 integer
+** [result codes]. However, experience has shown that many of
+** these result codes are too coarse-grained. They do not provide as
+** much information about problems as programmers might like. In an effort to
+** address this, newer versions of SQLite (version 3.3.8 and later) include
+** support for additional result codes that provide more detailed information
+** about errors. These [extended result codes] are enabled or disabled
+** on a per database connection basis using the
+** [sqlite3_extended_result_codes()] API. Or, the extended code for
+** the most recent error can be obtained using
+** [sqlite3_extended_errcode()].
+#define SQLITE_AUTH_USER (SQLITE_AUTH | (1<<8))
+** CAPI3REF: Flags For File Open Operations
+** These bit values are intended for use in the
+** 3rd parameter to the [sqlite3_open_v2()] interface and
+** in the 4th parameter to the [sqlite3_vfs.xOpen] method.
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY 0x00000001 /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE 0x00000002 /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE 0x00000004 /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE 0x00000008 /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE 0x00000010 /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_AUTOPROXY 0x00000020 /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_URI 0x00000040 /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_MEMORY 0x00000080 /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_DB 0x00000100 /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_DB 0x00000200 /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_TRANSIENT_DB 0x00000400 /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_JOURNAL 0x00000800 /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_JOURNAL 0x00001000 /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_SUBJOURNAL 0x00002000 /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_MASTER_JOURNAL 0x00004000 /* VFS only */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_NOMUTEX 0x00008000 /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_FULLMUTEX 0x00010000 /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_SHAREDCACHE 0x00020000 /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_PRIVATECACHE 0x00040000 /* Ok for sqlite3_open_v2() */
+#define SQLITE_OPEN_WAL 0x00080000 /* VFS only */
+/* Reserved: 0x00F00000 */
+** CAPI3REF: Device Characteristics
+** The xDeviceCharacteristics method of the [sqlite3_io_methods]
+** object returns an integer which is a vector of these
+** bit values expressing I/O characteristics of the mass storage
+** device that holds the file that the [sqlite3_io_methods]
+** refers to.
+** The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC property means that all writes of
+** any size are atomic. The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMICnnn values
+** mean that writes of blocks that are nnn bytes in size and
+** are aligned to an address which is an integer multiple of
+** nnn are atomic. The SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND value means
+** that when data is appended to a file, the data is appended
+** first then the size of the file is extended, never the other
+** way around. The SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL property means that
+** information is written to disk in the same order as calls
+** to xWrite(). The SQLITE_IOCAP_POWERSAFE_OVERWRITE property means that
+** after reboot following a crash or power loss, the only bytes in a
+** file that were written at the application level might have changed
+** and that adjacent bytes, even bytes within the same sector are
+** guaranteed to be unchanged. The SQLITE_IOCAP_UNDELETABLE_WHEN_OPEN
+** flag indicate that a file cannot be deleted when open. The
+** SQLITE_IOCAP_IMMUTABLE flag indicates that the file is on
+** read-only media and cannot be changed even by processes with
+** elevated privileges.
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC 0x00000001
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC512 0x00000002
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC1K 0x00000004
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC2K 0x00000008
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC4K 0x00000010
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC8K 0x00000020
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC16K 0x00000040
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC32K 0x00000080
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC64K 0x00000100
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND 0x00000200
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL 0x00000400
+#define SQLITE_IOCAP_IMMUTABLE 0x00002000
+** CAPI3REF: File Locking Levels
+** SQLite uses one of these integer values as the second
+** argument to calls it makes to the xLock() and xUnlock() methods
+** of an [sqlite3_io_methods] object.
+** CAPI3REF: Synchronization Type Flags
+** When SQLite invokes the xSync() method of an
+** [sqlite3_io_methods] object it uses a combination of
+** these integer values as the second argument.
+** When the SQLITE_SYNC_DATAONLY flag is used, it means that the
+** sync operation only needs to flush data to mass storage. Inode
+** information need not be flushed. If the lower four bits of the flag
+** equal SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL, that means to use normal fsync() semantics.
+** If the lower four bits equal SQLITE_SYNC_FULL, that means
+** to use Mac OS X style fullsync instead of fsync().
+** Do not confuse the SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL and SQLITE_SYNC_FULL flags
+** with the [PRAGMA synchronous]=NORMAL and [PRAGMA synchronous]=FULL
+** settings. The [synchronous pragma] determines when calls to the
+** xSync VFS method occur and applies uniformly across all platforms.
+** The SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL and SQLITE_SYNC_FULL flags determine how
+** energetic or rigorous or forceful the sync operations are and
+** only make a difference on Mac OSX for the default SQLite code.
+** (Third-party VFS implementations might also make the distinction
+** between SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL and SQLITE_SYNC_FULL, but among the
+** operating systems natively supported by SQLite, only Mac OSX
+** cares about the difference.)
+#define SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL 0x00002
+#define SQLITE_SYNC_FULL 0x00003
+#define SQLITE_SYNC_DATAONLY 0x00010
+** CAPI3REF: OS Interface Open File Handle
+** An [sqlite3_file] object represents an open file in the
+** [sqlite3_vfs | OS interface layer]. Individual OS interface
+** implementations will
+** want to subclass this object by appending additional fields
+** for their own use. The pMethods entry is a pointer to an
+** [sqlite3_io_methods] object that defines methods for performing
+** I/O operations on the open file.
+typedef struct sqlite3_file sqlite3_file;
+struct sqlite3_file {
+ const struct sqlite3_io_methods *pMethods; /* Methods for an open file */
+** CAPI3REF: OS Interface File Virtual Methods Object
+** Every file opened by the [sqlite3_vfs.xOpen] method populates an
+** [sqlite3_file] object (or, more commonly, a subclass of the
+** [sqlite3_file] object) with a pointer to an instance of this object.
+** This object defines the methods used to perform various operations
+** against the open file represented by the [sqlite3_file] object.
+** If the [sqlite3_vfs.xOpen] method sets the sqlite3_file.pMethods element
+** to a non-NULL pointer, then the sqlite3_io_methods.xClose method
+** may be invoked even if the [sqlite3_vfs.xOpen] reported that it failed. The
+** only way to prevent a call to xClose following a failed [sqlite3_vfs.xOpen]
+** is for the [sqlite3_vfs.xOpen] to set the sqlite3_file.pMethods element
+** to NULL.
+** The flags argument to xSync may be one of [SQLITE_SYNC_NORMAL] or
+** [SQLITE_SYNC_FULL]. The first choice is the normal fsync().
+** The second choice is a Mac OS X style fullsync. The [SQLITE_SYNC_DATAONLY]
+** flag may be ORed in to indicate that only the data of the file
+** and not its inode needs to be synced.
+** The integer values to xLock() and xUnlock() are one of
+** <ul>
+** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_NONE],
+** <li> [SQLITE_LOCK_PENDING], or
+** </ul>
+** xLock() increases the lock. xUnlock() decreases the lock.
+** The xCheckReservedLock() method checks whether any database connection,
+** either in this process or in some other process, is holding a RESERVED,
+** PENDING, or EXCLUSIVE lock on the file. It returns true
+** if such a lock exists and false otherwise.
+** The xFileControl() method is a generic interface that allows custom
+** VFS implementations to directly control an open file using the
+** [sqlite3_file_control()] interface. The second "op" argument is an
+** integer opcode. The third argument is a generic pointer intended to
+** point to a structure that may contain arguments or space in which to
+** write return values. Potential uses for xFileControl() might be
+** functions to enable blocking locks with timeouts, to change the
+** locking strategy (for example to use dot-file locks), to inquire
+** about the status of a lock, or to break stale locks. The SQLite
+** core reserves all opcodes less than 100 for its own use.
+** A [file control opcodes | list of opcodes] less than 100 is available.
+** Applications that define a custom xFileControl method should use opcodes
+** greater than 100 to avoid conflicts. VFS implementations should
+** return [SQLITE_NOTFOUND] for file control opcodes that they do not
+** recognize.
+** The xSectorSize() method returns the sector size of the
+** device that underlies the file. The sector size is the
+** minimum write that can be performed without disturbing
+** other bytes in the file. The xDeviceCharacteristics()
+** method returns a bit vector describing behaviors of the
+** underlying device:
+** <ul>
+** </ul>
+** The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMIC property means that all writes of
+** any size are atomic. The SQLITE_IOCAP_ATOMICnnn values
+** mean that writes of blocks that are nnn bytes in size and
+** are aligned to an address which is an integer multiple of
+** nnn are atomic. The SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND value means
+** that when data is appended to a file, the data is appended
+** first then the size of the file is extended, never the other
+** way around. The SQLITE_IOCAP_SEQUENTIAL property means that
+** information is written to disk in the same order as calls
+** to xWrite().
+** If xRead() returns SQLITE_IOERR_SHORT_READ it must also fill
+** in the unread portions of the buffer with zeros. A VFS that
+** fails to zero-fill short reads might seem to work. However,
+** failure to zero-fill short reads will eventually lead to
+** database corruption.
+typedef struct sqlite3_io_methods sqlite3_io_methods;
+struct sqlite3_io_methods {
+ int iVersion;
+ int (*xClose)(sqlite3_file*);
+ int (*xRead)(sqlite3_file*, void*, int iAmt, sqlite3_int64 iOfst);
+ int (*xWrite)(sqlite3_file*, const void*, int iAmt, sqlite3_int64 iOfst);
+ int (*xTruncate)(sqlite3_file*, sqlite3_int64 size);
+ int (*xSync)(sqlite3_file*, int flags);
+ int (*xFileSize)(sqlite3_file*, sqlite3_int64 *pSize);
+ int (*xLock)(sqlite3_file*, int);
+ int (*xUnlock)(sqlite3_file*, int);
+ int (*xCheckReservedLock)(sqlite3_file*, int *pResOut);
+ int (*xFileControl)(sqlite3_file*, int op, void *pArg);
+ int (*xSectorSize)(sqlite3_file*);
+ int (*xDeviceCharacteristics)(sqlite3_file*);
+ /* Methods above are valid for version 1 */
+ int (*xShmMap)(sqlite3_file*, int iPg, int pgsz, int, void volatile**);
+ int (*xShmLock)(sqlite3_file*, int offset, int n, int flags);
+ void (*xShmBarrier)(sqlite3_file*);
+ int (*xShmUnmap)(sqlite3_file*, int deleteFlag);
+ /* Methods above are valid for version 2 */
+ int (*xFetch)(sqlite3_file*, sqlite3_int64 iOfst, int iAmt, void **pp);
+ int (*xUnfetch)(sqlite3_file*, sqlite3_int64 iOfst, void *p);
+ /* Methods above are valid for version 3 */
+ /* Additional methods may be added in future releases */
+** CAPI3REF: Standard File Control Opcodes
+** KEYWORDS: {file control opcodes} {file control opcode}
+** These integer constants are opcodes for the xFileControl method
+** of the [sqlite3_io_methods] object and for the [sqlite3_file_control()]
+** interface.
+** <ul>
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCKSTATE] opcode is used for debugging. This
+** opcode causes the xFileControl method to write the current state of
+** the lock (one of [SQLITE_LOCK_NONE], [SQLITE_LOCK_SHARED],
+** into an integer that the pArg argument points to. This capability
+** is used during testing and is only available when the SQLITE_TEST
+** compile-time option is used.
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_SIZE_HINT] opcode is used by SQLite to give the VFS
+** layer a hint of how large the database file will grow to be during the
+** current transaction. This hint is not guaranteed to be accurate but it
+** is often close. The underlying VFS might choose to preallocate database
+** file space based on this hint in order to help writes to the database
+** file run faster.
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_CHUNK_SIZE] opcode is used to request that the VFS
+** extends and truncates the database file in chunks of a size specified
+** by the user. The fourth argument to [sqlite3_file_control()] should
+** point to an integer (type int) containing the new chunk-size to use
+** for the nominated database. Allocating database file space in large
+** chunks (say 1MB at a time), may reduce file-system fragmentation and
+** improve performance on some systems.
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_FILE_POINTER] opcode is used to obtain a pointer
+** to the [sqlite3_file] object associated with a particular database
+** connection. See also [SQLITE_FCNTL_JOURNAL_POINTER].
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_JOURNAL_POINTER] opcode is used to obtain a pointer
+** to the [sqlite3_file] object associated with the journal file (either
+** the [rollback journal] or the [write-ahead log]) for a particular database
+** connection. See also [SQLITE_FCNTL_FILE_POINTER].
+** No longer in use.
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_SYNC] opcode is generated internally by SQLite and
+** sent to the VFS immediately before the xSync method is invoked on a
+** database file descriptor. Or, if the xSync method is not invoked
+** because the user has configured SQLite with
+** [PRAGMA synchronous | PRAGMA synchronous=OFF] it is invoked in place
+** of the xSync method. In most cases, the pointer argument passed with
+** this file-control is NULL. However, if the database file is being synced
+** as part of a multi-database commit, the argument points to a nul-terminated
+** string containing the transactions master-journal file name. VFSes that
+** do not need this signal should silently ignore this opcode. Applications
+** should not call [sqlite3_file_control()] with this opcode as doing so may
+** disrupt the operation of the specialized VFSes that do require it.
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_COMMIT_PHASETWO] opcode is generated internally by SQLite
+** and sent to the VFS after a transaction has been committed immediately
+** but before the database is unlocked. VFSes that do not need this signal
+** should silently ignore this opcode. Applications should not call
+** [sqlite3_file_control()] with this opcode as doing so may disrupt the
+** operation of the specialized VFSes that do require it.
+** ^The [SQLITE_FCNTL_WIN32_AV_RETRY] opcode is used to configure automatic
+** retry counts and intervals for certain disk I/O operations for the
+** windows [VFS] in order to provide robustness in the presence of
+** anti-virus programs. By default, the windows VFS will retry file read,
+** file write, and file delete operations up to 10 times, with a delay
+** of 25 milliseconds before the first retry and with the delay increasing
+** by an additional 25 milliseconds with each subsequent retry. This
+** opcode allows these two values (10 retries and 25 milliseconds of delay)
+** to be adjusted. The values are changed for all database connections
+** within the same process. The argument is a pointer to an array of two
+** integers where the first integer i the new retry count and the second
+** integer is the delay. If either integer is negative, then the setting
+** is not changed but instead the prior value of that setting is written
+** into the array entry, allowing the current retry settings to be
+** interrogated. The zDbName parameter is ignored.
+** ^The [SQLITE_FCNTL_PERSIST_WAL] opcode is used to set or query the
+** persistent [WAL | Write Ahead Log] setting. By default, the auxiliary
+** write ahead log and shared memory files used for transaction control
+** are automatically deleted when the latest connection to the database
+** closes. Setting persistent WAL mode causes those files to persist after
+** close. Persisting the files is useful when other processes that do not
+** have write permission on the directory containing the database file want
+** to read the database file, as the WAL and shared memory files must exist
+** in order for the database to be readable. The fourth parameter to
+** [sqlite3_file_control()] for this opcode should be a pointer to an integer.
+** That integer is 0 to disable persistent WAL mode or 1 to enable persistent
+** WAL mode. If the integer is -1, then it is overwritten with the current
+** WAL persistence setting.
+** ^The [SQLITE_FCNTL_POWERSAFE_OVERWRITE] opcode is used to set or query the
+** persistent "powersafe-overwrite" or "PSOW" setting. The PSOW setting
+** determines the [SQLITE_IOCAP_POWERSAFE_OVERWRITE] bit of the
+** xDeviceCharacteristics methods. The fourth parameter to
+** [sqlite3_file_control()] for this opcode should be a pointer to an integer.
+** That integer is 0 to disable zero-damage mode or 1 to enable zero-damage
+** mode. If the integer is -1, then it is overwritten with the current
+** zero-damage mode setting.
+** ^The [SQLITE_FCNTL_OVERWRITE] opcode is invoked by SQLite after opening
+** a write transaction to indicate that, unless it is rolled back for some
+** reason, the entire database file will be overwritten by the current
+** transaction. This is used by VACUUM operations.
+** ^The [SQLITE_FCNTL_VFSNAME] opcode can be used to obtain the names of
+** all [VFSes] in the VFS stack. The names are of all VFS shims and the
+** final bottom-level VFS are written into memory obtained from
+** [sqlite3_malloc()] and the result is stored in the char* variable
+** that the fourth parameter of [sqlite3_file_control()] points to.
+** The caller is responsible for freeing the memory when done. As with
+** all file-control actions, there is no guarantee that this will actually
+** do anything. Callers should initialize the char* variable to a NULL
+** pointer in case this file-control is not implemented. This file-control
+** is intended for diagnostic use only.
+** ^The [SQLITE_FCNTL_VFS_POINTER] opcode finds a pointer to the top-level
+** [VFSes] currently in use. ^(The argument X in
+** sqlite3_file_control(db,SQLITE_FCNTL_VFS_POINTER,X) must be
+** of type "[sqlite3_vfs] **". This opcodes will set *X
+** to a pointer to the top-level VFS.)^
+** ^When there are multiple VFS shims in the stack, this opcode finds the
+** upper-most shim only.
+** ^Whenever a [PRAGMA] statement is parsed, an [SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA]
+** file control is sent to the open [sqlite3_file] object corresponding
+** to the database file to which the pragma statement refers. ^The argument
+** to the [SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA] file control is an array of
+** pointers to strings (char**) in which the second element of the array
+** is the name of the pragma and the third element is the argument to the
+** pragma or NULL if the pragma has no argument. ^The handler for an
+** [SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA] file control can optionally make the first element
+** of the char** argument point to a string obtained from [sqlite3_mprintf()]
+** or the equivalent and that string will become the result of the pragma or
+** the error message if the pragma fails. ^If the
+** [SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA] file control returns [SQLITE_NOTFOUND], then normal
+** [PRAGMA] processing continues. ^If the [SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA]
+** file control returns [SQLITE_OK], then the parser assumes that the
+** VFS has handled the PRAGMA itself and the parser generates a no-op
+** prepared statement if result string is NULL, or that returns a copy
+** of the result string if the string is non-NULL.
+** ^If the [SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA] file control returns
+** any result code other than [SQLITE_OK] or [SQLITE_NOTFOUND], that means
+** that the VFS encountered an error while handling the [PRAGMA] and the
+** compilation of the PRAGMA fails with an error. ^The [SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA]
+** file control occurs at the beginning of pragma statement analysis and so
+** it is able to override built-in [PRAGMA] statements.
+** file-control may be invoked by SQLite on the database file handle
+** shortly after it is opened in order to provide a custom VFS with access
+** to the connections busy-handler callback. The argument is of type (void **)
+** - an array of two (void *) values. The first (void *) actually points
+** to a function of type (int (*)(void *)). In order to invoke the connections
+** busy-handler, this function should be invoked with the second (void *) in
+** the array as the only argument. If it returns non-zero, then the operation
+** should be retried. If it returns zero, the custom VFS should abandon the
+** current operation.
+** ^Application can invoke the [SQLITE_FCNTL_TEMPFILENAME] file-control
+** to have SQLite generate a
+** temporary filename using the same algorithm that is followed to generate
+** temporary filenames for TEMP tables and other internal uses. The
+** argument should be a char** which will be filled with the filename
+** written into memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()]. The caller should
+** invoke [sqlite3_free()] on the result to avoid a memory leak.
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_MMAP_SIZE] file control is used to query or set the
+** maximum number of bytes that will be used for memory-mapped I/O.
+** The argument is a pointer to a value of type sqlite3_int64 that
+** is an advisory maximum number of bytes in the file to memory map. The
+** pointer is overwritten with the old value. The limit is not changed if
+** the value originally pointed to is negative, and so the current limit
+** can be queried by passing in a pointer to a negative number. This
+** file-control is used internally to implement [PRAGMA mmap_size].
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_TRACE] file control provides advisory information
+** to the VFS about what the higher layers of the SQLite stack are doing.
+** This file control is used by some VFS activity tracing [shims].
+** The argument is a zero-terminated string. Higher layers in the
+** SQLite stack may generate instances of this file control if
+** the [SQLITE_USE_FCNTL_TRACE] compile-time option is enabled.
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_HAS_MOVED] file control interprets its argument as a
+** pointer to an integer and it writes a boolean into that integer depending
+** on whether or not the file has been renamed, moved, or deleted since it
+** was first opened.
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_WIN32_SET_HANDLE] opcode is used for debugging. This
+** opcode causes the xFileControl method to swap the file handle with the one
+** pointed to by the pArg argument. This capability is used during testing
+** and only needs to be supported when SQLITE_TEST is defined.
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_WAL_BLOCK] is a signal to the VFS layer that it might
+** be advantageous to block on the next WAL lock if the lock is not immediately
+** available. The WAL subsystem issues this signal during rare
+** circumstances in order to fix a problem with priority inversion.
+** Applications should <em>not</em> use this file-control.
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_ZIPVFS] opcode is implemented by zipvfs only. All other
+** VFS should return SQLITE_NOTFOUND for this opcode.
+** <li>[[SQLITE_FCNTL_RBU]]
+** The [SQLITE_FCNTL_RBU] opcode is implemented by the special VFS used by
+** the RBU extension only. All other VFS should return SQLITE_NOTFOUND for
+** this opcode.
+** </ul>
+#define SQLITE_FCNTL_RBU 26
+/* deprecated names */
+** CAPI3REF: Mutex Handle
+** The mutex module within SQLite defines [sqlite3_mutex] to be an
+** abstract type for a mutex object. The SQLite core never looks
+** at the internal representation of an [sqlite3_mutex]. It only
+** deals with pointers to the [sqlite3_mutex] object.
+** Mutexes are created using [sqlite3_mutex_alloc()].
+typedef struct sqlite3_mutex sqlite3_mutex;
+** CAPI3REF: OS Interface Object
+** An instance of the sqlite3_vfs object defines the interface between
+** the SQLite core and the underlying operating system. The "vfs"
+** in the name of the object stands for "virtual file system". See
+** the [VFS | VFS documentation] for further information.
+** The value of the iVersion field is initially 1 but may be larger in
+** future versions of SQLite. Additional fields may be appended to this
+** object when the iVersion value is increased. Note that the structure
+** of the sqlite3_vfs object changes in the transaction between
+** SQLite version 3.5.9 and 3.6.0 and yet the iVersion field was not
+** modified.
+** The szOsFile field is the size of the subclassed [sqlite3_file]
+** structure used by this VFS. mxPathname is the maximum length of
+** a pathname in this VFS.
+** Registered sqlite3_vfs objects are kept on a linked list formed by
+** the pNext pointer. The [sqlite3_vfs_register()]
+** and [sqlite3_vfs_unregister()] interfaces manage this list
+** in a thread-safe way. The [sqlite3_vfs_find()] interface
+** searches the list. Neither the application code nor the VFS
+** implementation should use the pNext pointer.
+** The pNext field is the only field in the sqlite3_vfs
+** structure that SQLite will ever modify. SQLite will only access
+** or modify this field while holding a particular static mutex.
+** The application should never modify anything within the sqlite3_vfs
+** object once the object has been registered.
+** The zName field holds the name of the VFS module. The name must
+** be unique across all VFS modules.
+** [[sqlite3_vfs.xOpen]]
+** ^SQLite guarantees that the zFilename parameter to xOpen
+** is either a NULL pointer or string obtained
+** from xFullPathname() with an optional suffix added.
+** ^If a suffix is added to the zFilename parameter, it will
+** consist of a single "-" character followed by no more than
+** 11 alphanumeric and/or "-" characters.
+** ^SQLite further guarantees that
+** the string will be valid and unchanged until xClose() is
+** called. Because of the previous sentence,
+** the [sqlite3_file] can safely store a pointer to the
+** filename if it needs to remember the filename for some reason.
+** If the zFilename parameter to xOpen is a NULL pointer then xOpen
+** must invent its own temporary name for the file. ^Whenever the
+** xFilename parameter is NULL it will also be the case that the
+** flags parameter will include [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE].
+** The flags argument to xOpen() includes all bits set in
+** the flags argument to [sqlite3_open_v2()]. Or if [sqlite3_open()]
+** or [sqlite3_open16()] is used, then flags includes at least
+** If xOpen() opens a file read-only then it sets *pOutFlags to
+** include [SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY]. Other bits in *pOutFlags may be set.
+** ^(SQLite will also add one of the following flags to the xOpen()
+** call, depending on the object being opened:
+** <ul>
+** <li> [SQLITE_OPEN_WAL]
+** </ul>)^
+** The file I/O implementation can use the object type flags to
+** change the way it deals with files. For example, an application
+** that does not care about crash recovery or rollback might make
+** the open of a journal file a no-op. Writes to this journal would
+** also be no-ops, and any attempt to read the journal would return
+** SQLITE_IOERR. Or the implementation might recognize that a database
+** file will be doing page-aligned sector reads and writes in a random
+** order and set up its I/O subsystem accordingly.
+** SQLite might also add one of the following flags to the xOpen method:
+** <ul>
+** </ul>
+** The [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE] flag means the file should be
+** deleted when it is closed. ^The [SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE]
+** will be set for TEMP databases and their journals, transient
+** databases, and subjournals.
+** ^The [SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE] flag is always used in conjunction
+** with the [SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE] flag, which are both directly
+** analogous to the O_EXCL and O_CREAT flags of the POSIX open()
+** API. The SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE flag, when paired with the
+** SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE, is used to indicate that file should always
+** be created, and that it is an error if it already exists.
+** It is <i>not</i> used to indicate the file should be opened
+** for exclusive access.
+** ^At least szOsFile bytes of memory are allocated by SQLite
+** to hold the [sqlite3_file] structure passed as the third
+** argument to xOpen. The xOpen method does not have to
+** allocate the structure; it should just fill it in. Note that
+** the xOpen method must set the sqlite3_file.pMethods to either
+** a valid [sqlite3_io_methods] object or to NULL. xOpen must do
+** this even if the open fails. SQLite expects that the sqlite3_file.pMethods
+** element will be valid after xOpen returns regardless of the success
+** or failure of the xOpen call.
+** [[sqlite3_vfs.xAccess]]
+** ^The flags argument to xAccess() may be [SQLITE_ACCESS_EXISTS]
+** to test for the existence of a file, or [SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE] to
+** test whether a file is readable and writable, or [SQLITE_ACCESS_READ]
+** to test whether a file is at least readable. The file can be a
+** directory.
+** ^SQLite will always allocate at least mxPathname+1 bytes for the
+** output buffer xFullPathname. The exact size of the output buffer
+** is also passed as a parameter to both methods. If the output buffer
+** is not large enough, [SQLITE_CANTOPEN] should be returned. Since this is
+** handled as a fatal error by SQLite, vfs implementations should endeavor
+** to prevent this by setting mxPathname to a sufficiently large value.
+** The xRandomness(), xSleep(), xCurrentTime(), and xCurrentTimeInt64()
+** interfaces are not strictly a part of the filesystem, but they are
+** included in the VFS structure for completeness.
+** The xRandomness() function attempts to return nBytes bytes
+** of good-quality randomness into zOut. The return value is
+** the actual number of bytes of randomness obtained.
+** The xSleep() method causes the calling thread to sleep for at
+** least the number of microseconds given. ^The xCurrentTime()
+** method returns a Julian Day Number for the current date and time as
+** a floating point value.
+** ^The xCurrentTimeInt64() method returns, as an integer, the Julian
+** Day Number multiplied by 86400000 (the number of milliseconds in
+** a 24-hour day).
+** ^SQLite will use the xCurrentTimeInt64() method to get the current
+** date and time if that method is available (if iVersion is 2 or
+** greater and the function pointer is not NULL) and will fall back
+** to xCurrentTime() if xCurrentTimeInt64() is unavailable.
+** ^The xSetSystemCall(), xGetSystemCall(), and xNestSystemCall() interfaces
+** are not used by the SQLite core. These optional interfaces are provided
+** by some VFSes to facilitate testing of the VFS code. By overriding
+** system calls with functions under its control, a test program can
+** simulate faults and error conditions that would otherwise be difficult
+** or impossible to induce. The set of system calls that can be overridden
+** varies from one VFS to another, and from one version of the same VFS to the
+** next. Applications that use these interfaces must be prepared for any
+** or all of these interfaces to be NULL or for their behavior to change
+** from one release to the next. Applications must not attempt to access
+** any of these methods if the iVersion of the VFS is less than 3.
+typedef struct sqlite3_vfs sqlite3_vfs;
+typedef void (*sqlite3_syscall_ptr)(void);
+struct sqlite3_vfs {
+ int iVersion; /* Structure version number (currently 3) */
+ int szOsFile; /* Size of subclassed sqlite3_file */
+ int mxPathname; /* Maximum file pathname length */
+ sqlite3_vfs *pNext; /* Next registered VFS */
+ const char *zName; /* Name of this virtual file system */
+ void *pAppData; /* Pointer to application-specific data */
+ int (*xOpen)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, sqlite3_file*,
+ int flags, int *pOutFlags);
+ int (*xDelete)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int syncDir);
+ int (*xAccess)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int flags, int *pResOut);
+ int (*xFullPathname)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, int nOut, char *zOut);
+ void *(*xDlOpen)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zFilename);
+ void (*xDlError)(sqlite3_vfs*, int nByte, char *zErrMsg);
+ void (*(*xDlSym)(sqlite3_vfs*,void*, const char *zSymbol))(void);
+ void (*xDlClose)(sqlite3_vfs*, void*);
+ int (*xRandomness)(sqlite3_vfs*, int nByte, char *zOut);
+ int (*xSleep)(sqlite3_vfs*, int microseconds);
+ int (*xCurrentTime)(sqlite3_vfs*, double*);
+ int (*xGetLastError)(sqlite3_vfs*, int, char *);
+ /*
+ ** The methods above are in version 1 of the sqlite_vfs object
+ ** definition. Those that follow are added in version 2 or later
+ */
+ int (*xCurrentTimeInt64)(sqlite3_vfs*, sqlite3_int64*);
+ /*
+ ** The methods above are in versions 1 and 2 of the sqlite_vfs object.
+ ** Those below are for version 3 and greater.
+ */
+ int (*xSetSystemCall)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName, sqlite3_syscall_ptr);
+ sqlite3_syscall_ptr (*xGetSystemCall)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName);
+ const char *(*xNextSystemCall)(sqlite3_vfs*, const char *zName);
+ /*
+ ** The methods above are in versions 1 through 3 of the sqlite_vfs object.
+ ** New fields may be appended in figure versions. The iVersion
+ ** value will increment whenever this happens.
+ */
+** CAPI3REF: Flags for the xAccess VFS method
+** These integer constants can be used as the third parameter to
+** the xAccess method of an [sqlite3_vfs] object. They determine
+** what kind of permissions the xAccess method is looking for.
+** With SQLITE_ACCESS_EXISTS, the xAccess method
+** simply checks whether the file exists.
+** With SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE, the xAccess method
+** checks whether the named directory is both readable and writable
+** (in other words, if files can be added, removed, and renamed within
+** the directory).
+** The SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE constant is currently used only by the
+** [temp_store_directory pragma], though this could change in a future
+** release of SQLite.
+** With SQLITE_ACCESS_READ, the xAccess method
+** checks whether the file is readable. The SQLITE_ACCESS_READ constant is
+** currently unused, though it might be used in a future release of
+** SQLite.
+#define SQLITE_ACCESS_READWRITE 1 /* Used by PRAGMA temp_store_directory */
+#define SQLITE_ACCESS_READ 2 /* Unused */
+** CAPI3REF: Flags for the xShmLock VFS method
+** These integer constants define the various locking operations
+** allowed by the xShmLock method of [sqlite3_io_methods]. The
+** following are the only legal combinations of flags to the
+** xShmLock method:
+** <ul>
+** </ul>
+** When unlocking, the same SHARED or EXCLUSIVE flag must be supplied as
+** was given on the corresponding lock.
+** The xShmLock method can transition between unlocked and SHARED or
+** between unlocked and EXCLUSIVE. It cannot transition between SHARED
+** and EXCLUSIVE.
+#define SQLITE_SHM_LOCK 2
+** CAPI3REF: Maximum xShmLock index
+** The xShmLock method on [sqlite3_io_methods] may use values
+** between 0 and this upper bound as its "offset" argument.
+** The SQLite core will never attempt to acquire or release a
+** lock outside of this range
+** CAPI3REF: Initialize The SQLite Library
+** ^The sqlite3_initialize() routine initializes the
+** SQLite library. ^The sqlite3_shutdown() routine
+** deallocates any resources that were allocated by sqlite3_initialize().
+** These routines are designed to aid in process initialization and
+** shutdown on embedded systems. Workstation applications using
+** SQLite normally do not need to invoke either of these routines.
+** A call to sqlite3_initialize() is an "effective" call if it is
+** the first time sqlite3_initialize() is invoked during the lifetime of
+** the process, or if it is the first time sqlite3_initialize() is invoked
+** following a call to sqlite3_shutdown(). ^(Only an effective call
+** of sqlite3_initialize() does any initialization. All other calls
+** are harmless no-ops.)^
+** A call to sqlite3_shutdown() is an "effective" call if it is the first
+** call to sqlite3_shutdown() since the last sqlite3_initialize(). ^(Only
+** an effective call to sqlite3_shutdown() does any deinitialization.
+** All other valid calls to sqlite3_shutdown() are harmless no-ops.)^
+** The sqlite3_initialize() interface is threadsafe, but sqlite3_shutdown()
+** is not. The sqlite3_shutdown() interface must only be called from a
+** single thread. All open [database connections] must be closed and all
+** other SQLite resources must be deallocated prior to invoking
+** sqlite3_shutdown().
+** Among other things, ^sqlite3_initialize() will invoke
+** sqlite3_os_init(). Similarly, ^sqlite3_shutdown()
+** will invoke sqlite3_os_end().
+** ^The sqlite3_initialize() routine returns [SQLITE_OK] on success.
+** ^If for some reason, sqlite3_initialize() is unable to initialize
+** the library (perhaps it is unable to allocate a needed resource such
+** as a mutex) it returns an [error code] other than [SQLITE_OK].
+** ^The sqlite3_initialize() routine is called internally by many other
+** SQLite interfaces so that an application usually does not need to
+** invoke sqlite3_initialize() directly. For example, [sqlite3_open()]
+** calls sqlite3_initialize() so the SQLite library will be automatically
+** initialized when [sqlite3_open()] is called if it has not be initialized
+** already. ^However, if SQLite is compiled with the [SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT]
+** compile-time option, then the automatic calls to sqlite3_initialize()
+** are omitted and the application must call sqlite3_initialize() directly
+** prior to using any other SQLite interface. For maximum portability,
+** it is recommended that applications always invoke sqlite3_initialize()
+** directly prior to using any other SQLite interface. Future releases
+** of SQLite may require this. In other words, the behavior exhibited
+** when SQLite is compiled with [SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT] might become the
+** default behavior in some future release of SQLite.
+** The sqlite3_os_init() routine does operating-system specific
+** initialization of the SQLite library. The sqlite3_os_end()
+** routine undoes the effect of sqlite3_os_init(). Typical tasks
+** performed by these routines include allocation or deallocation
+** of static resources, initialization of global variables,
+** setting up a default [sqlite3_vfs] module, or setting up
+** a default configuration using [sqlite3_config()].
+** The application should never invoke either sqlite3_os_init()
+** or sqlite3_os_end() directly. The application should only invoke
+** sqlite3_initialize() and sqlite3_shutdown(). The sqlite3_os_init()
+** interface is called automatically by sqlite3_initialize() and
+** sqlite3_os_end() is called by sqlite3_shutdown(). Appropriate
+** implementations for sqlite3_os_init() and sqlite3_os_end()
+** are built into SQLite when it is compiled for Unix, Windows, or OS/2.
+** When [custom builds | built for other platforms]
+** (using the [SQLITE_OS_OTHER=1] compile-time
+** option) the application must supply a suitable implementation for
+** sqlite3_os_init() and sqlite3_os_end(). An application-supplied
+** implementation of sqlite3_os_init() or sqlite3_os_end()
+** must return [SQLITE_OK] on success and some other [error code] upon
+** failure.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_initialize(void);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_shutdown(void);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_os_init(void);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_os_end(void);
+** CAPI3REF: Configuring The SQLite Library
+** The sqlite3_config() interface is used to make global configuration
+** changes to SQLite in order to tune SQLite to the specific needs of
+** the application. The default configuration is recommended for most
+** applications and so this routine is usually not necessary. It is
+** provided to support rare applications with unusual needs.
+** <b>The sqlite3_config() interface is not threadsafe. The application
+** must ensure that no other SQLite interfaces are invoked by other
+** threads while sqlite3_config() is running.</b>
+** The sqlite3_config() interface
+** may only be invoked prior to library initialization using
+** [sqlite3_initialize()] or after shutdown by [sqlite3_shutdown()].
+** ^If sqlite3_config() is called after [sqlite3_initialize()] and before
+** [sqlite3_shutdown()] then it will return SQLITE_MISUSE.
+** Note, however, that ^sqlite3_config() can be called as part of the
+** implementation of an application-defined [sqlite3_os_init()].
+** The first argument to sqlite3_config() is an integer
+** [configuration option] that determines
+** what property of SQLite is to be configured. Subsequent arguments
+** vary depending on the [configuration option]
+** in the first argument.
+** ^When a configuration option is set, sqlite3_config() returns [SQLITE_OK].
+** ^If the option is unknown or SQLite is unable to set the option
+** then this routine returns a non-zero [error code].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_CDECL sqlite3_config(int, ...);
+** CAPI3REF: Configure database connections
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** The sqlite3_db_config() interface is used to make configuration
+** changes to a [database connection]. The interface is similar to
+** [sqlite3_config()] except that the changes apply to a single
+** [database connection] (specified in the first argument).
+** The second argument to sqlite3_db_config(D,V,...) is the
+** [SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE | configuration verb] - an integer code
+** that indicates what aspect of the [database connection] is being configured.
+** Subsequent arguments vary depending on the configuration verb.
+** ^Calls to sqlite3_db_config() return SQLITE_OK if and only if
+** the call is considered successful.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_CDECL sqlite3_db_config(sqlite3*, int op, ...);
+** CAPI3REF: Memory Allocation Routines
+** An instance of this object defines the interface between SQLite
+** and low-level memory allocation routines.
+** This object is used in only one place in the SQLite interface.
+** A pointer to an instance of this object is the argument to
+** [sqlite3_config()] when the configuration option is
+** By creating an instance of this object
+** and passing it to [sqlite3_config]([SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC])
+** during configuration, an application can specify an alternative
+** memory allocation subsystem for SQLite to use for all of its
+** dynamic memory needs.
+** Note that SQLite comes with several [built-in memory allocators]
+** that are perfectly adequate for the overwhelming majority of applications
+** and that this object is only useful to a tiny minority of applications
+** with specialized memory allocation requirements. This object is
+** also used during testing of SQLite in order to specify an alternative
+** memory allocator that simulates memory out-of-memory conditions in
+** order to verify that SQLite recovers gracefully from such
+** conditions.
+** The xMalloc, xRealloc, and xFree methods must work like the
+** malloc(), realloc() and free() functions from the standard C library.
+** ^SQLite guarantees that the second argument to
+** xRealloc is always a value returned by a prior call to xRoundup.
+** xSize should return the allocated size of a memory allocation
+** previously obtained from xMalloc or xRealloc. The allocated size
+** is always at least as big as the requested size but may be larger.
+** The xRoundup method returns what would be the allocated size of
+** a memory allocation given a particular requested size. Most memory
+** allocators round up memory allocations at least to the next multiple
+** of 8. Some allocators round up to a larger multiple or to a power of 2.
+** Every memory allocation request coming in through [sqlite3_malloc()]
+** or [sqlite3_realloc()] first calls xRoundup. If xRoundup returns 0,
+** that causes the corresponding memory allocation to fail.
+** The xInit method initializes the memory allocator. For example,
+** it might allocate any require mutexes or initialize internal data
+** structures. The xShutdown method is invoked (indirectly) by
+** [sqlite3_shutdown()] and should deallocate any resources acquired
+** by xInit. The pAppData pointer is used as the only parameter to
+** xInit and xShutdown.
+** SQLite holds the [SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MASTER] mutex when it invokes
+** the xInit method, so the xInit method need not be threadsafe. The
+** xShutdown method is only called from [sqlite3_shutdown()] so it does
+** not need to be threadsafe either. For all other methods, SQLite
+** holds the [SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM] mutex as long as the
+** [SQLITE_CONFIG_MEMSTATUS] configuration option is turned on (which
+** it is by default) and so the methods are automatically serialized.
+** However, if [SQLITE_CONFIG_MEMSTATUS] is disabled, then the other
+** methods must be threadsafe or else make their own arrangements for
+** serialization.
+** SQLite will never invoke xInit() more than once without an intervening
+** call to xShutdown().
+typedef struct sqlite3_mem_methods sqlite3_mem_methods;
+struct sqlite3_mem_methods {
+ void *(*xMalloc)(int); /* Memory allocation function */
+ void (*xFree)(void*); /* Free a prior allocation */
+ void *(*xRealloc)(void*,int); /* Resize an allocation */
+ int (*xSize)(void*); /* Return the size of an allocation */
+ int (*xRoundup)(int); /* Round up request size to allocation size */
+ int (*xInit)(void*); /* Initialize the memory allocator */
+ void (*xShutdown)(void*); /* Deinitialize the memory allocator */
+ void *pAppData; /* Argument to xInit() and xShutdown() */
+** CAPI3REF: Configuration Options
+** KEYWORDS: {configuration option}
+** These constants are the available integer configuration options that
+** can be passed as the first argument to the [sqlite3_config()] interface.
+** New configuration options may be added in future releases of SQLite.
+** Existing configuration options might be discontinued. Applications
+** should check the return code from [sqlite3_config()] to make sure that
+** the call worked. The [sqlite3_config()] interface will return a
+** non-zero [error code] if a discontinued or unsupported configuration option
+** is invoked.
+** <dl>
+** <dd>There are no arguments to this option. ^This option sets the
+** [threading mode] to Single-thread. In other words, it disables
+** all mutexing and puts SQLite into a mode where it can only be used
+** by a single thread. ^If SQLite is compiled with
+** the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE | SQLITE_THREADSAFE=0] compile-time option then
+** it is not possible to change the [threading mode] from its default
+** value of Single-thread and so [sqlite3_config()] will return
+** configuration option.</dd>
+** <dd>There are no arguments to this option. ^This option sets the
+** [threading mode] to Multi-thread. In other words, it disables
+** mutexing on [database connection] and [prepared statement] objects.
+** The application is responsible for serializing access to
+** [database connections] and [prepared statements]. But other mutexes
+** are enabled so that SQLite will be safe to use in a multi-threaded
+** environment as long as no two threads attempt to use the same
+** [database connection] at the same time. ^If SQLite is compiled with
+** the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE | SQLITE_THREADSAFE=0] compile-time option then
+** it is not possible to set the Multi-thread [threading mode] and
+** [sqlite3_config()] will return [SQLITE_ERROR] if called with the
+** SQLITE_CONFIG_MULTITHREAD configuration option.</dd>
+** <dd>There are no arguments to this option. ^This option sets the
+** [threading mode] to Serialized. In other words, this option enables
+** all mutexes including the recursive
+** mutexes on [database connection] and [prepared statement] objects.
+** In this mode (which is the default when SQLite is compiled with
+** [SQLITE_THREADSAFE=1]) the SQLite library will itself serialize access
+** to [database connections] and [prepared statements] so that the
+** application is free to use the same [database connection] or the
+** same [prepared statement] in different threads at the same time.
+** ^If SQLite is compiled with
+** the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE | SQLITE_THREADSAFE=0] compile-time option then
+** it is not possible to set the Serialized [threading mode] and
+** [sqlite3_config()] will return [SQLITE_ERROR] if called with the
+** SQLITE_CONFIG_SERIALIZED configuration option.</dd>
+** <dd> ^(The SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC option takes a single argument which is
+** a pointer to an instance of the [sqlite3_mem_methods] structure.
+** The argument specifies
+** alternative low-level memory allocation routines to be used in place of
+** the memory allocation routines built into SQLite.)^ ^SQLite makes
+** its own private copy of the content of the [sqlite3_mem_methods] structure
+** before the [sqlite3_config()] call returns.</dd>
+** <dd> ^(The SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMALLOC option takes a single argument which
+** is a pointer to an instance of the [sqlite3_mem_methods] structure.
+** The [sqlite3_mem_methods]
+** structure is filled with the currently defined memory allocation routines.)^
+** This option can be used to overload the default memory allocation
+** routines with a wrapper that simulations memory allocation failure or
+** tracks memory usage, for example. </dd>
+** <dd> ^The SQLITE_CONFIG_MEMSTATUS option takes single argument of type int,
+** interpreted as a boolean, which enables or disables the collection of
+** memory allocation statistics. ^(When memory allocation statistics are
+** disabled, the following SQLite interfaces become non-operational:
+** <ul>
+** <li> [sqlite3_memory_used()]
+** <li> [sqlite3_memory_highwater()]
+** <li> [sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64()]
+** <li> [sqlite3_status64()]
+** </ul>)^
+** ^Memory allocation statistics are enabled by default unless SQLite is
+** compiled with [SQLITE_DEFAULT_MEMSTATUS]=0 in which case memory
+** allocation statistics are disabled by default.
+** </dd>
+** <dd> ^The SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH option specifies a static memory buffer
+** that SQLite can use for scratch memory. ^(There are three arguments
+** to SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH: A pointer an 8-byte
+** aligned memory buffer from which the scratch allocations will be
+** drawn, the size of each scratch allocation (sz),
+** and the maximum number of scratch allocations (N).)^
+** The first argument must be a pointer to an 8-byte aligned buffer
+** of at least sz*N bytes of memory.
+** ^SQLite will not use more than one scratch buffers per thread.
+** ^SQLite will never request a scratch buffer that is more than 6
+** times the database page size.
+** ^If SQLite needs needs additional
+** scratch memory beyond what is provided by this configuration option, then
+** [sqlite3_malloc()] will be used to obtain the memory needed.<p>
+** ^When the application provides any amount of scratch memory using
+** SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH, SQLite avoids unnecessary large
+** [sqlite3_malloc|heap allocations].
+** This can help [Robson proof|prevent memory allocation failures] due to heap
+** fragmentation in low-memory embedded systems.
+** </dd>
+** <dd> ^The SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE option specifies a memory pool
+** that SQLite can use for the database page cache with the default page
+** cache implementation.
+** This configuration option is a no-op if an application-define page
+** cache implementation is loaded using the [SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE2].
+** ^There are three arguments to SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE: A pointer to
+** 8-byte aligned memory (pMem), the size of each page cache line (sz),
+** and the number of cache lines (N).
+** The sz argument should be the size of the largest database page
+** (a power of two between 512 and 65536) plus some extra bytes for each
+** page header. ^The number of extra bytes needed by the page header
+** can be determined using [SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE_HDRSZ].
+** ^It is harmless, apart from the wasted memory,
+** for the sz parameter to be larger than necessary. The pMem
+** argument must be either a NULL pointer or a pointer to an 8-byte
+** aligned block of memory of at least sz*N bytes, otherwise
+** subsequent behavior is undefined.
+** ^When pMem is not NULL, SQLite will strive to use the memory provided
+** to satisfy page cache needs, falling back to [sqlite3_malloc()] if
+** a page cache line is larger than sz bytes or if all of the pMem buffer
+** is exhausted.
+** ^If pMem is NULL and N is non-zero, then each database connection
+** does an initial bulk allocation for page cache memory
+** from [sqlite3_malloc()] sufficient for N cache lines if N is positive or
+** of -1024*N bytes if N is negative, . ^If additional
+** page cache memory is needed beyond what is provided by the initial
+** allocation, then SQLite goes to [sqlite3_malloc()] separately for each
+** additional cache line. </dd>
+** <dd> ^The SQLITE_CONFIG_HEAP option specifies a static memory buffer
+** that SQLite will use for all of its dynamic memory allocation needs
+** beyond those provided for by [SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH] and
+** ^The SQLITE_CONFIG_HEAP option is only available if SQLite is compiled
+** with either [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS3] or [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS5] and returns
+** [SQLITE_ERROR] if invoked otherwise.
+** ^There are three arguments to SQLITE_CONFIG_HEAP:
+** An 8-byte aligned pointer to the memory,
+** the number of bytes in the memory buffer, and the minimum allocation size.
+** ^If the first pointer (the memory pointer) is NULL, then SQLite reverts
+** to using its default memory allocator (the system malloc() implementation),
+** undoing any prior invocation of [SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC]. ^If the
+** memory pointer is not NULL then the alternative memory
+** allocator is engaged to handle all of SQLites memory allocation needs.
+** The first pointer (the memory pointer) must be aligned to an 8-byte
+** boundary or subsequent behavior of SQLite will be undefined.
+** The minimum allocation size is capped at 2**12. Reasonable values
+** for the minimum allocation size are 2**5 through 2**8.</dd>
+** <dd> ^(The SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX option takes a single argument which is a
+** pointer to an instance of the [sqlite3_mutex_methods] structure.
+** The argument specifies alternative low-level mutex routines to be used
+** in place the mutex routines built into SQLite.)^ ^SQLite makes a copy of
+** the content of the [sqlite3_mutex_methods] structure before the call to
+** [sqlite3_config()] returns. ^If SQLite is compiled with
+** the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE | SQLITE_THREADSAFE=0] compile-time option then
+** the entire mutexing subsystem is omitted from the build and hence calls to
+** [sqlite3_config()] with the SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX configuration option will
+** return [SQLITE_ERROR].</dd>
+** <dd> ^(The SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMUTEX option takes a single argument which
+** is a pointer to an instance of the [sqlite3_mutex_methods] structure. The
+** [sqlite3_mutex_methods]
+** structure is filled with the currently defined mutex routines.)^
+** This option can be used to overload the default mutex allocation
+** routines with a wrapper used to track mutex usage for performance
+** profiling or testing, for example. ^If SQLite is compiled with
+** the [SQLITE_THREADSAFE | SQLITE_THREADSAFE=0] compile-time option then
+** the entire mutexing subsystem is omitted from the build and hence calls to
+** [sqlite3_config()] with the SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMUTEX configuration option will
+** return [SQLITE_ERROR].</dd>
+** <dd> ^(The SQLITE_CONFIG_LOOKASIDE option takes two arguments that determine
+** the default size of lookaside memory on each [database connection].
+** The first argument is the
+** size of each lookaside buffer slot and the second is the number of
+** slots allocated to each database connection.)^ ^(SQLITE_CONFIG_LOOKASIDE
+** sets the <i>default</i> lookaside size. The [SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE]
+** option to [sqlite3_db_config()] can be used to change the lookaside
+** configuration on individual connections.)^ </dd>
+** <dd> ^(The SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE2 option takes a single argument which is
+** a pointer to an [sqlite3_pcache_methods2] object. This object specifies
+** the interface to a custom page cache implementation.)^
+** ^SQLite makes a copy of the [sqlite3_pcache_methods2] object.</dd>
+** <dd> ^(The SQLITE_CONFIG_GETPCACHE2 option takes a single argument which
+** is a pointer to an [sqlite3_pcache_methods2] object. SQLite copies of
+** the current page cache implementation into that object.)^ </dd>
+** <dd> The SQLITE_CONFIG_LOG option is used to configure the SQLite
+** global [error log].
+** (^The SQLITE_CONFIG_LOG option takes two arguments: a pointer to a
+** function with a call signature of void(*)(void*,int,const char*),
+** and a pointer to void. ^If the function pointer is not NULL, it is
+** invoked by [sqlite3_log()] to process each logging event. ^If the
+** function pointer is NULL, the [sqlite3_log()] interface becomes a no-op.
+** ^The void pointer that is the second argument to SQLITE_CONFIG_LOG is
+** passed through as the first parameter to the application-defined logger
+** function whenever that function is invoked. ^The second parameter to
+** the logger function is a copy of the first parameter to the corresponding
+** [sqlite3_log()] call and is intended to be a [result code] or an
+** [extended result code]. ^The third parameter passed to the logger is
+** log message after formatting via [sqlite3_snprintf()].
+** The SQLite logging interface is not reentrant; the logger function
+** supplied by the application must not invoke any SQLite interface.
+** In a multi-threaded application, the application-defined logger
+** function must be threadsafe. </dd>
+** <dd>^(The SQLITE_CONFIG_URI option takes a single argument of type int.
+** If non-zero, then URI handling is globally enabled. If the parameter is zero,
+** then URI handling is globally disabled.)^ ^If URI handling is globally
+** enabled, all filenames passed to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open_v2()],
+** [sqlite3_open16()] or
+** specified as part of [ATTACH] commands are interpreted as URIs, regardless
+** of whether or not the [SQLITE_OPEN_URI] flag is set when the database
+** connection is opened. ^If it is globally disabled, filenames are
+** only interpreted as URIs if the SQLITE_OPEN_URI flag is set when the
+** database connection is opened. ^(By default, URI handling is globally
+** disabled. The default value may be changed by compiling with the
+** [SQLITE_USE_URI] symbol defined.)^
+** <dd>^The SQLITE_CONFIG_COVERING_INDEX_SCAN option takes a single integer
+** argument which is interpreted as a boolean in order to enable or disable
+** the use of covering indices for full table scans in the query optimizer.
+** ^The default setting is determined
+** by the [SQLITE_ALLOW_COVERING_INDEX_SCAN] compile-time option, or is "on"
+** if that compile-time option is omitted.
+** The ability to disable the use of covering indices for full table scans
+** is because some incorrectly coded legacy applications might malfunction
+** when the optimization is enabled. Providing the ability to
+** disable the optimization allows the older, buggy application code to work
+** without change even with newer versions of SQLite.
+** <dd> These options are obsolete and should not be used by new code.
+** They are retained for backwards compatibility but are now no-ops.
+** </dd>
+** <dd>This option is only available if sqlite is compiled with the
+** [SQLITE_ENABLE_SQLLOG] pre-processor macro defined. The first argument should
+** be a pointer to a function of type void(*)(void*,sqlite3*,const char*, int).
+** The second should be of type (void*). The callback is invoked by the library
+** in three separate circumstances, identified by the value passed as the
+** fourth parameter. If the fourth parameter is 0, then the database connection
+** passed as the second argument has just been opened. The third argument
+** points to a buffer containing the name of the main database file. If the
+** fourth parameter is 1, then the SQL statement that the third parameter
+** points to has just been executed. Or, if the fourth parameter is 2, then
+** the connection being passed as the second parameter is being closed. The
+** third parameter is passed NULL In this case. An example of using this
+** configuration option can be seen in the "test_sqllog.c" source file in
+** the canonical SQLite source tree.</dd>
+** <dd>^SQLITE_CONFIG_MMAP_SIZE takes two 64-bit integer (sqlite3_int64) values
+** that are the default mmap size limit (the default setting for
+** [PRAGMA mmap_size]) and the maximum allowed mmap size limit.
+** ^The default setting can be overridden by each database connection using
+** either the [PRAGMA mmap_size] command, or by using the
+** [SQLITE_FCNTL_MMAP_SIZE] file control. ^(The maximum allowed mmap size
+** will be silently truncated if necessary so that it does not exceed the
+** compile-time maximum mmap size set by the
+** [SQLITE_MAX_MMAP_SIZE] compile-time option.)^
+** ^If either argument to this option is negative, then that argument is
+** changed to its compile-time default.
+** <dd>^The SQLITE_CONFIG_WIN32_HEAPSIZE option is only available if SQLite is
+** compiled for Windows with the [SQLITE_WIN32_MALLOC] pre-processor macro
+** defined. ^SQLITE_CONFIG_WIN32_HEAPSIZE takes a 32-bit unsigned integer value
+** that specifies the maximum size of the created heap.
+** <dd>^The SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE_HDRSZ option takes a single parameter which
+** is a pointer to an integer and writes into that integer the number of extra
+** bytes per page required for each page in [SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE].
+** The amount of extra space required can change depending on the compiler,
+** target platform, and SQLite version.
+** <dd>^The SQLITE_CONFIG_PMASZ option takes a single parameter which
+** is an unsigned integer and sets the "Minimum PMA Size" for the multithreaded
+** sorter to that integer. The default minimum PMA Size is set by the
+** [SQLITE_SORTER_PMASZ] compile-time option. New threads are launched
+** to help with sort operations when multithreaded sorting
+** is enabled (using the [PRAGMA threads] command) and the amount of content
+** to be sorted exceeds the page size times the minimum of the
+** [PRAGMA cache_size] setting and this value.
+** </dl>
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MULTITHREAD 2 /* nil */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_SERIALIZED 3 /* nil */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC 4 /* sqlite3_mem_methods* */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMALLOC 5 /* sqlite3_mem_methods* */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH 6 /* void*, int sz, int N */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE 7 /* void*, int sz, int N */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_HEAP 8 /* void*, int nByte, int min */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MEMSTATUS 9 /* boolean */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX 10 /* sqlite3_mutex_methods* */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMUTEX 11 /* sqlite3_mutex_methods* */
+/* previously SQLITE_CONFIG_CHUNKALLOC 12 which is now unused. */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_LOOKASIDE 13 /* int int */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE 14 /* no-op */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_GETPCACHE 15 /* no-op */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_LOG 16 /* xFunc, void* */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_URI 17 /* int */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE2 18 /* sqlite3_pcache_methods2* */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_GETPCACHE2 19 /* sqlite3_pcache_methods2* */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_SQLLOG 21 /* xSqllog, void* */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MMAP_SIZE 22 /* sqlite3_int64, sqlite3_int64 */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_WIN32_HEAPSIZE 23 /* int nByte */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE_HDRSZ 24 /* int *psz */
+#define SQLITE_CONFIG_PMASZ 25 /* unsigned int szPma */
+** CAPI3REF: Database Connection Configuration Options
+** These constants are the available integer configuration options that
+** can be passed as the second argument to the [sqlite3_db_config()] interface.
+** New configuration options may be added in future releases of SQLite.
+** Existing configuration options might be discontinued. Applications
+** should check the return code from [sqlite3_db_config()] to make sure that
+** the call worked. ^The [sqlite3_db_config()] interface will return a
+** non-zero [error code] if a discontinued or unsupported configuration option
+** is invoked.
+** <dl>
+** <dd> ^This option takes three additional arguments that determine the
+** [lookaside memory allocator] configuration for the [database connection].
+** ^The first argument (the third parameter to [sqlite3_db_config()] is a
+** pointer to a memory buffer to use for lookaside memory.
+** ^The first argument after the SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE verb
+** may be NULL in which case SQLite will allocate the
+** lookaside buffer itself using [sqlite3_malloc()]. ^The second argument is the
+** size of each lookaside buffer slot. ^The third argument is the number of
+** slots. The size of the buffer in the first argument must be greater than
+** or equal to the product of the second and third arguments. The buffer
+** must be aligned to an 8-byte boundary. ^If the second argument to
+** SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE is not a multiple of 8, it is internally
+** rounded down to the next smaller multiple of 8. ^(The lookaside memory
+** configuration for a database connection can only be changed when that
+** connection is not currently using lookaside memory, or in other words
+** when the "current value" returned by
+** [sqlite3_db_status](D,[SQLITE_CONFIG_LOOKASIDE],...) is zero.
+** Any attempt to change the lookaside memory configuration when lookaside
+** memory is in use leaves the configuration unchanged and returns
+** [SQLITE_BUSY].)^</dd>
+** <dd> ^This option is used to enable or disable the enforcement of
+** [foreign key constraints]. There should be two additional arguments.
+** The first argument is an integer which is 0 to disable FK enforcement,
+** positive to enable FK enforcement or negative to leave FK enforcement
+** unchanged. The second parameter is a pointer to an integer into which
+** is written 0 or 1 to indicate whether FK enforcement is off or on
+** following this call. The second parameter may be a NULL pointer, in
+** which case the FK enforcement setting is not reported back. </dd>
+** <dd> ^This option is used to enable or disable [CREATE TRIGGER | triggers].
+** There should be two additional arguments.
+** The first argument is an integer which is 0 to disable triggers,
+** positive to enable triggers or negative to leave the setting unchanged.
+** The second parameter is a pointer to an integer into which
+** is written 0 or 1 to indicate whether triggers are disabled or enabled
+** following this call. The second parameter may be a NULL pointer, in
+** which case the trigger setting is not reported back. </dd>
+** </dl>
+#define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LOOKASIDE 1001 /* void* int int */
+#define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_FKEY 1002 /* int int* */
+#define SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_TRIGGER 1003 /* int int* */
+** CAPI3REF: Enable Or Disable Extended Result Codes
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^The sqlite3_extended_result_codes() routine enables or disables the
+** [extended result codes] feature of SQLite. ^The extended result
+** codes are disabled by default for historical compatibility.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_extended_result_codes(sqlite3*, int onoff);
+** CAPI3REF: Last Insert Rowid
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^Each entry in most SQLite tables (except for [WITHOUT ROWID] tables)
+** has a unique 64-bit signed
+** integer key called the [ROWID | "rowid"]. ^The rowid is always available
+** as an undeclared column named ROWID, OID, or _ROWID_ as long as those
+** names are not also used by explicitly declared columns. ^If
+** the table has a column of type [INTEGER PRIMARY KEY] then that column
+** is another alias for the rowid.
+** ^The sqlite3_last_insert_rowid(D) interface returns the [rowid] of the
+** most recent successful [INSERT] into a rowid table or [virtual table]
+** on database connection D.
+** ^Inserts into [WITHOUT ROWID] tables are not recorded.
+** ^If no successful [INSERT]s into rowid tables
+** have ever occurred on the database connection D,
+** then sqlite3_last_insert_rowid(D) returns zero.
+** ^(If an [INSERT] occurs within a trigger or within a [virtual table]
+** method, then this routine will return the [rowid] of the inserted
+** row as long as the trigger or virtual table method is running.
+** But once the trigger or virtual table method ends, the value returned
+** by this routine reverts to what it was before the trigger or virtual
+** table method began.)^
+** ^An [INSERT] that fails due to a constraint violation is not a
+** successful [INSERT] and does not change the value returned by this
+** and INSERT OR ABORT make no changes to the return value of this
+** routine when their insertion fails. ^(When INSERT OR REPLACE
+** encounters a constraint violation, it does not fail. The
+** INSERT continues to completion after deleting rows that caused
+** the constraint problem so INSERT OR REPLACE will always change
+** the return value of this interface.)^
+** ^For the purposes of this routine, an [INSERT] is considered to
+** be successful even if it is subsequently rolled back.
+** This function is accessible to SQL statements via the
+** [last_insert_rowid() SQL function].
+** If a separate thread performs a new [INSERT] on the same
+** database connection while the [sqlite3_last_insert_rowid()]
+** function is running and thus changes the last insert [rowid],
+** then the value returned by [sqlite3_last_insert_rowid()] is
+** unpredictable and might not equal either the old or the new
+** last insert [rowid].
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_last_insert_rowid(sqlite3*);
+** CAPI3REF: Count The Number Of Rows Modified
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^This function returns the number of rows modified, inserted or
+** deleted by the most recently completed INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE
+** statement on the database connection specified by the only parameter.
+** ^Executing any other type of SQL statement does not modify the value
+** returned by this function.
+** ^Only changes made directly by the INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statement are
+** considered - auxiliary changes caused by [CREATE TRIGGER | triggers],
+** [foreign key actions] or [REPLACE] constraint resolution are not counted.
+** Changes to a view that are intercepted by
+** [INSTEAD OF trigger | INSTEAD OF triggers] are not counted. ^The value
+** returned by sqlite3_changes() immediately after an INSERT, UPDATE or
+** DELETE statement run on a view is always zero. Only changes made to real
+** tables are counted.
+** Things are more complicated if the sqlite3_changes() function is
+** executed while a trigger program is running. This may happen if the
+** program uses the [changes() SQL function], or if some other callback
+** function invokes sqlite3_changes() directly. Essentially:
+** <ul>
+** <li> ^(Before entering a trigger program the value returned by
+** sqlite3_changes() function is saved. After the trigger program
+** has finished, the original value is restored.)^
+** <li> ^(Within a trigger program each INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE
+** statement sets the value returned by sqlite3_changes()
+** upon completion as normal. Of course, this value will not include
+** any changes performed by sub-triggers, as the sqlite3_changes()
+** value will be saved and restored after each sub-trigger has run.)^
+** </ul>
+** ^This means that if the changes() SQL function (or similar) is used
+** by the first INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statement within a trigger, it
+** returns the value as set when the calling statement began executing.
+** ^If it is used by the second or subsequent such statement within a trigger
+** program, the value returned reflects the number of rows modified by the
+** previous INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE statement within the same trigger.
+** See also the [sqlite3_total_changes()] interface, the
+** [count_changes pragma], and the [changes() SQL function].
+** If a separate thread makes changes on the same database connection
+** while [sqlite3_changes()] is running then the value returned
+** is unpredictable and not meaningful.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_changes(sqlite3*);
+** CAPI3REF: Total Number Of Rows Modified
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^This function returns the total number of rows inserted, modified or
+** deleted by all [INSERT], [UPDATE] or [DELETE] statements completed
+** since the database connection was opened, including those executed as
+** part of trigger programs. ^Executing any other type of SQL statement
+** does not affect the value returned by sqlite3_total_changes().
+** ^Changes made as part of [foreign key actions] are included in the
+** count, but those made as part of REPLACE constraint resolution are
+** not. ^Changes to a view that are intercepted by INSTEAD OF triggers
+** are not counted.
+** See also the [sqlite3_changes()] interface, the
+** [count_changes pragma], and the [total_changes() SQL function].
+** If a separate thread makes changes on the same database connection
+** while [sqlite3_total_changes()] is running then the value
+** returned is unpredictable and not meaningful.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_total_changes(sqlite3*);
+** CAPI3REF: Interrupt A Long-Running Query
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^This function causes any pending database operation to abort and
+** return at its earliest opportunity. This routine is typically
+** called in response to a user action such as pressing "Cancel"
+** or Ctrl-C where the user wants a long query operation to halt
+** immediately.
+** ^It is safe to call this routine from a thread different from the
+** thread that is currently running the database operation. But it
+** is not safe to call this routine with a [database connection] that
+** is closed or might close before sqlite3_interrupt() returns.
+** ^If an SQL operation is very nearly finished at the time when
+** sqlite3_interrupt() is called, then it might not have an opportunity
+** to be interrupted and might continue to completion.
+** ^An SQL operation that is interrupted will return [SQLITE_INTERRUPT].
+** ^If the interrupted SQL operation is an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE
+** that is inside an explicit transaction, then the entire transaction
+** will be rolled back automatically.
+** ^The sqlite3_interrupt(D) call is in effect until all currently running
+** SQL statements on [database connection] D complete. ^Any new SQL statements
+** that are started after the sqlite3_interrupt() call and before the
+** running statements reaches zero are interrupted as if they had been
+** running prior to the sqlite3_interrupt() call. ^New SQL statements
+** that are started after the running statement count reaches zero are
+** not effected by the sqlite3_interrupt().
+** ^A call to sqlite3_interrupt(D) that occurs when there are no running
+** SQL statements is a no-op and has no effect on SQL statements
+** that are started after the sqlite3_interrupt() call returns.
+** If the database connection closes while [sqlite3_interrupt()]
+** is running then bad things will likely happen.
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_interrupt(sqlite3*);
+** CAPI3REF: Determine If An SQL Statement Is Complete
+** These routines are useful during command-line input to determine if the
+** currently entered text seems to form a complete SQL statement or
+** if additional input is needed before sending the text into
+** SQLite for parsing. ^These routines return 1 if the input string
+** appears to be a complete SQL statement. ^A statement is judged to be
+** complete if it ends with a semicolon token and is not a prefix of a
+** well-formed CREATE TRIGGER statement. ^Semicolons that are embedded within
+** string literals or quoted identifier names or comments are not
+** independent tokens (they are part of the token in which they are
+** embedded) and thus do not count as a statement terminator. ^Whitespace
+** and comments that follow the final semicolon are ignored.
+** ^These routines return 0 if the statement is incomplete. ^If a
+** memory allocation fails, then SQLITE_NOMEM is returned.
+** ^These routines do not parse the SQL statements thus
+** will not detect syntactically incorrect SQL.
+** ^(If SQLite has not been initialized using [sqlite3_initialize()] prior
+** to invoking sqlite3_complete16() then sqlite3_initialize() is invoked
+** automatically by sqlite3_complete16(). If that initialization fails,
+** then the return value from sqlite3_complete16() will be non-zero
+** regardless of whether or not the input SQL is complete.)^
+** The input to [sqlite3_complete()] must be a zero-terminated
+** UTF-8 string.
+** The input to [sqlite3_complete16()] must be a zero-terminated
+** UTF-16 string in native byte order.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_complete(const char *sql);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_complete16(const void *sql);
+** CAPI3REF: Register A Callback To Handle SQLITE_BUSY Errors
+** KEYWORDS: {busy-handler callback} {busy handler}
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^The sqlite3_busy_handler(D,X,P) routine sets a callback function X
+** that might be invoked with argument P whenever
+** an attempt is made to access a database table associated with
+** [database connection] D when another thread
+** or process has the table locked.
+** The sqlite3_busy_handler() interface is used to implement
+** [sqlite3_busy_timeout()] and [PRAGMA busy_timeout].
+** ^If the busy callback is NULL, then [SQLITE_BUSY]
+** is returned immediately upon encountering the lock. ^If the busy callback
+** is not NULL, then the callback might be invoked with two arguments.
+** ^The first argument to the busy handler is a copy of the void* pointer which
+** is the third argument to sqlite3_busy_handler(). ^The second argument to
+** the busy handler callback is the number of times that the busy handler has
+** been invoked previously for the same locking event. ^If the
+** busy callback returns 0, then no additional attempts are made to
+** access the database and [SQLITE_BUSY] is returned
+** to the application.
+** ^If the callback returns non-zero, then another attempt
+** is made to access the database and the cycle repeats.
+** The presence of a busy handler does not guarantee that it will be invoked
+** when there is lock contention. ^If SQLite determines that invoking the busy
+** handler could result in a deadlock, it will go ahead and return [SQLITE_BUSY]
+** to the application instead of invoking the
+** busy handler.
+** Consider a scenario where one process is holding a read lock that
+** it is trying to promote to a reserved lock and
+** a second process is holding a reserved lock that it is trying
+** to promote to an exclusive lock. The first process cannot proceed
+** because it is blocked by the second and the second process cannot
+** proceed because it is blocked by the first. If both processes
+** invoke the busy handlers, neither will make any progress. Therefore,
+** SQLite returns [SQLITE_BUSY] for the first process, hoping that this
+** will induce the first process to release its read lock and allow
+** the second process to proceed.
+** ^The default busy callback is NULL.
+** ^(There can only be a single busy handler defined for each
+** [database connection]. Setting a new busy handler clears any
+** previously set handler.)^ ^Note that calling [sqlite3_busy_timeout()]
+** or evaluating [PRAGMA busy_timeout=N] will change the
+** busy handler and thus clear any previously set busy handler.
+** The busy callback should not take any actions which modify the
+** database connection that invoked the busy handler. In other words,
+** the busy handler is not reentrant. Any such actions
+** result in undefined behavior.
+** A busy handler must not close the database connection
+** or [prepared statement] that invoked the busy handler.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_busy_handler(sqlite3*, int(*)(void*,int), void*);
+** CAPI3REF: Set A Busy Timeout
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^This routine sets a [sqlite3_busy_handler | busy handler] that sleeps
+** for a specified amount of time when a table is locked. ^The handler
+** will sleep multiple times until at least "ms" milliseconds of sleeping
+** have accumulated. ^After at least "ms" milliseconds of sleeping,
+** the handler returns 0 which causes [sqlite3_step()] to return
+** ^Calling this routine with an argument less than or equal to zero
+** turns off all busy handlers.
+** ^(There can only be a single busy handler for a particular
+** [database connection] at any given moment. If another busy handler
+** was defined (using [sqlite3_busy_handler()]) prior to calling
+** this routine, that other busy handler is cleared.)^
+** See also: [PRAGMA busy_timeout]
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_busy_timeout(sqlite3*, int ms);
+** CAPI3REF: Convenience Routines For Running Queries
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** This is a legacy interface that is preserved for backwards compatibility.
+** Use of this interface is not recommended.
+** Definition: A <b>result table</b> is memory data structure created by the
+** [sqlite3_get_table()] interface. A result table records the
+** complete query results from one or more queries.
+** The table conceptually has a number of rows and columns. But
+** these numbers are not part of the result table itself. These
+** numbers are obtained separately. Let N be the number of rows
+** and M be the number of columns.
+** A result table is an array of pointers to zero-terminated UTF-8 strings.
+** There are (N+1)*M elements in the array. The first M pointers point
+** to zero-terminated strings that contain the names of the columns.
+** The remaining entries all point to query results. NULL values result
+** in NULL pointers. All other values are in their UTF-8 zero-terminated
+** string representation as returned by [sqlite3_column_text()].
+** A result table might consist of one or more memory allocations.
+** It is not safe to pass a result table directly to [sqlite3_free()].
+** A result table should be deallocated using [sqlite3_free_table()].
+** ^(As an example of the result table format, suppose a query result
+** is as follows:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+** Name | Age
+** -----------------------
+** Alice | 43
+** Bob | 28
+** Cindy | 21
+** </pre></blockquote>
+** There are two column (M==2) and three rows (N==3). Thus the
+** result table has 8 entries. Suppose the result table is stored
+** in an array names azResult. Then azResult holds this content:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+** azResult&#91;0] = "Name";
+** azResult&#91;1] = "Age";
+** azResult&#91;2] = "Alice";
+** azResult&#91;3] = "43";
+** azResult&#91;4] = "Bob";
+** azResult&#91;5] = "28";
+** azResult&#91;6] = "Cindy";
+** azResult&#91;7] = "21";
+** </pre></blockquote>)^
+** ^The sqlite3_get_table() function evaluates one or more
+** semicolon-separated SQL statements in the zero-terminated UTF-8
+** string of its 2nd parameter and returns a result table to the
+** pointer given in its 3rd parameter.
+** After the application has finished with the result from sqlite3_get_table(),
+** it must pass the result table pointer to sqlite3_free_table() in order to
+** release the memory that was malloced. Because of the way the
+** [sqlite3_malloc()] happens within sqlite3_get_table(), the calling
+** function must not try to call [sqlite3_free()] directly. Only
+** [sqlite3_free_table()] is able to release the memory properly and safely.
+** The sqlite3_get_table() interface is implemented as a wrapper around
+** [sqlite3_exec()]. The sqlite3_get_table() routine does not have access
+** to any internal data structures of SQLite. It uses only the public
+** interface defined here. As a consequence, errors that occur in the
+** wrapper layer outside of the internal [sqlite3_exec()] call are not
+** reflected in subsequent calls to [sqlite3_errcode()] or
+** [sqlite3_errmsg()].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_get_table(
+ sqlite3 *db, /* An open database */
+ const char *zSql, /* SQL to be evaluated */
+ char ***pazResult, /* Results of the query */
+ int *pnRow, /* Number of result rows written here */
+ int *pnColumn, /* Number of result columns written here */
+ char **pzErrmsg /* Error msg written here */
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_free_table(char **result);
+** CAPI3REF: Formatted String Printing Functions
+** These routines are work-alikes of the "printf()" family of functions
+** from the standard C library.
+** These routines understand most of the common K&R formatting options,
+** plus some additional non-standard formats, detailed below.
+** Note that some of the more obscure formatting options from recent
+** C-library standards are omitted from this implementation.
+** ^The sqlite3_mprintf() and sqlite3_vmprintf() routines write their
+** results into memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()].
+** The strings returned by these two routines should be
+** released by [sqlite3_free()]. ^Both routines return a
+** NULL pointer if [sqlite3_malloc()] is unable to allocate enough
+** memory to hold the resulting string.
+** ^(The sqlite3_snprintf() routine is similar to "snprintf()" from
+** the standard C library. The result is written into the
+** buffer supplied as the second parameter whose size is given by
+** the first parameter. Note that the order of the
+** first two parameters is reversed from snprintf().)^ This is an
+** historical accident that cannot be fixed without breaking
+** backwards compatibility. ^(Note also that sqlite3_snprintf()
+** returns a pointer to its buffer instead of the number of
+** characters actually written into the buffer.)^ We admit that
+** the number of characters written would be a more useful return
+** value but we cannot change the implementation of sqlite3_snprintf()
+** now without breaking compatibility.
+** ^As long as the buffer size is greater than zero, sqlite3_snprintf()
+** guarantees that the buffer is always zero-terminated. ^The first
+** parameter "n" is the total size of the buffer, including space for
+** the zero terminator. So the longest string that can be completely
+** written will be n-1 characters.
+** ^The sqlite3_vsnprintf() routine is a varargs version of sqlite3_snprintf().
+** These routines all implement some additional formatting
+** options that are useful for constructing SQL statements.
+** All of the usual printf() formatting options apply. In addition, there
+** is are "%q", "%Q", "%w" and "%z" options.
+** ^(The %q option works like %s in that it substitutes a nul-terminated
+** string from the argument list. But %q also doubles every '\'' character.
+** %q is designed for use inside a string literal.)^ By doubling each '\''
+** character it escapes that character and allows it to be inserted into
+** the string.
+** For example, assume the string variable zText contains text as follows:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+** char *zText = "It's a happy day!";
+** </pre></blockquote>
+** One can use this text in an SQL statement as follows:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+** char *zSQL = sqlite3_mprintf("INSERT INTO table VALUES('%q')", zText);
+** sqlite3_exec(db, zSQL, 0, 0, 0);
+** sqlite3_free(zSQL);
+** </pre></blockquote>
+** Because the %q format string is used, the '\'' character in zText
+** is escaped and the SQL generated is as follows:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+** INSERT INTO table1 VALUES('It''s a happy day!')
+** </pre></blockquote>
+** This is correct. Had we used %s instead of %q, the generated SQL
+** would have looked like this:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+** INSERT INTO table1 VALUES('It's a happy day!');
+** </pre></blockquote>
+** This second example is an SQL syntax error. As a general rule you should
+** always use %q instead of %s when inserting text into a string literal.
+** ^(The %Q option works like %q except it also adds single quotes around
+** the outside of the total string. Additionally, if the parameter in the
+** argument list is a NULL pointer, %Q substitutes the text "NULL" (without
+** single quotes).)^ So, for example, one could say:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+** char *zSQL = sqlite3_mprintf("INSERT INTO table VALUES(%Q)", zText);
+** sqlite3_exec(db, zSQL, 0, 0, 0);
+** sqlite3_free(zSQL);
+** </pre></blockquote>
+** The code above will render a correct SQL statement in the zSQL
+** variable even if the zText variable is a NULL pointer.
+** ^(The "%w" formatting option is like "%q" except that it expects to
+** be contained within double-quotes instead of single quotes, and it
+** escapes the double-quote character instead of the single-quote
+** character.)^ The "%w" formatting option is intended for safely inserting
+** table and column names into a constructed SQL statement.
+** ^(The "%z" formatting option works like "%s" but with the
+** addition that after the string has been read and copied into
+** the result, [sqlite3_free()] is called on the input string.)^
+SQLITE_API char *SQLITE_CDECL sqlite3_mprintf(const char*,...);
+SQLITE_API char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_vmprintf(const char*, va_list);
+SQLITE_API char *SQLITE_CDECL sqlite3_snprintf(int,char*,const char*, ...);
+SQLITE_API char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_vsnprintf(int,char*,const char*, va_list);
+** CAPI3REF: Memory Allocation Subsystem
+** The SQLite core uses these three routines for all of its own
+** internal memory allocation needs. "Core" in the previous sentence
+** does not include operating-system specific VFS implementation. The
+** Windows VFS uses native malloc() and free() for some operations.
+** ^The sqlite3_malloc() routine returns a pointer to a block
+** of memory at least N bytes in length, where N is the parameter.
+** ^If sqlite3_malloc() is unable to obtain sufficient free
+** memory, it returns a NULL pointer. ^If the parameter N to
+** sqlite3_malloc() is zero or negative then sqlite3_malloc() returns
+** a NULL pointer.
+** ^The sqlite3_malloc64(N) routine works just like
+** sqlite3_malloc(N) except that N is an unsigned 64-bit integer instead
+** of a signed 32-bit integer.
+** ^Calling sqlite3_free() with a pointer previously returned
+** by sqlite3_malloc() or sqlite3_realloc() releases that memory so
+** that it might be reused. ^The sqlite3_free() routine is
+** a no-op if is called with a NULL pointer. Passing a NULL pointer
+** to sqlite3_free() is harmless. After being freed, memory
+** should neither be read nor written. Even reading previously freed
+** memory might result in a segmentation fault or other severe error.
+** Memory corruption, a segmentation fault, or other severe error
+** might result if sqlite3_free() is called with a non-NULL pointer that
+** was not obtained from sqlite3_malloc() or sqlite3_realloc().
+** ^The sqlite3_realloc(X,N) interface attempts to resize a
+** prior memory allocation X to be at least N bytes.
+** ^If the X parameter to sqlite3_realloc(X,N)
+** is a NULL pointer then its behavior is identical to calling
+** sqlite3_malloc(N).
+** ^If the N parameter to sqlite3_realloc(X,N) is zero or
+** negative then the behavior is exactly the same as calling
+** sqlite3_free(X).
+** ^sqlite3_realloc(X,N) returns a pointer to a memory allocation
+** of at least N bytes in size or NULL if insufficient memory is available.
+** ^If M is the size of the prior allocation, then min(N,M) bytes
+** of the prior allocation are copied into the beginning of buffer returned
+** by sqlite3_realloc(X,N) and the prior allocation is freed.
+** ^If sqlite3_realloc(X,N) returns NULL and N is positive, then the
+** prior allocation is not freed.
+** ^The sqlite3_realloc64(X,N) interfaces works the same as
+** sqlite3_realloc(X,N) except that N is a 64-bit unsigned integer instead
+** of a 32-bit signed integer.
+** ^If X is a memory allocation previously obtained from sqlite3_malloc(),
+** sqlite3_malloc64(), sqlite3_realloc(), or sqlite3_realloc64(), then
+** sqlite3_msize(X) returns the size of that memory allocation in bytes.
+** ^The value returned by sqlite3_msize(X) might be larger than the number
+** of bytes requested when X was allocated. ^If X is a NULL pointer then
+** sqlite3_msize(X) returns zero. If X points to something that is not
+** the beginning of memory allocation, or if it points to a formerly
+** valid memory allocation that has now been freed, then the behavior
+** of sqlite3_msize(X) is undefined and possibly harmful.
+** ^The memory returned by sqlite3_malloc(), sqlite3_realloc(),
+** sqlite3_malloc64(), and sqlite3_realloc64()
+** is always aligned to at least an 8 byte boundary, or to a
+** 4 byte boundary if the [SQLITE_4_BYTE_ALIGNED_MALLOC] compile-time
+** option is used.
+** In SQLite version 3.5.0 and 3.5.1, it was possible to define
+** the SQLITE_OMIT_MEMORY_ALLOCATION which would cause the built-in
+** implementation of these routines to be omitted. That capability
+** is no longer provided. Only built-in memory allocators can be used.
+** Prior to SQLite version 3.7.10, the Windows OS interface layer called
+** the system malloc() and free() directly when converting
+** filenames between the UTF-8 encoding used by SQLite
+** and whatever filename encoding is used by the particular Windows
+** installation. Memory allocation errors were detected, but
+** they were reported back as [SQLITE_CANTOPEN] or
+** [SQLITE_IOERR] rather than [SQLITE_NOMEM].
+** The pointer arguments to [sqlite3_free()] and [sqlite3_realloc()]
+** must be either NULL or else pointers obtained from a prior
+** invocation of [sqlite3_malloc()] or [sqlite3_realloc()] that have
+** not yet been released.
+** The application must not read or write any part of
+** a block of memory after it has been released using
+** [sqlite3_free()] or [sqlite3_realloc()].
+SQLITE_API void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_malloc(int);
+SQLITE_API void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_malloc64(sqlite3_uint64);
+SQLITE_API void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_realloc(void*, int);
+SQLITE_API void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_realloc64(void*, sqlite3_uint64);
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_free(void*);
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_uint64 SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_msize(void*);
+** CAPI3REF: Memory Allocator Statistics
+** SQLite provides these two interfaces for reporting on the status
+** of the [sqlite3_malloc()], [sqlite3_free()], and [sqlite3_realloc()]
+** routines, which form the built-in memory allocation subsystem.
+** ^The [sqlite3_memory_used()] routine returns the number of bytes
+** of memory currently outstanding (malloced but not freed).
+** ^The [sqlite3_memory_highwater()] routine returns the maximum
+** value of [sqlite3_memory_used()] since the high-water mark
+** was last reset. ^The values returned by [sqlite3_memory_used()] and
+** [sqlite3_memory_highwater()] include any overhead
+** added by SQLite in its implementation of [sqlite3_malloc()],
+** but not overhead added by the any underlying system library
+** routines that [sqlite3_malloc()] may call.
+** ^The memory high-water mark is reset to the current value of
+** [sqlite3_memory_used()] if and only if the parameter to
+** [sqlite3_memory_highwater()] is true. ^The value returned
+** by [sqlite3_memory_highwater(1)] is the high-water mark
+** prior to the reset.
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_memory_used(void);
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_memory_highwater(int resetFlag);
+** CAPI3REF: Pseudo-Random Number Generator
+** SQLite contains a high-quality pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) used to
+** select random [ROWID | ROWIDs] when inserting new records into a table that
+** already uses the largest possible [ROWID]. The PRNG is also used for
+** the build-in random() and randomblob() SQL functions. This interface allows
+** applications to access the same PRNG for other purposes.
+** ^A call to this routine stores N bytes of randomness into buffer P.
+** ^The P parameter can be a NULL pointer.
+** ^If this routine has not been previously called or if the previous
+** call had N less than one or a NULL pointer for P, then the PRNG is
+** seeded using randomness obtained from the xRandomness method of
+** the default [sqlite3_vfs] object.
+** ^If the previous call to this routine had an N of 1 or more and a
+** non-NULL P then the pseudo-randomness is generated
+** internally and without recourse to the [sqlite3_vfs] xRandomness
+** method.
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_randomness(int N, void *P);
+** CAPI3REF: Compile-Time Authorization Callbacks
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^This routine registers an authorizer callback with a particular
+** [database connection], supplied in the first argument.
+** ^The authorizer callback is invoked as SQL statements are being compiled
+** by [sqlite3_prepare()] or its variants [sqlite3_prepare_v2()],
+** [sqlite3_prepare16()] and [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()]. ^At various
+** points during the compilation process, as logic is being created
+** to perform various actions, the authorizer callback is invoked to
+** see if those actions are allowed. ^The authorizer callback should
+** return [SQLITE_OK] to allow the action, [SQLITE_IGNORE] to disallow the
+** specific action but allow the SQL statement to continue to be
+** compiled, or [SQLITE_DENY] to cause the entire SQL statement to be
+** rejected with an error. ^If the authorizer callback returns
+** any value other than [SQLITE_IGNORE], [SQLITE_OK], or [SQLITE_DENY]
+** then the [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or equivalent call that triggered
+** the authorizer will fail with an error message.
+** When the callback returns [SQLITE_OK], that means the operation
+** requested is ok. ^When the callback returns [SQLITE_DENY], the
+** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or equivalent call that triggered the
+** authorizer will fail with an error message explaining that
+** access is denied.
+** ^The first parameter to the authorizer callback is a copy of the third
+** parameter to the sqlite3_set_authorizer() interface. ^The second parameter
+** to the callback is an integer [SQLITE_COPY | action code] that specifies
+** the particular action to be authorized. ^The third through sixth parameters
+** to the callback are zero-terminated strings that contain additional
+** details about the action to be authorized.
+** ^If the action code is [SQLITE_READ]
+** and the callback returns [SQLITE_IGNORE] then the
+** [prepared statement] statement is constructed to substitute
+** a NULL value in place of the table column that would have
+** been read if [SQLITE_OK] had been returned. The [SQLITE_IGNORE]
+** return can be used to deny an untrusted user access to individual
+** columns of a table.
+** ^If the action code is [SQLITE_DELETE] and the callback returns
+** [SQLITE_IGNORE] then the [DELETE] operation proceeds but the
+** [truncate optimization] is disabled and all rows are deleted individually.
+** An authorizer is used when [sqlite3_prepare | preparing]
+** SQL statements from an untrusted source, to ensure that the SQL statements
+** do not try to access data they are not allowed to see, or that they do not
+** try to execute malicious statements that damage the database. For
+** example, an application may allow a user to enter arbitrary
+** SQL queries for evaluation by a database. But the application does
+** not want the user to be able to make arbitrary changes to the
+** database. An authorizer could then be put in place while the
+** user-entered SQL is being [sqlite3_prepare | prepared] that
+** disallows everything except [SELECT] statements.
+** Applications that need to process SQL from untrusted sources
+** might also consider lowering resource limits using [sqlite3_limit()]
+** and limiting database size using the [max_page_count] [PRAGMA]
+** in addition to using an authorizer.
+** ^(Only a single authorizer can be in place on a database connection
+** at a time. Each call to sqlite3_set_authorizer overrides the
+** previous call.)^ ^Disable the authorizer by installing a NULL callback.
+** The authorizer is disabled by default.
+** The authorizer callback must not do anything that will modify
+** the database connection that invoked the authorizer callback.
+** Note that [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and [sqlite3_step()] both modify their
+** database connections for the meaning of "modify" in this paragraph.
+** ^When [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] is used to prepare a statement, the
+** statement might be re-prepared during [sqlite3_step()] due to a
+** schema change. Hence, the application should ensure that the
+** correct authorizer callback remains in place during the [sqlite3_step()].
+** ^Note that the authorizer callback is invoked only during
+** [sqlite3_prepare()] or its variants. Authorization is not
+** performed during statement evaluation in [sqlite3_step()], unless
+** as stated in the previous paragraph, sqlite3_step() invokes
+** sqlite3_prepare_v2() to reprepare a statement after a schema change.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_set_authorizer(
+ sqlite3*,
+ int (*xAuth)(void*,int,const char*,const char*,const char*,const char*),
+ void *pUserData
+** CAPI3REF: Authorizer Return Codes
+** The [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorizer callback function] must
+** return either [SQLITE_OK] or one of these two constants in order
+** to signal SQLite whether or not the action is permitted. See the
+** [sqlite3_set_authorizer | authorizer documentation] for additional
+** information.
+** Note that SQLITE_IGNORE is also used as a [conflict resolution mode]
+** returned from the [sqlite3_vtab_on_conflict()] interface.
+#define SQLITE_DENY 1 /* Abort the SQL statement with an error */
+#define SQLITE_IGNORE 2 /* Don't allow access, but don't generate an error */
+** CAPI3REF: Authorizer Action Codes
+** The [sqlite3_set_authorizer()] interface registers a callback function
+** that is invoked to authorize certain SQL statement actions. The
+** second parameter to the callback is an integer code that specifies
+** what action is being authorized. These are the integer action codes that
+** the authorizer callback may be passed.
+** These action code values signify what kind of operation is to be
+** authorized. The 3rd and 4th parameters to the authorization
+** callback function will be parameters or NULL depending on which of these
+** codes is used as the second parameter. ^(The 5th parameter to the
+** authorizer callback is the name of the database ("main", "temp",
+** etc.) if applicable.)^ ^The 6th parameter to the authorizer callback
+** is the name of the inner-most trigger or view that is responsible for
+** the access attempt or NULL if this access attempt is directly from
+** top-level SQL code.
+/******************************************* 3rd ************ 4th ***********/
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_INDEX 1 /* Index Name Table Name */
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_TABLE 2 /* Table Name NULL */
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_INDEX 3 /* Index Name Table Name */
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_TABLE 4 /* Table Name NULL */
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_TRIGGER 5 /* Trigger Name Table Name */
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_TEMP_VIEW 6 /* View Name NULL */
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_TRIGGER 7 /* Trigger Name Table Name */
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_VIEW 8 /* View Name NULL */
+#define SQLITE_DELETE 9 /* Table Name NULL */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_INDEX 10 /* Index Name Table Name */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_TABLE 11 /* Table Name NULL */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_INDEX 12 /* Index Name Table Name */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_TABLE 13 /* Table Name NULL */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_TRIGGER 14 /* Trigger Name Table Name */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_TEMP_VIEW 15 /* View Name NULL */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_TRIGGER 16 /* Trigger Name Table Name */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_VIEW 17 /* View Name NULL */
+#define SQLITE_INSERT 18 /* Table Name NULL */
+#define SQLITE_PRAGMA 19 /* Pragma Name 1st arg or NULL */
+#define SQLITE_READ 20 /* Table Name Column Name */
+#define SQLITE_SELECT 21 /* NULL NULL */
+#define SQLITE_TRANSACTION 22 /* Operation NULL */
+#define SQLITE_UPDATE 23 /* Table Name Column Name */
+#define SQLITE_ATTACH 24 /* Filename NULL */
+#define SQLITE_DETACH 25 /* Database Name NULL */
+#define SQLITE_ALTER_TABLE 26 /* Database Name Table Name */
+#define SQLITE_REINDEX 27 /* Index Name NULL */
+#define SQLITE_ANALYZE 28 /* Table Name NULL */
+#define SQLITE_CREATE_VTABLE 29 /* Table Name Module Name */
+#define SQLITE_DROP_VTABLE 30 /* Table Name Module Name */
+#define SQLITE_FUNCTION 31 /* NULL Function Name */
+#define SQLITE_SAVEPOINT 32 /* Operation Savepoint Name */
+#define SQLITE_COPY 0 /* No longer used */
+** CAPI3REF: Tracing And Profiling Functions
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** These routines register callback functions that can be used for
+** tracing and profiling the execution of SQL statements.
+** ^The callback function registered by sqlite3_trace() is invoked at
+** various times when an SQL statement is being run by [sqlite3_step()].
+** ^The sqlite3_trace() callback is invoked with a UTF-8 rendering of the
+** SQL statement text as the statement first begins executing.
+** ^(Additional sqlite3_trace() callbacks might occur
+** as each triggered subprogram is entered. The callbacks for triggers
+** contain a UTF-8 SQL comment that identifies the trigger.)^
+** The [SQLITE_TRACE_SIZE_LIMIT] compile-time option can be used to limit
+** the length of [bound parameter] expansion in the output of sqlite3_trace().
+** ^The callback function registered by sqlite3_profile() is invoked
+** as each SQL statement finishes. ^The profile callback contains
+** the original statement text and an estimate of wall-clock time
+** of how long that statement took to run. ^The profile callback
+** time is in units of nanoseconds, however the current implementation
+** is only capable of millisecond resolution so the six least significant
+** digits in the time are meaningless. Future versions of SQLite
+** might provide greater resolution on the profiler callback. The
+** sqlite3_profile() function is considered experimental and is
+** subject to change in future versions of SQLite.
+SQLITE_API void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_trace(sqlite3*, void(*xTrace)(void*,const char*), void*);
+ void(*xProfile)(void*,const char*,sqlite3_uint64), void*);
+** CAPI3REF: Query Progress Callbacks
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^The sqlite3_progress_handler(D,N,X,P) interface causes the callback
+** function X to be invoked periodically during long running calls to
+** [sqlite3_exec()], [sqlite3_step()] and [sqlite3_get_table()] for
+** database connection D. An example use for this
+** interface is to keep a GUI updated during a large query.
+** ^The parameter P is passed through as the only parameter to the
+** callback function X. ^The parameter N is the approximate number of
+** [virtual machine instructions] that are evaluated between successive
+** invocations of the callback X. ^If N is less than one then the progress
+** handler is disabled.
+** ^Only a single progress handler may be defined at one time per
+** [database connection]; setting a new progress handler cancels the
+** old one. ^Setting parameter X to NULL disables the progress handler.
+** ^The progress handler is also disabled by setting N to a value less
+** than 1.
+** ^If the progress callback returns non-zero, the operation is
+** interrupted. This feature can be used to implement a
+** "Cancel" button on a GUI progress dialog box.
+** The progress handler callback must not do anything that will modify
+** the database connection that invoked the progress handler.
+** Note that [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and [sqlite3_step()] both modify their
+** database connections for the meaning of "modify" in this paragraph.
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_progress_handler(sqlite3*, int, int(*)(void*), void*);
+** CAPI3REF: Opening A New Database Connection
+** CONSTRUCTOR: sqlite3
+** ^These routines open an SQLite database file as specified by the
+** filename argument. ^The filename argument is interpreted as UTF-8 for
+** sqlite3_open() and sqlite3_open_v2() and as UTF-16 in the native byte
+** order for sqlite3_open16(). ^(A [database connection] handle is usually
+** returned in *ppDb, even if an error occurs. The only exception is that
+** if SQLite is unable to allocate memory to hold the [sqlite3] object,
+** a NULL will be written into *ppDb instead of a pointer to the [sqlite3]
+** object.)^ ^(If the database is opened (and/or created) successfully, then
+** [SQLITE_OK] is returned. Otherwise an [error code] is returned.)^ ^The
+** [sqlite3_errmsg()] or [sqlite3_errmsg16()] routines can be used to obtain
+** an English language description of the error following a failure of any
+** of the sqlite3_open() routines.
+** ^The default encoding will be UTF-8 for databases created using
+** sqlite3_open() or sqlite3_open_v2(). ^The default encoding for databases
+** created using sqlite3_open16() will be UTF-16 in the native byte order.
+** Whether or not an error occurs when it is opened, resources
+** associated with the [database connection] handle should be released by
+** passing it to [sqlite3_close()] when it is no longer required.
+** The sqlite3_open_v2() interface works like sqlite3_open()
+** except that it accepts two additional parameters for additional control
+** over the new database connection. ^(The flags parameter to
+** sqlite3_open_v2() can take one of
+** the following three values, optionally combined with the
+** <dl>
+** ^(<dt>[SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY]</dt>
+** <dd>The database is opened in read-only mode. If the database does not
+** already exist, an error is returned.</dd>)^
+** ^(<dt>[SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE]</dt>
+** <dd>The database is opened for reading and writing if possible, or reading
+** only if the file is write protected by the operating system. In either
+** case the database must already exist, otherwise an error is returned.</dd>)^
+** <dd>The database is opened for reading and writing, and is created if
+** it does not already exist. This is the behavior that is always used for
+** sqlite3_open() and sqlite3_open16().</dd>)^
+** </dl>
+** If the 3rd parameter to sqlite3_open_v2() is not one of the
+** combinations shown above optionally combined with other
+** then the behavior is undefined.
+** ^If the [SQLITE_OPEN_NOMUTEX] flag is set, then the database connection
+** opens in the multi-thread [threading mode] as long as the single-thread
+** mode has not been set at compile-time or start-time. ^If the
+** [SQLITE_OPEN_FULLMUTEX] flag is set then the database connection opens
+** in the serialized [threading mode] unless single-thread was
+** previously selected at compile-time or start-time.
+** ^The [SQLITE_OPEN_SHAREDCACHE] flag causes the database connection to be
+** eligible to use [shared cache mode], regardless of whether or not shared
+** cache is enabled using [sqlite3_enable_shared_cache()]. ^The
+** [SQLITE_OPEN_PRIVATECACHE] flag causes the database connection to not
+** participate in [shared cache mode] even if it is enabled.
+** ^The fourth parameter to sqlite3_open_v2() is the name of the
+** [sqlite3_vfs] object that defines the operating system interface that
+** the new database connection should use. ^If the fourth parameter is
+** a NULL pointer then the default [sqlite3_vfs] object is used.
+** ^If the filename is ":memory:", then a private, temporary in-memory database
+** is created for the connection. ^This in-memory database will vanish when
+** the database connection is closed. Future versions of SQLite might
+** make use of additional special filenames that begin with the ":" character.
+** It is recommended that when a database filename actually does begin with
+** a ":" character you should prefix the filename with a pathname such as
+** "./" to avoid ambiguity.
+** ^If the filename is an empty string, then a private, temporary
+** on-disk database will be created. ^This private database will be
+** automatically deleted as soon as the database connection is closed.
+** [[URI filenames in sqlite3_open()]] <h3>URI Filenames</h3>
+** ^If [URI filename] interpretation is enabled, and the filename argument
+** begins with "file:", then the filename is interpreted as a URI. ^URI
+** filename interpretation is enabled if the [SQLITE_OPEN_URI] flag is
+** set in the fourth argument to sqlite3_open_v2(), or if it has
+** been enabled globally using the [SQLITE_CONFIG_URI] option with the
+** [sqlite3_config()] method or by the [SQLITE_USE_URI] compile-time option.
+** As of SQLite version 3.7.7, URI filename interpretation is turned off
+** by default, but future releases of SQLite might enable URI filename
+** interpretation by default. See "[URI filenames]" for additional
+** information.
+** URI filenames are parsed according to RFC 3986. ^If the URI contains an
+** authority, then it must be either an empty string or the string
+** "localhost". ^If the authority is not an empty string or "localhost", an
+** error is returned to the caller. ^The fragment component of a URI, if
+** present, is ignored.
+** ^SQLite uses the path component of the URI as the name of the disk file
+** which contains the database. ^If the path begins with a '/' character,
+** then it is interpreted as an absolute path. ^If the path does not begin
+** with a '/' (meaning that the authority section is omitted from the URI)
+** then the path is interpreted as a relative path.
+** ^(On windows, the first component of an absolute path
+** is a drive specification (e.g. "C:").)^
+** [[core URI query parameters]]
+** The query component of a URI may contain parameters that are interpreted
+** either by SQLite itself, or by a [VFS | custom VFS implementation].
+** SQLite and its built-in [VFSes] interpret the
+** following query parameters:
+** <ul>
+** <li> <b>vfs</b>: ^The "vfs" parameter may be used to specify the name of
+** a VFS object that provides the operating system interface that should
+** be used to access the database file on disk. ^If this option is set to
+** an empty string the default VFS object is used. ^Specifying an unknown
+** VFS is an error. ^If sqlite3_open_v2() is used and the vfs option is
+** present, then the VFS specified by the option takes precedence over
+** the value passed as the fourth parameter to sqlite3_open_v2().
+** <li> <b>mode</b>: ^(The mode parameter may be set to either "ro", "rw",
+** "rwc", or "memory". Attempting to set it to any other value is
+** an error)^.
+** ^If "ro" is specified, then the database is opened for read-only
+** access, just as if the [SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY] flag had been set in the
+** third argument to sqlite3_open_v2(). ^If the mode option is set to
+** "rw", then the database is opened for read-write (but not create)
+** access, as if SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE (but not SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE) had
+** been set. ^Value "rwc" is equivalent to setting both
+** SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE and SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE. ^If the mode option is
+** set to "memory" then a pure [in-memory database] that never reads
+** or writes from disk is used. ^It is an error to specify a value for
+** the mode parameter that is less restrictive than that specified by
+** the flags passed in the third parameter to sqlite3_open_v2().
+** <li> <b>cache</b>: ^The cache parameter may be set to either "shared" or
+** "private". ^Setting it to "shared" is equivalent to setting the
+** SQLITE_OPEN_SHAREDCACHE bit in the flags argument passed to
+** sqlite3_open_v2(). ^Setting the cache parameter to "private" is
+** equivalent to setting the SQLITE_OPEN_PRIVATECACHE bit.
+** ^If sqlite3_open_v2() is used and the "cache" parameter is present in
+** a URI filename, its value overrides any behavior requested by setting
+** <li> <b>psow</b>: ^The psow parameter indicates whether or not the
+** [powersafe overwrite] property does or does not apply to the
+** storage media on which the database file resides.
+** <li> <b>nolock</b>: ^The nolock parameter is a boolean query parameter
+** which if set disables file locking in rollback journal modes. This
+** is useful for accessing a database on a filesystem that does not
+** support locking. Caution: Database corruption might result if two
+** or more processes write to the same database and any one of those
+** processes uses nolock=1.
+** <li> <b>immutable</b>: ^The immutable parameter is a boolean query
+** parameter that indicates that the database file is stored on
+** read-only media. ^When immutable is set, SQLite assumes that the
+** database file cannot be changed, even by a process with higher
+** privilege, and so the database is opened read-only and all locking
+** and change detection is disabled. Caution: Setting the immutable
+** property on a database file that does in fact change can result
+** in incorrect query results and/or [SQLITE_CORRUPT] errors.
+** </ul>
+** ^Specifying an unknown parameter in the query component of a URI is not an
+** error. Future versions of SQLite might understand additional query
+** parameters. See "[query parameters with special meaning to SQLite]" for
+** additional information.
+** [[URI filename examples]] <h3>URI filename examples</h3>
+** <table border="1" align=center cellpadding=5>
+** <tr><th> URI filenames <th> Results
+** <tr><td> file:data.db <td>
+** Open the file "data.db" in the current directory.
+** <tr><td> file:/home/fred/data.db<br>
+** file:///home/fred/data.db <br>
+** file://localhost/home/fred/data.db <br> <td>
+** Open the database file "/home/fred/data.db".
+** <tr><td> file://darkstar/home/fred/data.db <td>
+** An error. "darkstar" is not a recognized authority.
+** <tr><td style="white-space:nowrap">
+** file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/fred/Desktop/data.db
+** <td> Windows only: Open the file "data.db" on fred's desktop on drive
+** C:. Note that the %20 escaping in this example is not strictly
+** necessary - space characters can be used literally
+** in URI filenames.
+** <tr><td> file:data.db?mode=ro&cache=private <td>
+** Open file "data.db" in the current directory for read-only access.
+** Regardless of whether or not shared-cache mode is enabled by
+** default, use a private cache.
+** <tr><td> file:/home/fred/data.db?vfs=unix-dotfile <td>
+** Open file "/home/fred/data.db". Use the special VFS "unix-dotfile"
+** that uses dot-files in place of posix advisory locking.
+** <tr><td> file:data.db?mode=readonly <td>
+** An error. "readonly" is not a valid option for the "mode" parameter.
+** </table>
+** ^URI hexadecimal escape sequences (%HH) are supported within the path and
+** query components of a URI. A hexadecimal escape sequence consists of a
+** percent sign - "%" - followed by exactly two hexadecimal digits
+** specifying an octet value. ^Before the path or query components of a
+** URI filename are interpreted, they are encoded using UTF-8 and all
+** hexadecimal escape sequences replaced by a single byte containing the
+** corresponding octet. If this process generates an invalid UTF-8 encoding,
+** the results are undefined.
+** <b>Note to Windows users:</b> The encoding used for the filename argument
+** of sqlite3_open() and sqlite3_open_v2() must be UTF-8, not whatever
+** codepage is currently defined. Filenames containing international
+** characters must be converted to UTF-8 prior to passing them into
+** sqlite3_open() or sqlite3_open_v2().
+** <b>Note to Windows Runtime users:</b> The temporary directory must be set
+** prior to calling sqlite3_open() or sqlite3_open_v2(). Otherwise, various
+** features that require the use of temporary files may fail.
+** See also: [sqlite3_temp_directory]
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_open(
+ const char *filename, /* Database filename (UTF-8) */
+ sqlite3 **ppDb /* OUT: SQLite db handle */
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_open16(
+ const void *filename, /* Database filename (UTF-16) */
+ sqlite3 **ppDb /* OUT: SQLite db handle */
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_open_v2(
+ const char *filename, /* Database filename (UTF-8) */
+ sqlite3 **ppDb, /* OUT: SQLite db handle */
+ int flags, /* Flags */
+ const char *zVfs /* Name of VFS module to use */
+** CAPI3REF: Obtain Values For URI Parameters
+** These are utility routines, useful to VFS implementations, that check
+** to see if a database file was a URI that contained a specific query
+** parameter, and if so obtains the value of that query parameter.
+** If F is the database filename pointer passed into the xOpen() method of
+** a VFS implementation when the flags parameter to xOpen() has one or
+** more of the [SQLITE_OPEN_URI] or [SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_DB] bits set and
+** P is the name of the query parameter, then
+** sqlite3_uri_parameter(F,P) returns the value of the P
+** parameter if it exists or a NULL pointer if P does not appear as a
+** query parameter on F. If P is a query parameter of F
+** has no explicit value, then sqlite3_uri_parameter(F,P) returns
+** a pointer to an empty string.
+** The sqlite3_uri_boolean(F,P,B) routine assumes that P is a boolean
+** parameter and returns true (1) or false (0) according to the value
+** of P. The sqlite3_uri_boolean(F,P,B) routine returns true (1) if the
+** value of query parameter P is one of "yes", "true", or "on" in any
+** case or if the value begins with a non-zero number. The
+** sqlite3_uri_boolean(F,P,B) routines returns false (0) if the value of
+** query parameter P is one of "no", "false", or "off" in any case or
+** if the value begins with a numeric zero. If P is not a query
+** parameter on F or if the value of P is does not match any of the
+** above, then sqlite3_uri_boolean(F,P,B) returns (B!=0).
+** The sqlite3_uri_int64(F,P,D) routine converts the value of P into a
+** 64-bit signed integer and returns that integer, or D if P does not
+** exist. If the value of P is something other than an integer, then
+** zero is returned.
+** If F is a NULL pointer, then sqlite3_uri_parameter(F,P) returns NULL and
+** sqlite3_uri_boolean(F,P,B) returns B. If F is not a NULL pointer and
+** is not a database file pathname pointer that SQLite passed into the xOpen
+** VFS method, then the behavior of this routine is undefined and probably
+** undesirable.
+SQLITE_API const char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_uri_parameter(const char *zFilename, const char *zParam);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_uri_boolean(const char *zFile, const char *zParam, int bDefault);
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_uri_int64(const char*, const char*, sqlite3_int64);
+** CAPI3REF: Error Codes And Messages
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^If the most recent sqlite3_* API call associated with
+** [database connection] D failed, then the sqlite3_errcode(D) interface
+** returns the numeric [result code] or [extended result code] for that
+** API call.
+** If the most recent API call was successful,
+** then the return value from sqlite3_errcode() is undefined.
+** ^The sqlite3_extended_errcode()
+** interface is the same except that it always returns the
+** [extended result code] even when extended result codes are
+** disabled.
+** ^The sqlite3_errmsg() and sqlite3_errmsg16() return English-language
+** text that describes the error, as either UTF-8 or UTF-16 respectively.
+** ^(Memory to hold the error message string is managed internally.
+** The application does not need to worry about freeing the result.
+** However, the error string might be overwritten or deallocated by
+** subsequent calls to other SQLite interface functions.)^
+** ^The sqlite3_errstr() interface returns the English-language text
+** that describes the [result code], as UTF-8.
+** ^(Memory to hold the error message string is managed internally
+** and must not be freed by the application)^.
+** When the serialized [threading mode] is in use, it might be the
+** case that a second error occurs on a separate thread in between
+** the time of the first error and the call to these interfaces.
+** When that happens, the second error will be reported since these
+** interfaces always report the most recent result. To avoid
+** this, each thread can obtain exclusive use of the [database connection] D
+** by invoking [sqlite3_mutex_enter]([sqlite3_db_mutex](D)) before beginning
+** to use D and invoking [sqlite3_mutex_leave]([sqlite3_db_mutex](D)) after
+** all calls to the interfaces listed here are completed.
+** If an interface fails with SQLITE_MISUSE, that means the interface
+** was invoked incorrectly by the application. In that case, the
+** error code and message may or may not be set.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_errcode(sqlite3 *db);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_extended_errcode(sqlite3 *db);
+SQLITE_API const char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_errmsg(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_API const void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_errmsg16(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_API const char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_errstr(int);
+** CAPI3REF: Prepared Statement Object
+** KEYWORDS: {prepared statement} {prepared statements}
+** An instance of this object represents a single SQL statement that
+** has been compiled into binary form and is ready to be evaluated.
+** Think of each SQL statement as a separate computer program. The
+** original SQL text is source code. A prepared statement object
+** is the compiled object code. All SQL must be converted into a
+** prepared statement before it can be run.
+** The life-cycle of a prepared statement object usually goes like this:
+** <ol>
+** <li> Create the prepared statement object using [sqlite3_prepare_v2()].
+** <li> Bind values to [parameters] using the sqlite3_bind_*()
+** interfaces.
+** <li> Run the SQL by calling [sqlite3_step()] one or more times.
+** <li> Reset the prepared statement using [sqlite3_reset()] then go back
+** to step 2. Do this zero or more times.
+** <li> Destroy the object using [sqlite3_finalize()].
+** </ol>
+typedef struct sqlite3_stmt sqlite3_stmt;
+** CAPI3REF: Run-time Limits
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^(This interface allows the size of various constructs to be limited
+** on a connection by connection basis. The first parameter is the
+** [database connection] whose limit is to be set or queried. The
+** second parameter is one of the [limit categories] that define a
+** class of constructs to be size limited. The third parameter is the
+** new limit for that construct.)^
+** ^If the new limit is a negative number, the limit is unchanged.
+** ^(For each limit category SQLITE_LIMIT_<i>NAME</i> there is a
+** [limits | hard upper bound]
+** set at compile-time by a C preprocessor macro called
+** [limits | SQLITE_MAX_<i>NAME</i>].
+** (The "_LIMIT_" in the name is changed to "_MAX_".))^
+** ^Attempts to increase a limit above its hard upper bound are
+** silently truncated to the hard upper bound.
+** ^Regardless of whether or not the limit was changed, the
+** [sqlite3_limit()] interface returns the prior value of the limit.
+** ^Hence, to find the current value of a limit without changing it,
+** simply invoke this interface with the third parameter set to -1.
+** Run-time limits are intended for use in applications that manage
+** both their own internal database and also databases that are controlled
+** by untrusted external sources. An example application might be a
+** web browser that has its own databases for storing history and
+** separate databases controlled by JavaScript applications downloaded
+** off the Internet. The internal databases can be given the
+** large, default limits. Databases managed by external sources can
+** be given much smaller limits designed to prevent a denial of service
+** attack. Developers might also want to use the [sqlite3_set_authorizer()]
+** interface to further control untrusted SQL. The size of the database
+** created by an untrusted script can be contained using the
+** [max_page_count] [PRAGMA].
+** New run-time limit categories may be added in future releases.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_limit(sqlite3*, int id, int newVal);
+** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Limit Categories
+** KEYWORDS: {limit category} {*limit categories}
+** These constants define various performance limits
+** that can be lowered at run-time using [sqlite3_limit()].
+** The synopsis of the meanings of the various limits is shown below.
+** Additional information is available at [limits | Limits in SQLite].
+** <dl>
+** <dd>The maximum size of any string or BLOB or table row, in bytes.<dd>)^
+** <dd>The maximum length of an SQL statement, in bytes.</dd>)^
+** <dd>The maximum number of columns in a table definition or in the
+** result set of a [SELECT] or the maximum number of columns in an index
+** or in an ORDER BY or GROUP BY clause.</dd>)^
+** <dd>The maximum depth of the parse tree on any expression.</dd>)^
+** <dd>The maximum number of terms in a compound SELECT statement.</dd>)^
+** <dd>The maximum number of instructions in a virtual machine program
+** used to implement an SQL statement. This limit is not currently
+** enforced, though that might be added in some future release of
+** SQLite.</dd>)^
+** <dd>The maximum number of arguments on a function.</dd>)^
+** <dd>The maximum number of [ATTACH | attached databases].)^</dd>
+** <dd>The maximum length of the pattern argument to the [LIKE] or
+** [GLOB] operators.</dd>)^
+** <dd>The maximum index number of any [parameter] in an SQL statement.)^
+** <dd>The maximum depth of recursion for triggers.</dd>)^
+** <dd>The maximum number of auxiliary worker threads that a single
+** [prepared statement] may start.</dd>)^
+** </dl>
+** CAPI3REF: Compiling An SQL Statement
+** KEYWORDS: {SQL statement compiler}
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** CONSTRUCTOR: sqlite3_stmt
+** To execute an SQL query, it must first be compiled into a byte-code
+** program using one of these routines.
+** The first argument, "db", is a [database connection] obtained from a
+** prior successful call to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open_v2()] or
+** [sqlite3_open16()]. The database connection must not have been closed.
+** The second argument, "zSql", is the statement to be compiled, encoded
+** as either UTF-8 or UTF-16. The sqlite3_prepare() and sqlite3_prepare_v2()
+** interfaces use UTF-8, and sqlite3_prepare16() and sqlite3_prepare16_v2()
+** use UTF-16.
+** ^If the nByte argument is negative, then zSql is read up to the
+** first zero terminator. ^If nByte is positive, then it is the
+** number of bytes read from zSql. ^If nByte is zero, then no prepared
+** statement is generated.
+** If the caller knows that the supplied string is nul-terminated, then
+** there is a small performance advantage to passing an nByte parameter that
+** is the number of bytes in the input string <i>including</i>
+** the nul-terminator.
+** ^If pzTail is not NULL then *pzTail is made to point to the first byte
+** past the end of the first SQL statement in zSql. These routines only
+** compile the first statement in zSql, so *pzTail is left pointing to
+** what remains uncompiled.
+** ^*ppStmt is left pointing to a compiled [prepared statement] that can be
+** executed using [sqlite3_step()]. ^If there is an error, *ppStmt is set
+** to NULL. ^If the input text contains no SQL (if the input is an empty
+** string or a comment) then *ppStmt is set to NULL.
+** The calling procedure is responsible for deleting the compiled
+** SQL statement using [sqlite3_finalize()] after it has finished with it.
+** ppStmt may not be NULL.
+** ^On success, the sqlite3_prepare() family of routines return [SQLITE_OK];
+** otherwise an [error code] is returned.
+** The sqlite3_prepare_v2() and sqlite3_prepare16_v2() interfaces are
+** recommended for all new programs. The two older interfaces are retained
+** for backwards compatibility, but their use is discouraged.
+** ^In the "v2" interfaces, the prepared statement
+** that is returned (the [sqlite3_stmt] object) contains a copy of the
+** original SQL text. This causes the [sqlite3_step()] interface to
+** behave differently in three ways:
+** <ol>
+** <li>
+** ^If the database schema changes, instead of returning [SQLITE_SCHEMA] as it
+** always used to do, [sqlite3_step()] will automatically recompile the SQL
+** statement and try to run it again. As many as [SQLITE_MAX_SCHEMA_RETRY]
+** retries will occur before sqlite3_step() gives up and returns an error.
+** </li>
+** <li>
+** ^When an error occurs, [sqlite3_step()] will return one of the detailed
+** [error codes] or [extended error codes]. ^The legacy behavior was that
+** [sqlite3_step()] would only return a generic [SQLITE_ERROR] result code
+** and the application would have to make a second call to [sqlite3_reset()]
+** in order to find the underlying cause of the problem. With the "v2" prepare
+** interfaces, the underlying reason for the error is returned immediately.
+** </li>
+** <li>
+** ^If the specific value bound to [parameter | host parameter] in the
+** WHERE clause might influence the choice of query plan for a statement,
+** then the statement will be automatically recompiled, as if there had been
+** a schema change, on the first [sqlite3_step()] call following any change
+** to the [sqlite3_bind_text | bindings] of that [parameter].
+** ^The specific value of WHERE-clause [parameter] might influence the
+** choice of query plan if the parameter is the left-hand side of a [LIKE]
+** or [GLOB] operator or if the parameter is compared to an indexed column
+** and the [SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3] compile-time option is enabled.
+** </li>
+** </ol>
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_prepare(
+ sqlite3 *db, /* Database handle */
+ const char *zSql, /* SQL statement, UTF-8 encoded */
+ int nByte, /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
+ sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt, /* OUT: Statement handle */
+ const char **pzTail /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_prepare_v2(
+ sqlite3 *db, /* Database handle */
+ const char *zSql, /* SQL statement, UTF-8 encoded */
+ int nByte, /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
+ sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt, /* OUT: Statement handle */
+ const char **pzTail /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_prepare16(
+ sqlite3 *db, /* Database handle */
+ const void *zSql, /* SQL statement, UTF-16 encoded */
+ int nByte, /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
+ sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt, /* OUT: Statement handle */
+ const void **pzTail /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_prepare16_v2(
+ sqlite3 *db, /* Database handle */
+ const void *zSql, /* SQL statement, UTF-16 encoded */
+ int nByte, /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
+ sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt, /* OUT: Statement handle */
+ const void **pzTail /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
+** CAPI3REF: Retrieving Statement SQL
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^This interface can be used to retrieve a saved copy of the original
+** SQL text used to create a [prepared statement] if that statement was
+** compiled using either [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].
+SQLITE_API const char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_sql(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);
+** CAPI3REF: Determine If An SQL Statement Writes The Database
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^The sqlite3_stmt_readonly(X) interface returns true (non-zero) if
+** and only if the [prepared statement] X makes no direct changes to
+** the content of the database file.
+** Note that [application-defined SQL functions] or
+** [virtual tables] might change the database indirectly as a side effect.
+** ^(For example, if an application defines a function "eval()" that
+** calls [sqlite3_exec()], then the following SQL statement would
+** change the database file through side-effects:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+** SELECT eval('DELETE FROM t1') FROM t2;
+** </pre></blockquote>
+** But because the [SELECT] statement does not change the database file
+** directly, sqlite3_stmt_readonly() would still return true.)^
+** ^Transaction control statements such as [BEGIN], [COMMIT], [ROLLBACK],
+** [SAVEPOINT], and [RELEASE] cause sqlite3_stmt_readonly() to return true,
+** since the statements themselves do not actually modify the database but
+** rather they control the timing of when other statements modify the
+** database. ^The [ATTACH] and [DETACH] statements also cause
+** sqlite3_stmt_readonly() to return true since, while those statements
+** change the configuration of a database connection, they do not make
+** changes to the content of the database files on disk.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_stmt_readonly(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);
+** CAPI3REF: Determine If A Prepared Statement Has Been Reset
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^The sqlite3_stmt_busy(S) interface returns true (non-zero) if the
+** [prepared statement] S has been stepped at least once using
+** [sqlite3_step(S)] but has neither run to completion (returned
+** [SQLITE_DONE] from [sqlite3_step(S)]) nor
+** been reset using [sqlite3_reset(S)]. ^The sqlite3_stmt_busy(S)
+** interface returns false if S is a NULL pointer. If S is not a
+** NULL pointer and is not a pointer to a valid [prepared statement]
+** object, then the behavior is undefined and probably undesirable.
+** This interface can be used in combination [sqlite3_next_stmt()]
+** to locate all prepared statements associated with a database
+** connection that are in need of being reset. This can be used,
+** for example, in diagnostic routines to search for prepared
+** statements that are holding a transaction open.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_stmt_busy(sqlite3_stmt*);
+** CAPI3REF: Dynamically Typed Value Object
+** KEYWORDS: {protected sqlite3_value} {unprotected sqlite3_value}
+** SQLite uses the sqlite3_value object to represent all values
+** that can be stored in a database table. SQLite uses dynamic typing
+** for the values it stores. ^Values stored in sqlite3_value objects
+** can be integers, floating point values, strings, BLOBs, or NULL.
+** An sqlite3_value object may be either "protected" or "unprotected".
+** Some interfaces require a protected sqlite3_value. Other interfaces
+** will accept either a protected or an unprotected sqlite3_value.
+** Every interface that accepts sqlite3_value arguments specifies
+** whether or not it requires a protected sqlite3_value. The
+** [sqlite3_value_dup()] interface can be used to construct a new
+** protected sqlite3_value from an unprotected sqlite3_value.
+** The terms "protected" and "unprotected" refer to whether or not
+** a mutex is held. An internal mutex is held for a protected
+** sqlite3_value object but no mutex is held for an unprotected
+** sqlite3_value object. If SQLite is compiled to be single-threaded
+** (with [SQLITE_THREADSAFE=0] and with [sqlite3_threadsafe()] returning 0)
+** or if SQLite is run in one of reduced mutex modes
+** then there is no distinction between protected and unprotected
+** sqlite3_value objects and they can be used interchangeably. However,
+** for maximum code portability it is recommended that applications
+** still make the distinction between protected and unprotected
+** sqlite3_value objects even when not strictly required.
+** ^The sqlite3_value objects that are passed as parameters into the
+** implementation of [application-defined SQL functions] are protected.
+** ^The sqlite3_value object returned by
+** [sqlite3_column_value()] is unprotected.
+** Unprotected sqlite3_value objects may only be used with
+** [sqlite3_result_value()] and [sqlite3_bind_value()].
+** The [sqlite3_value_blob | sqlite3_value_type()] family of
+** interfaces require protected sqlite3_value objects.
+typedef struct Mem sqlite3_value;
+** CAPI3REF: SQL Function Context Object
+** The context in which an SQL function executes is stored in an
+** sqlite3_context object. ^A pointer to an sqlite3_context object
+** is always first parameter to [application-defined SQL functions].
+** The application-defined SQL function implementation will pass this
+** pointer through into calls to [sqlite3_result_int | sqlite3_result()],
+** [sqlite3_aggregate_context()], [sqlite3_user_data()],
+** [sqlite3_context_db_handle()], [sqlite3_get_auxdata()],
+** and/or [sqlite3_set_auxdata()].
+typedef struct sqlite3_context sqlite3_context;
+** CAPI3REF: Binding Values To Prepared Statements
+** KEYWORDS: {host parameter} {host parameters} {host parameter name}
+** KEYWORDS: {SQL parameter} {SQL parameters} {parameter binding}
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^(In the SQL statement text input to [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and its variants,
+** literals may be replaced by a [parameter] that matches one of following
+** templates:
+** <ul>
+** <li> ?
+** <li> ?NNN
+** <li> :VVV
+** <li> @VVV
+** <li> $VVV
+** </ul>
+** In the templates above, NNN represents an integer literal,
+** and VVV represents an alphanumeric identifier.)^ ^The values of these
+** parameters (also called "host parameter names" or "SQL parameters")
+** can be set using the sqlite3_bind_*() routines defined here.
+** ^The first argument to the sqlite3_bind_*() routines is always
+** a pointer to the [sqlite3_stmt] object returned from
+** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or its variants.
+** ^The second argument is the index of the SQL parameter to be set.
+** ^The leftmost SQL parameter has an index of 1. ^When the same named
+** SQL parameter is used more than once, second and subsequent
+** occurrences have the same index as the first occurrence.
+** ^The index for named parameters can be looked up using the
+** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()] API if desired. ^The index
+** for "?NNN" parameters is the value of NNN.
+** ^The NNN value must be between 1 and the [sqlite3_limit()]
+** parameter [SQLITE_LIMIT_VARIABLE_NUMBER] (default value: 999).
+** ^The third argument is the value to bind to the parameter.
+** ^If the third parameter to sqlite3_bind_text() or sqlite3_bind_text16()
+** or sqlite3_bind_blob() is a NULL pointer then the fourth parameter
+** is ignored and the end result is the same as sqlite3_bind_null().
+** ^(In those routines that have a fourth argument, its value is the
+** number of bytes in the parameter. To be clear: the value is the
+** number of <u>bytes</u> in the value, not the number of characters.)^
+** ^If the fourth parameter to sqlite3_bind_text() or sqlite3_bind_text16()
+** is negative, then the length of the string is
+** the number of bytes up to the first zero terminator.
+** If the fourth parameter to sqlite3_bind_blob() is negative, then
+** the behavior is undefined.
+** If a non-negative fourth parameter is provided to sqlite3_bind_text()
+** or sqlite3_bind_text16() or sqlite3_bind_text64() then
+** that parameter must be the byte offset
+** where the NUL terminator would occur assuming the string were NUL
+** terminated. If any NUL characters occur at byte offsets less than
+** the value of the fourth parameter then the resulting string value will
+** contain embedded NULs. The result of expressions involving strings
+** with embedded NULs is undefined.
+** ^The fifth argument to the BLOB and string binding interfaces
+** is a destructor used to dispose of the BLOB or
+** string after SQLite has finished with it. ^The destructor is called
+** to dispose of the BLOB or string even if the call to bind API fails.
+** ^If the fifth argument is
+** the special value [SQLITE_STATIC], then SQLite assumes that the
+** information is in static, unmanaged space and does not need to be freed.
+** ^If the fifth argument has the value [SQLITE_TRANSIENT], then
+** SQLite makes its own private copy of the data immediately, before
+** the sqlite3_bind_*() routine returns.
+** ^The sixth argument to sqlite3_bind_text64() must be one of
+** to specify the encoding of the text in the third parameter. If
+** the sixth argument to sqlite3_bind_text64() is not one of the
+** allowed values shown above, or if the text encoding is different
+** from the encoding specified by the sixth parameter, then the behavior
+** is undefined.
+** ^The sqlite3_bind_zeroblob() routine binds a BLOB of length N that
+** is filled with zeroes. ^A zeroblob uses a fixed amount of memory
+** (just an integer to hold its size) while it is being processed.
+** Zeroblobs are intended to serve as placeholders for BLOBs whose
+** content is later written using
+** [sqlite3_blob_open | incremental BLOB I/O] routines.
+** ^A negative value for the zeroblob results in a zero-length BLOB.
+** ^If any of the sqlite3_bind_*() routines are called with a NULL pointer
+** for the [prepared statement] or with a prepared statement for which
+** [sqlite3_step()] has been called more recently than [sqlite3_reset()],
+** then the call will return [SQLITE_MISUSE]. If any sqlite3_bind_()
+** routine is passed a [prepared statement] that has been finalized, the
+** result is undefined and probably harmful.
+** ^Bindings are not cleared by the [sqlite3_reset()] routine.
+** ^Unbound parameters are interpreted as NULL.
+** ^The sqlite3_bind_* routines return [SQLITE_OK] on success or an
+** [error code] if anything goes wrong.
+** ^[SQLITE_TOOBIG] might be returned if the size of a string or BLOB
+** exceeds limits imposed by [sqlite3_limit]([SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH]) or
+** ^[SQLITE_RANGE] is returned if the parameter
+** index is out of range. ^[SQLITE_NOMEM] is returned if malloc() fails.
+** See also: [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()],
+** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name()], and [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_bind_blob(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const void*, int n, void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_bind_blob64(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const void*, sqlite3_uint64,
+ void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_bind_double(sqlite3_stmt*, int, double);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_bind_int(sqlite3_stmt*, int, int);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_bind_int64(sqlite3_stmt*, int, sqlite3_int64);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_bind_null(sqlite3_stmt*, int);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_bind_text(sqlite3_stmt*,int,const char*,int,void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_bind_text16(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const void*, int, void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_bind_text64(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const char*, sqlite3_uint64,
+ void(*)(void*), unsigned char encoding);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_bind_value(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_bind_zeroblob(sqlite3_stmt*, int, int n);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_bind_zeroblob64(sqlite3_stmt*, int, sqlite3_uint64);
+** CAPI3REF: Number Of SQL Parameters
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^This routine can be used to find the number of [SQL parameters]
+** in a [prepared statement]. SQL parameters are tokens of the
+** form "?", "?NNN", ":AAA", "$AAA", or "@AAA" that serve as
+** placeholders for values that are [sqlite3_bind_blob | bound]
+** to the parameters at a later time.
+** ^(This routine actually returns the index of the largest (rightmost)
+** parameter. For all forms except ?NNN, this will correspond to the
+** number of unique parameters. If parameters of the ?NNN form are used,
+** there may be gaps in the list.)^
+** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
+** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name()], and
+** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_bind_parameter_count(sqlite3_stmt*);
+** CAPI3REF: Name Of A Host Parameter
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^The sqlite3_bind_parameter_name(P,N) interface returns
+** the name of the N-th [SQL parameter] in the [prepared statement] P.
+** ^(SQL parameters of the form "?NNN" or ":AAA" or "@AAA" or "$AAA"
+** have a name which is the string "?NNN" or ":AAA" or "@AAA" or "$AAA"
+** respectively.
+** In other words, the initial ":" or "$" or "@" or "?"
+** is included as part of the name.)^
+** ^Parameters of the form "?" without a following integer have no name
+** and are referred to as "nameless" or "anonymous parameters".
+** ^The first host parameter has an index of 1, not 0.
+** ^If the value N is out of range or if the N-th parameter is
+** nameless, then NULL is returned. ^The returned string is
+** always in UTF-8 encoding even if the named parameter was
+** originally specified as UTF-16 in [sqlite3_prepare16()] or
+** [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].
+** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
+** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()], and
+** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
+SQLITE_API const char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_bind_parameter_name(sqlite3_stmt*, int);
+** CAPI3REF: Index Of A Parameter With A Given Name
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^Return the index of an SQL parameter given its name. ^The
+** index value returned is suitable for use as the second
+** parameter to [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()]. ^A zero
+** is returned if no matching parameter is found. ^The parameter
+** name must be given in UTF-8 even if the original statement
+** was prepared from UTF-16 text using [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].
+** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
+** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()], and
+** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name()].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_bind_parameter_index(sqlite3_stmt*, const char *zName);
+** CAPI3REF: Reset All Bindings On A Prepared Statement
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^Contrary to the intuition of many, [sqlite3_reset()] does not reset
+** the [sqlite3_bind_blob | bindings] on a [prepared statement].
+** ^Use this routine to reset all host parameters to NULL.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_clear_bindings(sqlite3_stmt*);
+** CAPI3REF: Number Of Columns In A Result Set
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^Return the number of columns in the result set returned by the
+** [prepared statement]. ^This routine returns 0 if pStmt is an SQL
+** statement that does not return data (for example an [UPDATE]).
+** See also: [sqlite3_data_count()]
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_count(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);
+** CAPI3REF: Column Names In A Result Set
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^These routines return the name assigned to a particular column
+** in the result set of a [SELECT] statement. ^The sqlite3_column_name()
+** interface returns a pointer to a zero-terminated UTF-8 string
+** and sqlite3_column_name16() returns a pointer to a zero-terminated
+** UTF-16 string. ^The first parameter is the [prepared statement]
+** that implements the [SELECT] statement. ^The second parameter is the
+** column number. ^The leftmost column is number 0.
+** ^The returned string pointer is valid until either the [prepared statement]
+** is destroyed by [sqlite3_finalize()] or until the statement is automatically
+** reprepared by the first call to [sqlite3_step()] for a particular run
+** or until the next call to
+** sqlite3_column_name() or sqlite3_column_name16() on the same column.
+** ^If sqlite3_malloc() fails during the processing of either routine
+** (for example during a conversion from UTF-8 to UTF-16) then a
+** NULL pointer is returned.
+** ^The name of a result column is the value of the "AS" clause for
+** that column, if there is an AS clause. If there is no AS clause
+** then the name of the column is unspecified and may change from
+** one release of SQLite to the next.
+SQLITE_API const char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_name(sqlite3_stmt*, int N);
+SQLITE_API const void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_name16(sqlite3_stmt*, int N);
+** CAPI3REF: Source Of Data In A Query Result
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^These routines provide a means to determine the database, table, and
+** table column that is the origin of a particular result column in
+** [SELECT] statement.
+** ^The name of the database or table or column can be returned as
+** either a UTF-8 or UTF-16 string. ^The _database_ routines return
+** the database name, the _table_ routines return the table name, and
+** the origin_ routines return the column name.
+** ^The returned string is valid until the [prepared statement] is destroyed
+** using [sqlite3_finalize()] or until the statement is automatically
+** reprepared by the first call to [sqlite3_step()] for a particular run
+** or until the same information is requested
+** again in a different encoding.
+** ^The names returned are the original un-aliased names of the
+** database, table, and column.
+** ^The first argument to these interfaces is a [prepared statement].
+** ^These functions return information about the Nth result column returned by
+** the statement, where N is the second function argument.
+** ^The left-most column is column 0 for these routines.
+** ^If the Nth column returned by the statement is an expression or
+** subquery and is not a column value, then all of these functions return
+** NULL. ^These routine might also return NULL if a memory allocation error
+** occurs. ^Otherwise, they return the name of the attached database, table,
+** or column that query result column was extracted from.
+** ^As with all other SQLite APIs, those whose names end with "16" return
+** UTF-16 encoded strings and the other functions return UTF-8.
+** ^These APIs are only available if the library was compiled with the
+** [SQLITE_ENABLE_COLUMN_METADATA] C-preprocessor symbol.
+** If two or more threads call one or more of these routines against the same
+** prepared statement and column at the same time then the results are
+** undefined.
+** If two or more threads call one or more
+** [sqlite3_column_database_name | column metadata interfaces]
+** for the same [prepared statement] and result column
+** at the same time then the results are undefined.
+SQLITE_API const char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_database_name(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
+SQLITE_API const void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_database_name16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
+SQLITE_API const char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_table_name(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
+SQLITE_API const void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_table_name16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
+SQLITE_API const char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_origin_name(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
+SQLITE_API const void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_origin_name16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
+** CAPI3REF: Declared Datatype Of A Query Result
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^(The first parameter is a [prepared statement].
+** If this statement is a [SELECT] statement and the Nth column of the
+** returned result set of that [SELECT] is a table column (not an
+** expression or subquery) then the declared type of the table
+** column is returned.)^ ^If the Nth column of the result set is an
+** expression or subquery, then a NULL pointer is returned.
+** ^The returned string is always UTF-8 encoded.
+** ^(For example, given the database schema:
+** and the following statement to be compiled:
+** SELECT c1 + 1, c1 FROM t1;
+** this routine would return the string "VARIANT" for the second result
+** column (i==1), and a NULL pointer for the first result column (i==0).)^
+** ^SQLite uses dynamic run-time typing. ^So just because a column
+** is declared to contain a particular type does not mean that the
+** data stored in that column is of the declared type. SQLite is
+** strongly typed, but the typing is dynamic not static. ^Type
+** is associated with individual values, not with the containers
+** used to hold those values.
+SQLITE_API const char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_decltype(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
+SQLITE_API const void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_decltype16(sqlite3_stmt*,int);
+** CAPI3REF: Evaluate An SQL Statement
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** After a [prepared statement] has been prepared using either
+** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()] or one of the legacy
+** interfaces [sqlite3_prepare()] or [sqlite3_prepare16()], this function
+** must be called one or more times to evaluate the statement.
+** The details of the behavior of the sqlite3_step() interface depend
+** on whether the statement was prepared using the newer "v2" interface
+** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()] or the older legacy
+** interface [sqlite3_prepare()] and [sqlite3_prepare16()]. The use of the
+** new "v2" interface is recommended for new applications but the legacy
+** interface will continue to be supported.
+** ^In the legacy interface, the return value will be either [SQLITE_BUSY],
+** ^With the "v2" interface, any of the other [result codes] or
+** [extended result codes] might be returned as well.
+** ^[SQLITE_BUSY] means that the database engine was unable to acquire the
+** database locks it needs to do its job. ^If the statement is a [COMMIT]
+** or occurs outside of an explicit transaction, then you can retry the
+** statement. If the statement is not a [COMMIT] and occurs within an
+** explicit transaction then you should rollback the transaction before
+** continuing.
+** ^[SQLITE_DONE] means that the statement has finished executing
+** successfully. sqlite3_step() should not be called again on this virtual
+** machine without first calling [sqlite3_reset()] to reset the virtual
+** machine back to its initial state.
+** ^If the SQL statement being executed returns any data, then [SQLITE_ROW]
+** is returned each time a new row of data is ready for processing by the
+** caller. The values may be accessed using the [column access functions].
+** sqlite3_step() is called again to retrieve the next row of data.
+** ^[SQLITE_ERROR] means that a run-time error (such as a constraint
+** violation) has occurred. sqlite3_step() should not be called again on
+** the VM. More information may be found by calling [sqlite3_errmsg()].
+** ^With the legacy interface, a more specific error code (for example,
+** can be obtained by calling [sqlite3_reset()] on the
+** [prepared statement]. ^In the "v2" interface,
+** the more specific error code is returned directly by sqlite3_step().
+** [SQLITE_MISUSE] means that the this routine was called inappropriately.
+** Perhaps it was called on a [prepared statement] that has
+** already been [sqlite3_finalize | finalized] or on one that had
+** previously returned [SQLITE_ERROR] or [SQLITE_DONE]. Or it could
+** be the case that the same database connection is being used by two or
+** more threads at the same moment in time.
+** For all versions of SQLite up to and including, a call to
+** [sqlite3_reset()] was required after sqlite3_step() returned anything
+** other than [SQLITE_ROW] before any subsequent invocation of
+** sqlite3_step(). Failure to reset the prepared statement using
+** [sqlite3_reset()] would result in an [SQLITE_MISUSE] return from
+** sqlite3_step(). But after version, sqlite3_step() began
+** calling [sqlite3_reset()] automatically in this circumstance rather
+** than returning [SQLITE_MISUSE]. This is not considered a compatibility
+** break because any application that ever receives an SQLITE_MISUSE error
+** is broken by definition. The [SQLITE_OMIT_AUTORESET] compile-time option
+** can be used to restore the legacy behavior.
+** <b>Goofy Interface Alert:</b> In the legacy interface, the sqlite3_step()
+** API always returns a generic error code, [SQLITE_ERROR], following any
+** error other than [SQLITE_BUSY] and [SQLITE_MISUSE]. You must call
+** [sqlite3_reset()] or [sqlite3_finalize()] in order to find one of the
+** specific [error codes] that better describes the error.
+** We admit that this is a goofy design. The problem has been fixed
+** with the "v2" interface. If you prepare all of your SQL statements
+** using either [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()] instead
+** of the legacy [sqlite3_prepare()] and [sqlite3_prepare16()] interfaces,
+** then the more specific [error codes] are returned directly
+** by sqlite3_step(). The use of the "v2" interface is recommended.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_step(sqlite3_stmt*);
+** CAPI3REF: Number of columns in a result set
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^The sqlite3_data_count(P) interface returns the number of columns in the
+** current row of the result set of [prepared statement] P.
+** ^If prepared statement P does not have results ready to return
+** (via calls to the [sqlite3_column_int | sqlite3_column_*()] of
+** interfaces) then sqlite3_data_count(P) returns 0.
+** ^The sqlite3_data_count(P) routine also returns 0 if P is a NULL pointer.
+** ^The sqlite3_data_count(P) routine returns 0 if the previous call to
+** [sqlite3_step](P) returned [SQLITE_DONE]. ^The sqlite3_data_count(P)
+** will return non-zero if previous call to [sqlite3_step](P) returned
+** [SQLITE_ROW], except in the case of the [PRAGMA incremental_vacuum]
+** where it always returns zero since each step of that multi-step
+** pragma returns 0 columns of data.
+** See also: [sqlite3_column_count()]
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_data_count(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);
+** CAPI3REF: Fundamental Datatypes
+** ^(Every value in SQLite has one of five fundamental datatypes:
+** <ul>
+** <li> 64-bit signed integer
+** <li> 64-bit IEEE floating point number
+** <li> string
+** <li> BLOB
+** <li> NULL
+** </ul>)^
+** These constants are codes for each of those types.
+** Note that the SQLITE_TEXT constant was also used in SQLite version 2
+** for a completely different meaning. Software that links against both
+** SQLite version 2 and SQLite version 3 should use SQLITE3_TEXT, not
+#define SQLITE_FLOAT 2
+#define SQLITE_BLOB 4
+#define SQLITE_NULL 5
+# undef SQLITE_TEXT
+# define SQLITE_TEXT 3
+#define SQLITE3_TEXT 3
+** CAPI3REF: Result Values From A Query
+** KEYWORDS: {column access functions}
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^These routines return information about a single column of the current
+** result row of a query. ^In every case the first argument is a pointer
+** to the [prepared statement] that is being evaluated (the [sqlite3_stmt*]
+** that was returned from [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or one of its variants)
+** and the second argument is the index of the column for which information
+** should be returned. ^The leftmost column of the result set has the index 0.
+** ^The number of columns in the result can be determined using
+** [sqlite3_column_count()].
+** If the SQL statement does not currently point to a valid row, or if the
+** column index is out of range, the result is undefined.
+** These routines may only be called when the most recent call to
+** [sqlite3_step()] has returned [SQLITE_ROW] and neither
+** [sqlite3_reset()] nor [sqlite3_finalize()] have been called subsequently.
+** If any of these routines are called after [sqlite3_reset()] or
+** [sqlite3_finalize()] or after [sqlite3_step()] has returned
+** something other than [SQLITE_ROW], the results are undefined.
+** If [sqlite3_step()] or [sqlite3_reset()] or [sqlite3_finalize()]
+** are called from a different thread while any of these routines
+** are pending, then the results are undefined.
+** ^The sqlite3_column_type() routine returns the
+** [SQLITE_INTEGER | datatype code] for the initial data type
+** of the result column. ^The returned value is one of [SQLITE_INTEGER],
+** returned by sqlite3_column_type() is only meaningful if no type
+** conversions have occurred as described below. After a type conversion,
+** the value returned by sqlite3_column_type() is undefined. Future
+** versions of SQLite may change the behavior of sqlite3_column_type()
+** following a type conversion.
+** ^If the result is a BLOB or UTF-8 string then the sqlite3_column_bytes()
+** routine returns the number of bytes in that BLOB or string.
+** ^If the result is a UTF-16 string, then sqlite3_column_bytes() converts
+** the string to UTF-8 and then returns the number of bytes.
+** ^If the result is a numeric value then sqlite3_column_bytes() uses
+** [sqlite3_snprintf()] to convert that value to a UTF-8 string and returns
+** the number of bytes in that string.
+** ^If the result is NULL, then sqlite3_column_bytes() returns zero.
+** ^If the result is a BLOB or UTF-16 string then the sqlite3_column_bytes16()
+** routine returns the number of bytes in that BLOB or string.
+** ^If the result is a UTF-8 string, then sqlite3_column_bytes16() converts
+** the string to UTF-16 and then returns the number of bytes.
+** ^If the result is a numeric value then sqlite3_column_bytes16() uses
+** [sqlite3_snprintf()] to convert that value to a UTF-16 string and returns
+** the number of bytes in that string.
+** ^If the result is NULL, then sqlite3_column_bytes16() returns zero.
+** ^The values returned by [sqlite3_column_bytes()] and
+** [sqlite3_column_bytes16()] do not include the zero terminators at the end
+** of the string. ^For clarity: the values returned by
+** [sqlite3_column_bytes()] and [sqlite3_column_bytes16()] are the number of
+** bytes in the string, not the number of characters.
+** ^Strings returned by sqlite3_column_text() and sqlite3_column_text16(),
+** even empty strings, are always zero-terminated. ^The return
+** value from sqlite3_column_blob() for a zero-length BLOB is a NULL pointer.
+** <b>Warning:</b> ^The object returned by [sqlite3_column_value()] is an
+** [unprotected sqlite3_value] object. In a multithreaded environment,
+** an unprotected sqlite3_value object may only be used safely with
+** [sqlite3_bind_value()] and [sqlite3_result_value()].
+** If the [unprotected sqlite3_value] object returned by
+** [sqlite3_column_value()] is used in any other way, including calls
+** to routines like [sqlite3_value_int()], [sqlite3_value_text()],
+** or [sqlite3_value_bytes()], the behavior is not threadsafe.
+** These routines attempt to convert the value where appropriate. ^For
+** example, if the internal representation is FLOAT and a text result
+** is requested, [sqlite3_snprintf()] is used internally to perform the
+** conversion automatically. ^(The following table details the conversions
+** that are applied:
+** <blockquote>
+** <table border="1">
+** <tr><th> Internal<br>Type <th> Requested<br>Type <th> Conversion
+** <tr><td> NULL <td> INTEGER <td> Result is 0
+** <tr><td> NULL <td> FLOAT <td> Result is 0.0
+** <tr><td> NULL <td> TEXT <td> Result is a NULL pointer
+** <tr><td> NULL <td> BLOB <td> Result is a NULL pointer
+** <tr><td> INTEGER <td> FLOAT <td> Convert from integer to float
+** <tr><td> INTEGER <td> TEXT <td> ASCII rendering of the integer
+** <tr><td> INTEGER <td> BLOB <td> Same as INTEGER->TEXT
+** <tr><td> FLOAT <td> INTEGER <td> [CAST] to INTEGER
+** <tr><td> FLOAT <td> TEXT <td> ASCII rendering of the float
+** <tr><td> FLOAT <td> BLOB <td> [CAST] to BLOB
+** <tr><td> TEXT <td> INTEGER <td> [CAST] to INTEGER
+** <tr><td> TEXT <td> FLOAT <td> [CAST] to REAL
+** <tr><td> TEXT <td> BLOB <td> No change
+** <tr><td> BLOB <td> INTEGER <td> [CAST] to INTEGER
+** <tr><td> BLOB <td> FLOAT <td> [CAST] to REAL
+** <tr><td> BLOB <td> TEXT <td> Add a zero terminator if needed
+** </table>
+** </blockquote>)^
+** Note that when type conversions occur, pointers returned by prior
+** calls to sqlite3_column_blob(), sqlite3_column_text(), and/or
+** sqlite3_column_text16() may be invalidated.
+** Type conversions and pointer invalidations might occur
+** in the following cases:
+** <ul>
+** <li> The initial content is a BLOB and sqlite3_column_text() or
+** sqlite3_column_text16() is called. A zero-terminator might
+** need to be added to the string.</li>
+** <li> The initial content is UTF-8 text and sqlite3_column_bytes16() or
+** sqlite3_column_text16() is called. The content must be converted
+** to UTF-16.</li>
+** <li> The initial content is UTF-16 text and sqlite3_column_bytes() or
+** sqlite3_column_text() is called. The content must be converted
+** to UTF-8.</li>
+** </ul>
+** ^Conversions between UTF-16be and UTF-16le are always done in place and do
+** not invalidate a prior pointer, though of course the content of the buffer
+** that the prior pointer references will have been modified. Other kinds
+** of conversion are done in place when it is possible, but sometimes they
+** are not possible and in those cases prior pointers are invalidated.
+** The safest policy is to invoke these routines
+** in one of the following ways:
+** <ul>
+** <li>sqlite3_column_text() followed by sqlite3_column_bytes()</li>
+** <li>sqlite3_column_blob() followed by sqlite3_column_bytes()</li>
+** <li>sqlite3_column_text16() followed by sqlite3_column_bytes16()</li>
+** </ul>
+** In other words, you should call sqlite3_column_text(),
+** sqlite3_column_blob(), or sqlite3_column_text16() first to force the result
+** into the desired format, then invoke sqlite3_column_bytes() or
+** sqlite3_column_bytes16() to find the size of the result. Do not mix calls
+** to sqlite3_column_text() or sqlite3_column_blob() with calls to
+** sqlite3_column_bytes16(), and do not mix calls to sqlite3_column_text16()
+** with calls to sqlite3_column_bytes().
+** ^The pointers returned are valid until a type conversion occurs as
+** described above, or until [sqlite3_step()] or [sqlite3_reset()] or
+** [sqlite3_finalize()] is called. ^The memory space used to hold strings
+** and BLOBs is freed automatically. Do <em>not</em> pass the pointers returned
+** from [sqlite3_column_blob()], [sqlite3_column_text()], etc. into
+** [sqlite3_free()].
+** ^(If a memory allocation error occurs during the evaluation of any
+** of these routines, a default value is returned. The default value
+** is either the integer 0, the floating point number 0.0, or a NULL
+** pointer. Subsequent calls to [sqlite3_errcode()] will return
+SQLITE_API const void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_blob(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_bytes(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_bytes16(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API double SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_double(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_int(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_int64(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API const unsigned char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_text(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API const void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_text16(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_type(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_value *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_column_value(sqlite3_stmt*, int iCol);
+** CAPI3REF: Destroy A Prepared Statement Object
+** DESTRUCTOR: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^The sqlite3_finalize() function is called to delete a [prepared statement].
+** ^If the most recent evaluation of the statement encountered no errors
+** or if the statement is never been evaluated, then sqlite3_finalize() returns
+** SQLITE_OK. ^If the most recent evaluation of statement S failed, then
+** sqlite3_finalize(S) returns the appropriate [error code] or
+** [extended error code].
+** ^The sqlite3_finalize(S) routine can be called at any point during
+** the life cycle of [prepared statement] S:
+** before statement S is ever evaluated, after
+** one or more calls to [sqlite3_reset()], or after any call
+** to [sqlite3_step()] regardless of whether or not the statement has
+** completed execution.
+** ^Invoking sqlite3_finalize() on a NULL pointer is a harmless no-op.
+** The application must finalize every [prepared statement] in order to avoid
+** resource leaks. It is a grievous error for the application to try to use
+** a prepared statement after it has been finalized. Any use of a prepared
+** statement after it has been finalized can result in undefined and
+** undesirable behavior such as segfaults and heap corruption.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_finalize(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);
+** CAPI3REF: Reset A Prepared Statement Object
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** The sqlite3_reset() function is called to reset a [prepared statement]
+** object back to its initial state, ready to be re-executed.
+** ^Any SQL statement variables that had values bound to them using
+** the [sqlite3_bind_blob | sqlite3_bind_*() API] retain their values.
+** Use [sqlite3_clear_bindings()] to reset the bindings.
+** ^The [sqlite3_reset(S)] interface resets the [prepared statement] S
+** back to the beginning of its program.
+** ^If the most recent call to [sqlite3_step(S)] for the
+** [prepared statement] S returned [SQLITE_ROW] or [SQLITE_DONE],
+** or if [sqlite3_step(S)] has never before been called on S,
+** then [sqlite3_reset(S)] returns [SQLITE_OK].
+** ^If the most recent call to [sqlite3_step(S)] for the
+** [prepared statement] S indicated an error, then
+** [sqlite3_reset(S)] returns an appropriate [error code].
+** ^The [sqlite3_reset(S)] interface does not change the values
+** of any [sqlite3_bind_blob|bindings] on the [prepared statement] S.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_reset(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);
+** CAPI3REF: Create Or Redefine SQL Functions
+** KEYWORDS: {function creation routines}
+** KEYWORDS: {application-defined SQL function}
+** KEYWORDS: {application-defined SQL functions}
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^These functions (collectively known as "function creation routines")
+** are used to add SQL functions or aggregates or to redefine the behavior
+** of existing SQL functions or aggregates. The only differences between
+** these routines are the text encoding expected for
+** the second parameter (the name of the function being created)
+** and the presence or absence of a destructor callback for
+** the application data pointer.
+** ^The first parameter is the [database connection] to which the SQL
+** function is to be added. ^If an application uses more than one database
+** connection then application-defined SQL functions must be added
+** to each database connection separately.
+** ^The second parameter is the name of the SQL function to be created or
+** redefined. ^The length of the name is limited to 255 bytes in a UTF-8
+** representation, exclusive of the zero-terminator. ^Note that the name
+** length limit is in UTF-8 bytes, not characters nor UTF-16 bytes.
+** ^Any attempt to create a function with a longer name
+** will result in [SQLITE_MISUSE] being returned.
+** ^The third parameter (nArg)
+** is the number of arguments that the SQL function or
+** aggregate takes. ^If this parameter is -1, then the SQL function or
+** aggregate may take any number of arguments between 0 and the limit
+** set by [sqlite3_limit]([SQLITE_LIMIT_FUNCTION_ARG]). If the third
+** parameter is less than -1 or greater than 127 then the behavior is
+** undefined.
+** ^The fourth parameter, eTextRep, specifies what
+** [SQLITE_UTF8 | text encoding] this SQL function prefers for
+** its parameters. The application should set this parameter to
+** [SQLITE_UTF16LE] if the function implementation invokes
+** [sqlite3_value_text16le()] on an input, or [SQLITE_UTF16BE] if the
+** implementation invokes [sqlite3_value_text16be()] on an input, or
+** [SQLITE_UTF16] if [sqlite3_value_text16()] is used, or [SQLITE_UTF8]
+** otherwise. ^The same SQL function may be registered multiple times using
+** different preferred text encodings, with different implementations for
+** each encoding.
+** ^When multiple implementations of the same function are available, SQLite
+** will pick the one that involves the least amount of data conversion.
+** ^The fourth parameter may optionally be ORed with [SQLITE_DETERMINISTIC]
+** to signal that the function will always return the same result given
+** the same inputs within a single SQL statement. Most SQL functions are
+** deterministic. The built-in [random()] SQL function is an example of a
+** function that is not deterministic. The SQLite query planner is able to
+** perform additional optimizations on deterministic functions, so use
+** of the [SQLITE_DETERMINISTIC] flag is recommended where possible.
+** ^(The fifth parameter is an arbitrary pointer. The implementation of the
+** function can gain access to this pointer using [sqlite3_user_data()].)^
+** ^The sixth, seventh and eighth parameters, xFunc, xStep and xFinal, are
+** pointers to C-language functions that implement the SQL function or
+** aggregate. ^A scalar SQL function requires an implementation of the xFunc
+** callback only; NULL pointers must be passed as the xStep and xFinal
+** parameters. ^An aggregate SQL function requires an implementation of xStep
+** and xFinal and NULL pointer must be passed for xFunc. ^To delete an existing
+** SQL function or aggregate, pass NULL pointers for all three function
+** callbacks.
+** ^(If the ninth parameter to sqlite3_create_function_v2() is not NULL,
+** then it is destructor for the application data pointer.
+** The destructor is invoked when the function is deleted, either by being
+** overloaded or when the database connection closes.)^
+** ^The destructor is also invoked if the call to
+** sqlite3_create_function_v2() fails.
+** ^When the destructor callback of the tenth parameter is invoked, it
+** is passed a single argument which is a copy of the application data
+** pointer which was the fifth parameter to sqlite3_create_function_v2().
+** ^It is permitted to register multiple implementations of the same
+** functions with the same name but with either differing numbers of
+** arguments or differing preferred text encodings. ^SQLite will use
+** the implementation that most closely matches the way in which the
+** SQL function is used. ^A function implementation with a non-negative
+** nArg parameter is a better match than a function implementation with
+** a negative nArg. ^A function where the preferred text encoding
+** matches the database encoding is a better
+** match than a function where the encoding is different.
+** ^A function where the encoding difference is between UTF16le and UTF16be
+** is a closer match than a function where the encoding difference is
+** between UTF8 and UTF16.
+** ^Built-in functions may be overloaded by new application-defined functions.
+** ^An application-defined function is permitted to call other
+** SQLite interfaces. However, such calls must not
+** close the database connection nor finalize or reset the prepared
+** statement in which the function is running.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_create_function(
+ sqlite3 *db,
+ const char *zFunctionName,
+ int nArg,
+ int eTextRep,
+ void *pApp,
+ void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
+ void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
+ void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*)
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_create_function16(
+ sqlite3 *db,
+ const void *zFunctionName,
+ int nArg,
+ int eTextRep,
+ void *pApp,
+ void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
+ void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
+ void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*)
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_create_function_v2(
+ sqlite3 *db,
+ const char *zFunctionName,
+ int nArg,
+ int eTextRep,
+ void *pApp,
+ void (*xFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
+ void (*xStep)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
+ void (*xFinal)(sqlite3_context*),
+ void(*xDestroy)(void*)
+** CAPI3REF: Text Encodings
+** These constant define integer codes that represent the various
+** text encodings supported by SQLite.
+#define SQLITE_UTF8 1 /* IMP: R-37514-35566 */
+#define SQLITE_UTF16LE 2 /* IMP: R-03371-37637 */
+#define SQLITE_UTF16BE 3 /* IMP: R-51971-34154 */
+#define SQLITE_UTF16 4 /* Use native byte order */
+#define SQLITE_ANY 5 /* Deprecated */
+#define SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED 8 /* sqlite3_create_collation only */
+** CAPI3REF: Function Flags
+** These constants may be ORed together with the
+** [SQLITE_UTF8 | preferred text encoding] as the fourth argument
+** to [sqlite3_create_function()], [sqlite3_create_function16()], or
+** [sqlite3_create_function_v2()].
+** CAPI3REF: Deprecated Functions
+** These functions are [deprecated]. In order to maintain
+** backwards compatibility with older code, these functions continue
+** to be supported. However, new applications should avoid
+** the use of these functions. To encourage programmers to avoid
+** these functions, we will not explain what they do.
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_aggregate_count(sqlite3_context*);
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_expired(sqlite3_stmt*);
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_transfer_bindings(sqlite3_stmt*, sqlite3_stmt*);
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_global_recover(void);
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_thread_cleanup(void);
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_memory_alarm(void(*)(void*,sqlite3_int64,int),
+ void*,sqlite3_int64);
+** CAPI3REF: Obtaining SQL Values
+** METHOD: sqlite3_value
+** The C-language implementation of SQL functions and aggregates uses
+** this set of interface routines to access the parameter values on
+** the function or aggregate.
+** The xFunc (for scalar functions) or xStep (for aggregates) parameters
+** to [sqlite3_create_function()] and [sqlite3_create_function16()]
+** define callbacks that implement the SQL functions and aggregates.
+** The 3rd parameter to these callbacks is an array of pointers to
+** [protected sqlite3_value] objects. There is one [sqlite3_value] object for
+** each parameter to the SQL function. These routines are used to
+** extract values from the [sqlite3_value] objects.
+** These routines work only with [protected sqlite3_value] objects.
+** Any attempt to use these routines on an [unprotected sqlite3_value]
+** object results in undefined behavior.
+** ^These routines work just like the corresponding [column access functions]
+** except that these routines take a single [protected sqlite3_value] object
+** pointer instead of a [sqlite3_stmt*] pointer and an integer column number.
+** ^The sqlite3_value_text16() interface extracts a UTF-16 string
+** in the native byte-order of the host machine. ^The
+** sqlite3_value_text16be() and sqlite3_value_text16le() interfaces
+** extract UTF-16 strings as big-endian and little-endian respectively.
+** ^(The sqlite3_value_numeric_type() interface attempts to apply
+** numeric affinity to the value. This means that an attempt is
+** made to convert the value to an integer or floating point. If
+** such a conversion is possible without loss of information (in other
+** words, if the value is a string that looks like a number)
+** then the conversion is performed. Otherwise no conversion occurs.
+** The [SQLITE_INTEGER | datatype] after conversion is returned.)^
+** Please pay particular attention to the fact that the pointer returned
+** from [sqlite3_value_blob()], [sqlite3_value_text()], or
+** [sqlite3_value_text16()] can be invalidated by a subsequent call to
+** [sqlite3_value_bytes()], [sqlite3_value_bytes16()], [sqlite3_value_text()],
+** or [sqlite3_value_text16()].
+** These routines must be called from the same thread as
+** the SQL function that supplied the [sqlite3_value*] parameters.
+SQLITE_API const void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_value_blob(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_value_bytes(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_value_bytes16(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API double SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_value_double(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_value_int(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_value_int64(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API const unsigned char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_value_text(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API const void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_value_text16(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API const void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_value_text16le(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API const void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_value_text16be(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_value_type(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_value_numeric_type(sqlite3_value*);
+** CAPI3REF: Finding The Subtype Of SQL Values
+** METHOD: sqlite3_value
+** The sqlite3_value_subtype(V) function returns the subtype for
+** an [application-defined SQL function] argument V. The subtype
+** information can be used to pass a limited amount of context from
+** one SQL function to another. Use the [sqlite3_result_subtype()]
+** routine to set the subtype for the return value of an SQL function.
+** SQLite makes no use of subtype itself. It merely passes the subtype
+** from the result of one [application-defined SQL function] into the
+** input of another.
+SQLITE_API unsigned int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_value_subtype(sqlite3_value*);
+** CAPI3REF: Copy And Free SQL Values
+** METHOD: sqlite3_value
+** ^The sqlite3_value_dup(V) interface makes a copy of the [sqlite3_value]
+** object D and returns a pointer to that copy. ^The [sqlite3_value] returned
+** is a [protected sqlite3_value] object even if the input is not.
+** ^The sqlite3_value_dup(V) interface returns NULL if V is NULL or if a
+** memory allocation fails.
+** ^The sqlite3_value_free(V) interface frees an [sqlite3_value] object
+** previously obtained from [sqlite3_value_dup()]. ^If V is a NULL pointer
+** then sqlite3_value_free(V) is a harmless no-op.
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_value *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_value_dup(const sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_value_free(sqlite3_value*);
+** CAPI3REF: Obtain Aggregate Function Context
+** METHOD: sqlite3_context
+** Implementations of aggregate SQL functions use this
+** routine to allocate memory for storing their state.
+** ^The first time the sqlite3_aggregate_context(C,N) routine is called
+** for a particular aggregate function, SQLite
+** allocates N of memory, zeroes out that memory, and returns a pointer
+** to the new memory. ^On second and subsequent calls to
+** sqlite3_aggregate_context() for the same aggregate function instance,
+** the same buffer is returned. Sqlite3_aggregate_context() is normally
+** called once for each invocation of the xStep callback and then one
+** last time when the xFinal callback is invoked. ^(When no rows match
+** an aggregate query, the xStep() callback of the aggregate function
+** implementation is never called and xFinal() is called exactly once.
+** In those cases, sqlite3_aggregate_context() might be called for the
+** first time from within xFinal().)^
+** ^The sqlite3_aggregate_context(C,N) routine returns a NULL pointer
+** when first called if N is less than or equal to zero or if a memory
+** allocate error occurs.
+** ^(The amount of space allocated by sqlite3_aggregate_context(C,N) is
+** determined by the N parameter on first successful call. Changing the
+** value of N in subsequent call to sqlite3_aggregate_context() within
+** the same aggregate function instance will not resize the memory
+** allocation.)^ Within the xFinal callback, it is customary to set
+** N=0 in calls to sqlite3_aggregate_context(C,N) so that no
+** pointless memory allocations occur.
+** ^SQLite automatically frees the memory allocated by
+** sqlite3_aggregate_context() when the aggregate query concludes.
+** The first parameter must be a copy of the
+** [sqlite3_context | SQL function context] that is the first parameter
+** to the xStep or xFinal callback routine that implements the aggregate
+** function.
+** This routine must be called from the same thread in which
+** the aggregate SQL function is running.
+SQLITE_API void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_aggregate_context(sqlite3_context*, int nBytes);
+** CAPI3REF: User Data For Functions
+** METHOD: sqlite3_context
+** ^The sqlite3_user_data() interface returns a copy of
+** the pointer that was the pUserData parameter (the 5th parameter)
+** of the [sqlite3_create_function()]
+** and [sqlite3_create_function16()] routines that originally
+** registered the application defined function.
+** This routine must be called from the same thread in which
+** the application-defined function is running.
+SQLITE_API void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_user_data(sqlite3_context*);
+** CAPI3REF: Database Connection For Functions
+** METHOD: sqlite3_context
+** ^The sqlite3_context_db_handle() interface returns a copy of
+** the pointer to the [database connection] (the 1st parameter)
+** of the [sqlite3_create_function()]
+** and [sqlite3_create_function16()] routines that originally
+** registered the application defined function.
+SQLITE_API sqlite3 *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_context_db_handle(sqlite3_context*);
+** CAPI3REF: Function Auxiliary Data
+** METHOD: sqlite3_context
+** These functions may be used by (non-aggregate) SQL functions to
+** associate metadata with argument values. If the same value is passed to
+** multiple invocations of the same SQL function during query execution, under
+** some circumstances the associated metadata may be preserved. An example
+** of where this might be useful is in a regular-expression matching
+** function. The compiled version of the regular expression can be stored as
+** metadata associated with the pattern string.
+** Then as long as the pattern string remains the same,
+** the compiled regular expression can be reused on multiple
+** invocations of the same function.
+** ^The sqlite3_get_auxdata() interface returns a pointer to the metadata
+** associated by the sqlite3_set_auxdata() function with the Nth argument
+** value to the application-defined function. ^If there is no metadata
+** associated with the function argument, this sqlite3_get_auxdata() interface
+** returns a NULL pointer.
+** ^The sqlite3_set_auxdata(C,N,P,X) interface saves P as metadata for the N-th
+** argument of the application-defined function. ^Subsequent
+** calls to sqlite3_get_auxdata(C,N) return P from the most recent
+** sqlite3_set_auxdata(C,N,P,X) call if the metadata is still valid or
+** NULL if the metadata has been discarded.
+** ^After each call to sqlite3_set_auxdata(C,N,P,X) where X is not NULL,
+** SQLite will invoke the destructor function X with parameter P exactly
+** once, when the metadata is discarded.
+** SQLite is free to discard the metadata at any time, including: <ul>
+** <li> when the corresponding function parameter changes, or
+** <li> when [sqlite3_reset()] or [sqlite3_finalize()] is called for the
+** SQL statement, or
+** <li> when sqlite3_set_auxdata() is invoked again on the same parameter, or
+** <li> during the original sqlite3_set_auxdata() call when a memory
+** allocation error occurs. </ul>)^
+** Note the last bullet in particular. The destructor X in
+** sqlite3_set_auxdata(C,N,P,X) might be called immediately, before the
+** sqlite3_set_auxdata() interface even returns. Hence sqlite3_set_auxdata()
+** should be called near the end of the function implementation and the
+** function implementation should not make any use of P after
+** sqlite3_set_auxdata() has been called.
+** ^(In practice, metadata is preserved between function calls for
+** function parameters that are compile-time constants, including literal
+** values and [parameters] and expressions composed from the same.)^
+** These routines must be called from the same thread in which
+** the SQL function is running.
+SQLITE_API void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_get_auxdata(sqlite3_context*, int N);
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_set_auxdata(sqlite3_context*, int N, void*, void (*)(void*));
+** CAPI3REF: Constants Defining Special Destructor Behavior
+** These are special values for the destructor that is passed in as the
+** final argument to routines like [sqlite3_result_blob()]. ^If the destructor
+** argument is SQLITE_STATIC, it means that the content pointer is constant
+** and will never change. It does not need to be destroyed. ^The
+** SQLITE_TRANSIENT value means that the content will likely change in
+** the near future and that SQLite should make its own private copy of
+** the content before returning.
+** The typedef is necessary to work around problems in certain
+** C++ compilers.
+typedef void (*sqlite3_destructor_type)(void*);
+#define SQLITE_STATIC ((sqlite3_destructor_type)0)
+#define SQLITE_TRANSIENT ((sqlite3_destructor_type)-1)
+** CAPI3REF: Setting The Result Of An SQL Function
+** METHOD: sqlite3_context
+** These routines are used by the xFunc or xFinal callbacks that
+** implement SQL functions and aggregates. See
+** [sqlite3_create_function()] and [sqlite3_create_function16()]
+** for additional information.
+** These functions work very much like the [parameter binding] family of
+** functions used to bind values to host parameters in prepared statements.
+** Refer to the [SQL parameter] documentation for additional information.
+** ^The sqlite3_result_blob() interface sets the result from
+** an application-defined function to be the BLOB whose content is pointed
+** to by the second parameter and which is N bytes long where N is the
+** third parameter.
+** ^The sqlite3_result_zeroblob(C,N) and sqlite3_result_zeroblob64(C,N)
+** interfaces set the result of the application-defined function to be
+** a BLOB containing all zero bytes and N bytes in size.
+** ^The sqlite3_result_double() interface sets the result from
+** an application-defined function to be a floating point value specified
+** by its 2nd argument.
+** ^The sqlite3_result_error() and sqlite3_result_error16() functions
+** cause the implemented SQL function to throw an exception.
+** ^SQLite uses the string pointed to by the
+** 2nd parameter of sqlite3_result_error() or sqlite3_result_error16()
+** as the text of an error message. ^SQLite interprets the error
+** message string from sqlite3_result_error() as UTF-8. ^SQLite
+** interprets the string from sqlite3_result_error16() as UTF-16 in native
+** byte order. ^If the third parameter to sqlite3_result_error()
+** or sqlite3_result_error16() is negative then SQLite takes as the error
+** message all text up through the first zero character.
+** ^If the third parameter to sqlite3_result_error() or
+** sqlite3_result_error16() is non-negative then SQLite takes that many
+** bytes (not characters) from the 2nd parameter as the error message.
+** ^The sqlite3_result_error() and sqlite3_result_error16()
+** routines make a private copy of the error message text before
+** they return. Hence, the calling function can deallocate or
+** modify the text after they return without harm.
+** ^The sqlite3_result_error_code() function changes the error code
+** returned by SQLite as a result of an error in a function. ^By default,
+** the error code is SQLITE_ERROR. ^A subsequent call to sqlite3_result_error()
+** or sqlite3_result_error16() resets the error code to SQLITE_ERROR.
+** ^The sqlite3_result_error_toobig() interface causes SQLite to throw an
+** error indicating that a string or BLOB is too long to represent.
+** ^The sqlite3_result_error_nomem() interface causes SQLite to throw an
+** error indicating that a memory allocation failed.
+** ^The sqlite3_result_int() interface sets the return value
+** of the application-defined function to be the 32-bit signed integer
+** value given in the 2nd argument.
+** ^The sqlite3_result_int64() interface sets the return value
+** of the application-defined function to be the 64-bit signed integer
+** value given in the 2nd argument.
+** ^The sqlite3_result_null() interface sets the return value
+** of the application-defined function to be NULL.
+** ^The sqlite3_result_text(), sqlite3_result_text16(),
+** sqlite3_result_text16le(), and sqlite3_result_text16be() interfaces
+** set the return value of the application-defined function to be
+** a text string which is represented as UTF-8, UTF-16 native byte order,
+** UTF-16 little endian, or UTF-16 big endian, respectively.
+** ^The sqlite3_result_text64() interface sets the return value of an
+** application-defined function to be a text string in an encoding
+** specified by the fifth (and last) parameter, which must be one
+** ^SQLite takes the text result from the application from
+** the 2nd parameter of the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces.
+** ^If the 3rd parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
+** is negative, then SQLite takes result text from the 2nd parameter
+** through the first zero character.
+** ^If the 3rd parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
+** is non-negative, then as many bytes (not characters) of the text
+** pointed to by the 2nd parameter are taken as the application-defined
+** function result. If the 3rd parameter is non-negative, then it
+** must be the byte offset into the string where the NUL terminator would
+** appear if the string where NUL terminated. If any NUL characters occur
+** in the string at a byte offset that is less than the value of the 3rd
+** parameter, then the resulting string will contain embedded NULs and the
+** result of expressions operating on strings with embedded NULs is undefined.
+** ^If the 4th parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
+** or sqlite3_result_blob is a non-NULL pointer, then SQLite calls that
+** function as the destructor on the text or BLOB result when it has
+** finished using that result.
+** ^If the 4th parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces or to
+** sqlite3_result_blob is the special constant SQLITE_STATIC, then SQLite
+** assumes that the text or BLOB result is in constant space and does not
+** copy the content of the parameter nor call a destructor on the content
+** when it has finished using that result.
+** ^If the 4th parameter to the sqlite3_result_text* interfaces
+** or sqlite3_result_blob is the special constant SQLITE_TRANSIENT
+** then SQLite makes a copy of the result into space obtained from
+** from [sqlite3_malloc()] before it returns.
+** ^The sqlite3_result_value() interface sets the result of
+** the application-defined function to be a copy of the
+** [unprotected sqlite3_value] object specified by the 2nd parameter. ^The
+** sqlite3_result_value() interface makes a copy of the [sqlite3_value]
+** so that the [sqlite3_value] specified in the parameter may change or
+** be deallocated after sqlite3_result_value() returns without harm.
+** ^A [protected sqlite3_value] object may always be used where an
+** [unprotected sqlite3_value] object is required, so either
+** kind of [sqlite3_value] object can be used with this interface.
+** If these routines are called from within the different thread
+** than the one containing the application-defined function that received
+** the [sqlite3_context] pointer, the results are undefined.
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_blob(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int, void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_blob64(sqlite3_context*,const void*,
+ sqlite3_uint64,void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_double(sqlite3_context*, double);
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_error(sqlite3_context*, const char*, int);
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_error16(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int);
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_error_toobig(sqlite3_context*);
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_error_nomem(sqlite3_context*);
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_error_code(sqlite3_context*, int);
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_int(sqlite3_context*, int);
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_int64(sqlite3_context*, sqlite3_int64);
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_null(sqlite3_context*);
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_text(sqlite3_context*, const char*, int, void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_text64(sqlite3_context*, const char*,sqlite3_uint64,
+ void(*)(void*), unsigned char encoding);
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_text16(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int, void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_text16le(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int,void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_text16be(sqlite3_context*, const void*, int,void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_value(sqlite3_context*, sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_zeroblob(sqlite3_context*, int n);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_zeroblob64(sqlite3_context*, sqlite3_uint64 n);
+** CAPI3REF: Setting The Subtype Of An SQL Function
+** METHOD: sqlite3_context
+** The sqlite3_result_subtype(C,T) function causes the subtype of
+** the result from the [application-defined SQL function] with
+** [sqlite3_context] C to be the value T. Only the lower 8 bits
+** of the subtype T are preserved in current versions of SQLite;
+** higher order bits are discarded.
+** The number of subtype bytes preserved by SQLite might increase
+** in future releases of SQLite.
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_result_subtype(sqlite3_context*,unsigned int);
+** CAPI3REF: Define New Collating Sequences
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^These functions add, remove, or modify a [collation] associated
+** with the [database connection] specified as the first argument.
+** ^The name of the collation is a UTF-8 string
+** for sqlite3_create_collation() and sqlite3_create_collation_v2()
+** and a UTF-16 string in native byte order for sqlite3_create_collation16().
+** ^Collation names that compare equal according to [sqlite3_strnicmp()] are
+** considered to be the same name.
+** ^(The third argument (eTextRep) must be one of the constants:
+** <ul>
+** <li> [SQLITE_UTF8],
+** <li> [SQLITE_UTF16LE],
+** <li> [SQLITE_UTF16BE],
+** <li> [SQLITE_UTF16], or
+** <li> [SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED].
+** </ul>)^
+** ^The eTextRep argument determines the encoding of strings passed
+** to the collating function callback, xCallback.
+** ^The [SQLITE_UTF16] and [SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED] values for eTextRep
+** force strings to be UTF16 with native byte order.
+** ^The [SQLITE_UTF16_ALIGNED] value for eTextRep forces strings to begin
+** on an even byte address.
+** ^The fourth argument, pArg, is an application data pointer that is passed
+** through as the first argument to the collating function callback.
+** ^The fifth argument, xCallback, is a pointer to the collating function.
+** ^Multiple collating functions can be registered using the same name but
+** with different eTextRep parameters and SQLite will use whichever
+** function requires the least amount of data transformation.
+** ^If the xCallback argument is NULL then the collating function is
+** deleted. ^When all collating functions having the same name are deleted,
+** that collation is no longer usable.
+** ^The collating function callback is invoked with a copy of the pArg
+** application data pointer and with two strings in the encoding specified
+** by the eTextRep argument. The collating function must return an
+** integer that is negative, zero, or positive
+** if the first string is less than, equal to, or greater than the second,
+** respectively. A collating function must always return the same answer
+** given the same inputs. If two or more collating functions are registered
+** to the same collation name (using different eTextRep values) then all
+** must give an equivalent answer when invoked with equivalent strings.
+** The collating function must obey the following properties for all
+** strings A, B, and C:
+** <ol>
+** <li> If A==B then B==A.
+** <li> If A==B and B==C then A==C.
+** <li> If A&lt;B THEN B&gt;A.
+** <li> If A&lt;B and B&lt;C then A&lt;C.
+** </ol>
+** If a collating function fails any of the above constraints and that
+** collating function is registered and used, then the behavior of SQLite
+** is undefined.
+** ^The sqlite3_create_collation_v2() works like sqlite3_create_collation()
+** with the addition that the xDestroy callback is invoked on pArg when
+** the collating function is deleted.
+** ^Collating functions are deleted when they are overridden by later
+** calls to the collation creation functions or when the
+** [database connection] is closed using [sqlite3_close()].
+** ^The xDestroy callback is <u>not</u> called if the
+** sqlite3_create_collation_v2() function fails. Applications that invoke
+** sqlite3_create_collation_v2() with a non-NULL xDestroy argument should
+** check the return code and dispose of the application data pointer
+** themselves rather than expecting SQLite to deal with it for them.
+** This is different from every other SQLite interface. The inconsistency
+** is unfortunate but cannot be changed without breaking backwards
+** compatibility.
+** See also: [sqlite3_collation_needed()] and [sqlite3_collation_needed16()].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_create_collation(
+ sqlite3*,
+ const char *zName,
+ int eTextRep,
+ void *pArg,
+ int(*xCompare)(void*,int,const void*,int,const void*)
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_create_collation_v2(
+ sqlite3*,
+ const char *zName,
+ int eTextRep,
+ void *pArg,
+ int(*xCompare)(void*,int,const void*,int,const void*),
+ void(*xDestroy)(void*)
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_create_collation16(
+ sqlite3*,
+ const void *zName,
+ int eTextRep,
+ void *pArg,
+ int(*xCompare)(void*,int,const void*,int,const void*)
+** CAPI3REF: Collation Needed Callbacks
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^To avoid having to register all collation sequences before a database
+** can be used, a single callback function may be registered with the
+** [database connection] to be invoked whenever an undefined collation
+** sequence is required.
+** ^If the function is registered using the sqlite3_collation_needed() API,
+** then it is passed the names of undefined collation sequences as strings
+** encoded in UTF-8. ^If sqlite3_collation_needed16() is used,
+** the names are passed as UTF-16 in machine native byte order.
+** ^A call to either function replaces the existing collation-needed callback.
+** ^(When the callback is invoked, the first argument passed is a copy
+** of the second argument to sqlite3_collation_needed() or
+** sqlite3_collation_needed16(). The second argument is the database
+** connection. The third argument is one of [SQLITE_UTF8], [SQLITE_UTF16BE],
+** or [SQLITE_UTF16LE], indicating the most desirable form of the collation
+** sequence function required. The fourth parameter is the name of the
+** required collation sequence.)^
+** The callback function should register the desired collation using
+** [sqlite3_create_collation()], [sqlite3_create_collation16()], or
+** [sqlite3_create_collation_v2()].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_collation_needed(
+ sqlite3*,
+ void*,
+ void(*)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const char*)
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_collation_needed16(
+ sqlite3*,
+ void*,
+ void(*)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const void*)
+** Specify the key for an encrypted database. This routine should be
+** called right after sqlite3_open().
+** The code to implement this API is not available in the public release
+** of SQLite.
+ sqlite3 *db, /* Database to be rekeyed */
+ const void *pKey, int nKey /* The key */
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_key_v2(
+ sqlite3 *db, /* Database to be rekeyed */
+ const char *zDbName, /* Name of the database */
+ const void *pKey, int nKey /* The key */
+** Change the key on an open database. If the current database is not
+** encrypted, this routine will encrypt it. If pNew==0 or nNew==0, the
+** database is decrypted.
+** The code to implement this API is not available in the public release
+** of SQLite.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_rekey(
+ sqlite3 *db, /* Database to be rekeyed */
+ const void *pKey, int nKey /* The new key */
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_rekey_v2(
+ sqlite3 *db, /* Database to be rekeyed */
+ const char *zDbName, /* Name of the database */
+ const void *pKey, int nKey /* The new key */
+** Specify the activation key for a SEE database. Unless
+** activated, none of the SEE routines will work.
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_activate_see(
+ const char *zPassPhrase /* Activation phrase */
+** Specify the activation key for a CEROD database. Unless
+** activated, none of the CEROD routines will work.
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_activate_cerod(
+ const char *zPassPhrase /* Activation phrase */
+** CAPI3REF: Suspend Execution For A Short Time
+** The sqlite3_sleep() function causes the current thread to suspend execution
+** for at least a number of milliseconds specified in its parameter.
+** If the operating system does not support sleep requests with
+** millisecond time resolution, then the time will be rounded up to
+** the nearest second. The number of milliseconds of sleep actually
+** requested from the operating system is returned.
+** ^SQLite implements this interface by calling the xSleep()
+** method of the default [sqlite3_vfs] object. If the xSleep() method
+** of the default VFS is not implemented correctly, or not implemented at
+** all, then the behavior of sqlite3_sleep() may deviate from the description
+** in the previous paragraphs.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_sleep(int);
+** CAPI3REF: Name Of The Folder Holding Temporary Files
+** ^(If this global variable is made to point to a string which is
+** the name of a folder (a.k.a. directory), then all temporary files
+** created by SQLite when using a built-in [sqlite3_vfs | VFS]
+** will be placed in that directory.)^ ^If this variable
+** is a NULL pointer, then SQLite performs a search for an appropriate
+** temporary file directory.
+** Applications are strongly discouraged from using this global variable.
+** It is required to set a temporary folder on Windows Runtime (WinRT).
+** But for all other platforms, it is highly recommended that applications
+** neither read nor write this variable. This global variable is a relic
+** that exists for backwards compatibility of legacy applications and should
+** be avoided in new projects.
+** It is not safe to read or modify this variable in more than one
+** thread at a time. It is not safe to read or modify this variable
+** if a [database connection] is being used at the same time in a separate
+** thread.
+** It is intended that this variable be set once
+** as part of process initialization and before any SQLite interface
+** routines have been called and that this variable remain unchanged
+** thereafter.
+** ^The [temp_store_directory pragma] may modify this variable and cause
+** it to point to memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc]. ^Furthermore,
+** the [temp_store_directory pragma] always assumes that any string
+** that this variable points to is held in memory obtained from
+** [sqlite3_malloc] and the pragma may attempt to free that memory
+** using [sqlite3_free].
+** Hence, if this variable is modified directly, either it should be
+** made NULL or made to point to memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc]
+** or else the use of the [temp_store_directory pragma] should be avoided.
+** Except when requested by the [temp_store_directory pragma], SQLite
+** does not free the memory that sqlite3_temp_directory points to. If
+** the application wants that memory to be freed, it must do
+** so itself, taking care to only do so after all [database connection]
+** objects have been destroyed.
+** <b>Note to Windows Runtime users:</b> The temporary directory must be set
+** prior to calling [sqlite3_open] or [sqlite3_open_v2]. Otherwise, various
+** features that require the use of temporary files may fail. Here is an
+** example of how to do this using C++ with the Windows Runtime:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+** LPCWSTR zPath = Windows::Storage::ApplicationData::Current->
+** &nbsp; TemporaryFolder->Path->Data();
+** char zPathBuf&#91;MAX_PATH + 1&#93;;
+** memset(zPathBuf, 0, sizeof(zPathBuf));
+** WideCharToMultiByte(CP_UTF8, 0, zPath, -1, zPathBuf, sizeof(zPathBuf),
+** &nbsp; NULL, NULL);
+** sqlite3_temp_directory = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", zPathBuf);
+** </pre></blockquote>
+SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_temp_directory;
+** CAPI3REF: Name Of The Folder Holding Database Files
+** ^(If this global variable is made to point to a string which is
+** the name of a folder (a.k.a. directory), then all database files
+** specified with a relative pathname and created or accessed by
+** SQLite when using a built-in windows [sqlite3_vfs | VFS] will be assumed
+** to be relative to that directory.)^ ^If this variable is a NULL
+** pointer, then SQLite assumes that all database files specified
+** with a relative pathname are relative to the current directory
+** for the process. Only the windows VFS makes use of this global
+** variable; it is ignored by the unix VFS.
+** Changing the value of this variable while a database connection is
+** open can result in a corrupt database.
+** It is not safe to read or modify this variable in more than one
+** thread at a time. It is not safe to read or modify this variable
+** if a [database connection] is being used at the same time in a separate
+** thread.
+** It is intended that this variable be set once
+** as part of process initialization and before any SQLite interface
+** routines have been called and that this variable remain unchanged
+** thereafter.
+** ^The [data_store_directory pragma] may modify this variable and cause
+** it to point to memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc]. ^Furthermore,
+** the [data_store_directory pragma] always assumes that any string
+** that this variable points to is held in memory obtained from
+** [sqlite3_malloc] and the pragma may attempt to free that memory
+** using [sqlite3_free].
+** Hence, if this variable is modified directly, either it should be
+** made NULL or made to point to memory obtained from [sqlite3_malloc]
+** or else the use of the [data_store_directory pragma] should be avoided.
+SQLITE_API char *sqlite3_data_directory;
+** CAPI3REF: Test For Auto-Commit Mode
+** KEYWORDS: {autocommit mode}
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^The sqlite3_get_autocommit() interface returns non-zero or
+** zero if the given database connection is or is not in autocommit mode,
+** respectively. ^Autocommit mode is on by default.
+** ^Autocommit mode is disabled by a [BEGIN] statement.
+** ^Autocommit mode is re-enabled by a [COMMIT] or [ROLLBACK].
+** If certain kinds of errors occur on a statement within a multi-statement
+** transaction (errors including [SQLITE_FULL], [SQLITE_IOERR],
+** transaction might be rolled back automatically. The only way to
+** find out whether SQLite automatically rolled back the transaction after
+** an error is to use this function.
+** If another thread changes the autocommit status of the database
+** connection while this routine is running, then the return value
+** is undefined.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_get_autocommit(sqlite3*);
+** CAPI3REF: Find The Database Handle Of A Prepared Statement
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^The sqlite3_db_handle interface returns the [database connection] handle
+** to which a [prepared statement] belongs. ^The [database connection]
+** returned by sqlite3_db_handle is the same [database connection]
+** that was the first argument
+** to the [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] call (or its variants) that was used to
+** create the statement in the first place.
+SQLITE_API sqlite3 *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_db_handle(sqlite3_stmt*);
+** CAPI3REF: Return The Filename For A Database Connection
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^The sqlite3_db_filename(D,N) interface returns a pointer to a filename
+** associated with database N of connection D. ^The main database file
+** has the name "main". If there is no attached database N on the database
+** connection D, or if database N is a temporary or in-memory database, then
+** a NULL pointer is returned.
+** ^The filename returned by this function is the output of the
+** xFullPathname method of the [VFS]. ^In other words, the filename
+** will be an absolute pathname, even if the filename used
+** to open the database originally was a URI or relative pathname.
+SQLITE_API const char *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_db_filename(sqlite3 *db, const char *zDbName);
+** CAPI3REF: Determine if a database is read-only
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^The sqlite3_db_readonly(D,N) interface returns 1 if the database N
+** of connection D is read-only, 0 if it is read/write, or -1 if N is not
+** the name of a database on connection D.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_db_readonly(sqlite3 *db, const char *zDbName);
+** CAPI3REF: Find the next prepared statement
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^This interface returns a pointer to the next [prepared statement] after
+** pStmt associated with the [database connection] pDb. ^If pStmt is NULL
+** then this interface returns a pointer to the first prepared statement
+** associated with the database connection pDb. ^If no prepared statement
+** satisfies the conditions of this routine, it returns NULL.
+** The [database connection] pointer D in a call to
+** [sqlite3_next_stmt(D,S)] must refer to an open database
+** connection and in particular must not be a NULL pointer.
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_stmt *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_next_stmt(sqlite3 *pDb, sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);
+** CAPI3REF: Commit And Rollback Notification Callbacks
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^The sqlite3_commit_hook() interface registers a callback
+** function to be invoked whenever a transaction is [COMMIT | committed].
+** ^Any callback set by a previous call to sqlite3_commit_hook()
+** for the same database connection is overridden.
+** ^The sqlite3_rollback_hook() interface registers a callback
+** function to be invoked whenever a transaction is [ROLLBACK | rolled back].
+** ^Any callback set by a previous call to sqlite3_rollback_hook()
+** for the same database connection is overridden.
+** ^The pArg argument is passed through to the callback.
+** ^If the callback on a commit hook function returns non-zero,
+** then the commit is converted into a rollback.
+** ^The sqlite3_commit_hook(D,C,P) and sqlite3_rollback_hook(D,C,P) functions
+** return the P argument from the previous call of the same function
+** on the same [database connection] D, or NULL for
+** the first call for each function on D.
+** The commit and rollback hook callbacks are not reentrant.
+** The callback implementation must not do anything that will modify
+** the database connection that invoked the callback. Any actions
+** to modify the database connection must be deferred until after the
+** completion of the [sqlite3_step()] call that triggered the commit
+** or rollback hook in the first place.
+** Note that running any other SQL statements, including SELECT statements,
+** or merely calling [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and [sqlite3_step()] will modify
+** the database connections for the meaning of "modify" in this paragraph.
+** ^Registering a NULL function disables the callback.
+** ^When the commit hook callback routine returns zero, the [COMMIT]
+** operation is allowed to continue normally. ^If the commit hook
+** returns non-zero, then the [COMMIT] is converted into a [ROLLBACK].
+** ^The rollback hook is invoked on a rollback that results from a commit
+** hook returning non-zero, just as it would be with any other rollback.
+** ^For the purposes of this API, a transaction is said to have been
+** rolled back if an explicit "ROLLBACK" statement is executed, or
+** an error or constraint causes an implicit rollback to occur.
+** ^The rollback callback is not invoked if a transaction is
+** automatically rolled back because the database connection is closed.
+** See also the [sqlite3_update_hook()] interface.
+SQLITE_API void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_commit_hook(sqlite3*, int(*)(void*), void*);
+SQLITE_API void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_rollback_hook(sqlite3*, void(*)(void *), void*);
+** CAPI3REF: Data Change Notification Callbacks
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^The sqlite3_update_hook() interface registers a callback function
+** with the [database connection] identified by the first argument
+** to be invoked whenever a row is updated, inserted or deleted in
+** a rowid table.
+** ^Any callback set by a previous call to this function
+** for the same database connection is overridden.
+** ^The second argument is a pointer to the function to invoke when a
+** row is updated, inserted or deleted in a rowid table.
+** ^The first argument to the callback is a copy of the third argument
+** to sqlite3_update_hook().
+** ^The second callback argument is one of [SQLITE_INSERT], [SQLITE_DELETE],
+** or [SQLITE_UPDATE], depending on the operation that caused the callback
+** to be invoked.
+** ^The third and fourth arguments to the callback contain pointers to the
+** database and table name containing the affected row.
+** ^The final callback parameter is the [rowid] of the row.
+** ^In the case of an update, this is the [rowid] after the update takes place.
+** ^(The update hook is not invoked when internal system tables are
+** modified (i.e. sqlite_master and sqlite_sequence).)^
+** ^The update hook is not invoked when [WITHOUT ROWID] tables are modified.
+** ^In the current implementation, the update hook
+** is not invoked when duplication rows are deleted because of an
+** [ON CONFLICT | ON CONFLICT REPLACE] clause. ^Nor is the update hook
+** invoked when rows are deleted using the [truncate optimization].
+** The exceptions defined in this paragraph might change in a future
+** release of SQLite.
+** The update hook implementation must not do anything that will modify
+** the database connection that invoked the update hook. Any actions
+** to modify the database connection must be deferred until after the
+** completion of the [sqlite3_step()] call that triggered the update hook.
+** Note that [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and [sqlite3_step()] both modify their
+** database connections for the meaning of "modify" in this paragraph.
+** ^The sqlite3_update_hook(D,C,P) function
+** returns the P argument from the previous call
+** on the same [database connection] D, or NULL for
+** the first call on D.
+** See also the [sqlite3_commit_hook()] and [sqlite3_rollback_hook()]
+** interfaces.
+SQLITE_API void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_update_hook(
+ sqlite3*,
+ void(*)(void *,int ,char const *,char const *,sqlite3_int64),
+ void*
+** CAPI3REF: Enable Or Disable Shared Pager Cache
+** ^(This routine enables or disables the sharing of the database cache
+** and schema data structures between [database connection | connections]
+** to the same database. Sharing is enabled if the argument is true
+** and disabled if the argument is false.)^
+** ^Cache sharing is enabled and disabled for an entire process.
+** This is a change as of SQLite version 3.5.0. In prior versions of SQLite,
+** sharing was enabled or disabled for each thread separately.
+** ^(The cache sharing mode set by this interface effects all subsequent
+** calls to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open_v2()], and [sqlite3_open16()].
+** Existing database connections continue use the sharing mode
+** that was in effect at the time they were opened.)^
+** ^(This routine returns [SQLITE_OK] if shared cache was enabled or disabled
+** successfully. An [error code] is returned otherwise.)^
+** ^Shared cache is disabled by default. But this might change in
+** future releases of SQLite. Applications that care about shared
+** cache setting should set it explicitly.
+** Note: This method is disabled on MacOS X 10.7 and iOS version 5.0
+** and will always return SQLITE_MISUSE. On those systems,
+** shared cache mode should be enabled per-database connection via
+** [sqlite3_open_v2()] with [SQLITE_OPEN_SHAREDCACHE].
+** This interface is threadsafe on processors where writing a
+** 32-bit integer is atomic.
+** See Also: [SQLite Shared-Cache Mode]
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_enable_shared_cache(int);
+** CAPI3REF: Attempt To Free Heap Memory
+** ^The sqlite3_release_memory() interface attempts to free N bytes
+** of heap memory by deallocating non-essential memory allocations
+** held by the database library. Memory used to cache database
+** pages to improve performance is an example of non-essential memory.
+** ^sqlite3_release_memory() returns the number of bytes actually freed,
+** which might be more or less than the amount requested.
+** ^The sqlite3_release_memory() routine is a no-op returning zero
+** if SQLite is not compiled with [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT].
+** See also: [sqlite3_db_release_memory()]
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_release_memory(int);
+** CAPI3REF: Free Memory Used By A Database Connection
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^The sqlite3_db_release_memory(D) interface attempts to free as much heap
+** memory as possible from database connection D. Unlike the
+** [sqlite3_release_memory()] interface, this interface is in effect even
+** when the [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT] compile-time option is
+** omitted.
+** See also: [sqlite3_release_memory()]
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_db_release_memory(sqlite3*);
+** CAPI3REF: Impose A Limit On Heap Size
+** ^The sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64() interface sets and/or queries the
+** soft limit on the amount of heap memory that may be allocated by SQLite.
+** ^SQLite strives to keep heap memory utilization below the soft heap
+** limit by reducing the number of pages held in the page cache
+** as heap memory usages approaches the limit.
+** ^The soft heap limit is "soft" because even though SQLite strives to stay
+** below the limit, it will exceed the limit rather than generate
+** an [SQLITE_NOMEM] error. In other words, the soft heap limit
+** is advisory only.
+** ^The return value from sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64() is the size of
+** the soft heap limit prior to the call, or negative in the case of an
+** error. ^If the argument N is negative
+** then no change is made to the soft heap limit. Hence, the current
+** size of the soft heap limit can be determined by invoking
+** sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64() with a negative argument.
+** ^If the argument N is zero then the soft heap limit is disabled.
+** ^(The soft heap limit is not enforced in the current implementation
+** if one or more of following conditions are true:
+** <ul>
+** <li> The soft heap limit is set to zero.
+** <li> Memory accounting is disabled using a combination of the
+** [sqlite3_config]([SQLITE_CONFIG_MEMSTATUS],...) start-time option and
+** the [SQLITE_DEFAULT_MEMSTATUS] compile-time option.
+** <li> An alternative page cache implementation is specified using
+** [sqlite3_config]([SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE2],...).
+** <li> The page cache allocates from its own memory pool supplied
+** by [sqlite3_config]([SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE],...) rather than
+** from the heap.
+** </ul>)^
+** Beginning with SQLite version 3.7.3, the soft heap limit is enforced
+** regardless of whether or not the [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT]
+** compile-time option is invoked. With [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT],
+** the soft heap limit is enforced on every memory allocation. Without
+** [SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMORY_MANAGEMENT], the soft heap limit is only enforced
+** when memory is allocated by the page cache. Testing suggests that because
+** the page cache is the predominate memory user in SQLite, most
+** applications will achieve adequate soft heap limit enforcement without
+** The circumstances under which SQLite will enforce the soft heap limit may
+** changes in future releases of SQLite.
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_int64 SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64(sqlite3_int64 N);
+** CAPI3REF: Deprecated Soft Heap Limit Interface
+** This is a deprecated version of the [sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64()]
+** interface. This routine is provided for historical compatibility
+** only. All new applications should use the
+** [sqlite3_soft_heap_limit64()] interface rather than this one.
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_DEPRECATED void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_soft_heap_limit(int N);
+** CAPI3REF: Extract Metadata About A Column Of A Table
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^(The sqlite3_table_column_metadata(X,D,T,C,....) routine returns
+** information about column C of table T in database D
+** on [database connection] X.)^ ^The sqlite3_table_column_metadata()
+** interface returns SQLITE_OK and fills in the non-NULL pointers in
+** the final five arguments with appropriate values if the specified
+** column exists. ^The sqlite3_table_column_metadata() interface returns
+** SQLITE_ERROR and if the specified column does not exist.
+** ^If the column-name parameter to sqlite3_table_column_metadata() is a
+** NULL pointer, then this routine simply checks for the existance of the
+** table and returns SQLITE_OK if the table exists and SQLITE_ERROR if it
+** does not.
+** ^The column is identified by the second, third and fourth parameters to
+** this function. ^(The second parameter is either the name of the database
+** (i.e. "main", "temp", or an attached database) containing the specified
+** table or NULL.)^ ^If it is NULL, then all attached databases are searched
+** for the table using the same algorithm used by the database engine to
+** resolve unqualified table references.
+** ^The third and fourth parameters to this function are the table and column
+** name of the desired column, respectively.
+** ^Metadata is returned by writing to the memory locations passed as the 5th
+** and subsequent parameters to this function. ^Any of these arguments may be
+** NULL, in which case the corresponding element of metadata is omitted.
+** ^(<blockquote>
+** <table border="1">
+** <tr><th> Parameter <th> Output<br>Type <th> Description
+** <tr><td> 5th <td> const char* <td> Data type
+** <tr><td> 6th <td> const char* <td> Name of default collation sequence
+** <tr><td> 7th <td> int <td> True if column has a NOT NULL constraint
+** <tr><td> 8th <td> int <td> True if column is part of the PRIMARY KEY
+** <tr><td> 9th <td> int <td> True if column is [AUTOINCREMENT]
+** </table>
+** </blockquote>)^
+** ^The memory pointed to by the character pointers returned for the
+** declaration type and collation sequence is valid until the next
+** call to any SQLite API function.
+** ^If the specified table is actually a view, an [error code] is returned.
+** ^If the specified column is "rowid", "oid" or "_rowid_" and the table
+** is not a [WITHOUT ROWID] table and an
+** [INTEGER PRIMARY KEY] column has been explicitly declared, then the output
+** parameters are set for the explicitly declared column. ^(If there is no
+** [INTEGER PRIMARY KEY] column, then the outputs
+** for the [rowid] are set as follows:
+** <pre>
+** data type: "INTEGER"
+** collation sequence: "BINARY"
+** not null: 0
+** primary key: 1
+** auto increment: 0
+** </pre>)^
+** ^This function causes all database schemas to be read from disk and
+** parsed, if that has not already been done, and returns an error if
+** any errors are encountered while loading the schema.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_table_column_metadata(
+ sqlite3 *db, /* Connection handle */
+ const char *zDbName, /* Database name or NULL */
+ const char *zTableName, /* Table name */
+ const char *zColumnName, /* Column name */
+ char const **pzDataType, /* OUTPUT: Declared data type */
+ char const **pzCollSeq, /* OUTPUT: Collation sequence name */
+ int *pNotNull, /* OUTPUT: True if NOT NULL constraint exists */
+ int *pPrimaryKey, /* OUTPUT: True if column part of PK */
+ int *pAutoinc /* OUTPUT: True if column is auto-increment */
+** CAPI3REF: Load An Extension
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^This interface loads an SQLite extension library from the named file.
+** ^The sqlite3_load_extension() interface attempts to load an
+** [SQLite extension] library contained in the file zFile. If
+** the file cannot be loaded directly, attempts are made to load
+** with various operating-system specific extensions added.
+** So for example, if "samplelib" cannot be loaded, then names like
+** "" or "samplelib.dylib" or "samplelib.dll" might
+** be tried also.
+** ^The entry point is zProc.
+** ^(zProc may be 0, in which case SQLite will try to come up with an
+** entry point name on its own. It first tries "sqlite3_extension_init".
+** If that does not work, it constructs a name "sqlite3_X_init" where the
+** X is consists of the lower-case equivalent of all ASCII alphabetic
+** characters in the filename from the last "/" to the first following
+** "." and omitting any initial "lib".)^
+** ^The sqlite3_load_extension() interface returns
+** [SQLITE_OK] on success and [SQLITE_ERROR] if something goes wrong.
+** ^If an error occurs and pzErrMsg is not 0, then the
+** [sqlite3_load_extension()] interface shall attempt to
+** fill *pzErrMsg with error message text stored in memory
+** obtained from [sqlite3_malloc()]. The calling function
+** should free this memory by calling [sqlite3_free()].
+** ^Extension loading must be enabled using
+** [sqlite3_enable_load_extension()] prior to calling this API,
+** otherwise an error will be returned.
+** See also the [load_extension() SQL function].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_load_extension(
+ sqlite3 *db, /* Load the extension into this database connection */
+ const char *zFile, /* Name of the shared library containing extension */
+ const char *zProc, /* Entry point. Derived from zFile if 0 */
+ char **pzErrMsg /* Put error message here if not 0 */
+** CAPI3REF: Enable Or Disable Extension Loading
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^So as not to open security holes in older applications that are
+** unprepared to deal with [extension loading], and as a means of disabling
+** [extension loading] while evaluating user-entered SQL, the following API
+** is provided to turn the [sqlite3_load_extension()] mechanism on and off.
+** ^Extension loading is off by default.
+** ^Call the sqlite3_enable_load_extension() routine with onoff==1
+** to turn extension loading on and call it with onoff==0 to turn
+** it back off again.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_enable_load_extension(sqlite3 *db, int onoff);
+** CAPI3REF: Automatically Load Statically Linked Extensions
+** ^This interface causes the xEntryPoint() function to be invoked for
+** each new [database connection] that is created. The idea here is that
+** xEntryPoint() is the entry point for a statically linked [SQLite extension]
+** that is to be automatically loaded into all new database connections.
+** ^(Even though the function prototype shows that xEntryPoint() takes
+** no arguments and returns void, SQLite invokes xEntryPoint() with three
+** arguments and expects and integer result as if the signature of the
+** entry point where as follows:
+** <blockquote><pre>
+** &nbsp; int xEntryPoint(
+** &nbsp; sqlite3 *db,
+** &nbsp; const char **pzErrMsg,
+** &nbsp; const struct sqlite3_api_routines *pThunk
+** &nbsp; );
+** </pre></blockquote>)^
+** If the xEntryPoint routine encounters an error, it should make *pzErrMsg
+** point to an appropriate error message (obtained from [sqlite3_mprintf()])
+** and return an appropriate [error code]. ^SQLite ensures that *pzErrMsg
+** is NULL before calling the xEntryPoint(). ^SQLite will invoke
+** [sqlite3_free()] on *pzErrMsg after xEntryPoint() returns. ^If any
+** xEntryPoint() returns an error, the [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open16()],
+** or [sqlite3_open_v2()] call that provoked the xEntryPoint() will fail.
+** ^Calling sqlite3_auto_extension(X) with an entry point X that is already
+** on the list of automatic extensions is a harmless no-op. ^No entry point
+** will be called more than once for each database connection that is opened.
+** See also: [sqlite3_reset_auto_extension()]
+** and [sqlite3_cancel_auto_extension()]
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_auto_extension(void (*xEntryPoint)(void));
+** CAPI3REF: Cancel Automatic Extension Loading
+** ^The [sqlite3_cancel_auto_extension(X)] interface unregisters the
+** initialization routine X that was registered using a prior call to
+** [sqlite3_auto_extension(X)]. ^The [sqlite3_cancel_auto_extension(X)]
+** routine returns 1 if initialization routine X was successfully
+** unregistered and it returns 0 if X was not on the list of initialization
+** routines.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_cancel_auto_extension(void (*xEntryPoint)(void));
+** CAPI3REF: Reset Automatic Extension Loading
+** ^This interface disables all automatic extensions previously
+** registered using [sqlite3_auto_extension()].
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_reset_auto_extension(void);
+** The interface to the virtual-table mechanism is currently considered
+** to be experimental. The interface might change in incompatible ways.
+** If this is a problem for you, do not use the interface at this time.
+** When the virtual-table mechanism stabilizes, we will declare the
+** interface fixed, support it indefinitely, and remove this comment.
+** Structures used by the virtual table interface
+typedef struct sqlite3_vtab sqlite3_vtab;
+typedef struct sqlite3_index_info sqlite3_index_info;
+typedef struct sqlite3_vtab_cursor sqlite3_vtab_cursor;
+typedef struct sqlite3_module sqlite3_module;
+** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Object
+** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_module {virtual table module}
+** This structure, sometimes called a "virtual table module",
+** defines the implementation of a [virtual tables].
+** This structure consists mostly of methods for the module.
+** ^A virtual table module is created by filling in a persistent
+** instance of this structure and passing a pointer to that instance
+** to [sqlite3_create_module()] or [sqlite3_create_module_v2()].
+** ^The registration remains valid until it is replaced by a different
+** module or until the [database connection] closes. The content
+** of this structure must not change while it is registered with
+** any database connection.
+struct sqlite3_module {
+ int iVersion;
+ int (*xCreate)(sqlite3*, void *pAux,
+ int argc, const char *const*argv,
+ sqlite3_vtab **ppVTab, char**);
+ int (*xConnect)(sqlite3*, void *pAux,
+ int argc, const char *const*argv,
+ sqlite3_vtab **ppVTab, char**);
+ int (*xBestIndex)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, sqlite3_index_info*);
+ int (*xDisconnect)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
+ int (*xDestroy)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
+ int (*xOpen)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, sqlite3_vtab_cursor **ppCursor);
+ int (*xClose)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*);
+ int (*xFilter)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*, int idxNum, const char *idxStr,
+ int argc, sqlite3_value **argv);
+ int (*xNext)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*);
+ int (*xEof)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*);
+ int (*xColumn)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*, sqlite3_context*, int);
+ int (*xRowid)(sqlite3_vtab_cursor*, sqlite3_int64 *pRowid);
+ int (*xUpdate)(sqlite3_vtab *, int, sqlite3_value **, sqlite3_int64 *);
+ int (*xBegin)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
+ int (*xSync)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
+ int (*xCommit)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
+ int (*xRollback)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab);
+ int (*xFindFunction)(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab, int nArg, const char *zName,
+ void (**pxFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**),
+ void **ppArg);
+ int (*xRename)(sqlite3_vtab *pVtab, const char *zNew);
+ /* The methods above are in version 1 of the sqlite_module object. Those
+ ** below are for version 2 and greater. */
+ int (*xSavepoint)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, int);
+ int (*xRelease)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, int);
+ int (*xRollbackTo)(sqlite3_vtab *pVTab, int);
+** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Indexing Information
+** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_index_info
+** The sqlite3_index_info structure and its substructures is used as part
+** of the [virtual table] interface to
+** pass information into and receive the reply from the [xBestIndex]
+** method of a [virtual table module]. The fields under **Inputs** are the
+** inputs to xBestIndex and are read-only. xBestIndex inserts its
+** results into the **Outputs** fields.
+** ^(The aConstraint[] array records WHERE clause constraints of the form:
+** <blockquote>column OP expr</blockquote>
+** where OP is =, &lt;, &lt;=, &gt;, or &gt;=.)^ ^(The particular operator is
+** stored in aConstraint[].op using one of the
+** ^(The index of the column is stored in
+** aConstraint[].iColumn.)^ ^(aConstraint[].usable is TRUE if the
+** expr on the right-hand side can be evaluated (and thus the constraint
+** is usable) and false if it cannot.)^
+** ^The optimizer automatically inverts terms of the form "expr OP column"
+** and makes other simplifications to the WHERE clause in an attempt to
+** get as many WHERE clause terms into the form shown above as possible.
+** ^The aConstraint[] array only reports WHERE clause terms that are
+** relevant to the particular virtual table being queried.
+** ^Information about the ORDER BY clause is stored in aOrderBy[].
+** ^Each term of aOrderBy records a column of the ORDER BY clause.
+** The colUsed field indicates which columns of the virtual table may be
+** required by the current scan. Virtual table columns are numbered from
+** zero in the order in which they appear within the CREATE TABLE statement
+** passed to sqlite3_declare_vtab(). For the first 63 columns (columns 0-62),
+** the corresponding bit is set within the colUsed mask if the column may be
+** required by SQLite. If the table has at least 64 columns and any column
+** to the right of the first 63 is required, then bit 63 of colUsed is also
+** set. In other words, column iCol may be required if the expression
+** (colUsed & ((sqlite3_uint64)1 << (iCol>=63 ? 63 : iCol))) evaluates to
+** non-zero.
+** The [xBestIndex] method must fill aConstraintUsage[] with information
+** about what parameters to pass to xFilter. ^If argvIndex>0 then
+** the right-hand side of the corresponding aConstraint[] is evaluated
+** and becomes the argvIndex-th entry in argv. ^(If aConstraintUsage[].omit
+** is true, then the constraint is assumed to be fully handled by the
+** virtual table and is not checked again by SQLite.)^
+** ^The idxNum and idxPtr values are recorded and passed into the
+** [xFilter] method.
+** ^[sqlite3_free()] is used to free idxPtr if and only if
+** needToFreeIdxPtr is true.
+** ^The orderByConsumed means that output from [xFilter]/[xNext] will occur in
+** the correct order to satisfy the ORDER BY clause so that no separate
+** sorting step is required.
+** ^The estimatedCost value is an estimate of the cost of a particular
+** strategy. A cost of N indicates that the cost of the strategy is similar
+** to a linear scan of an SQLite table with N rows. A cost of log(N)
+** indicates that the expense of the operation is similar to that of a
+** binary search on a unique indexed field of an SQLite table with N rows.
+** ^The estimatedRows value is an estimate of the number of rows that
+** will be returned by the strategy.
+** The xBestIndex method may optionally populate the idxFlags field with a
+** mask of SQLITE_INDEX_SCAN_* flags. Currently there is only one such flag -
+** SQLITE_INDEX_SCAN_UNIQUE. If the xBestIndex method sets this flag, SQLite
+** assumes that the strategy may visit at most one row.
+** Additionally, if xBestIndex sets the SQLITE_INDEX_SCAN_UNIQUE flag, then
+** SQLite also assumes that if a call to the xUpdate() method is made as
+** part of the same statement to delete or update a virtual table row and the
+** implementation returns SQLITE_CONSTRAINT, then there is no need to rollback
+** any database changes. In other words, if the xUpdate() returns
+** SQLITE_CONSTRAINT, the database contents must be exactly as they were
+** before xUpdate was called. By contrast, if SQLITE_INDEX_SCAN_UNIQUE is not
+** set and xUpdate returns SQLITE_CONSTRAINT, any database changes made by
+** the xUpdate method are automatically rolled back by SQLite.
+** IMPORTANT: The estimatedRows field was added to the sqlite3_index_info
+** structure for SQLite version 3.8.2. If a virtual table extension is
+** used with an SQLite version earlier than 3.8.2, the results of attempting
+** to read or write the estimatedRows field are undefined (but are likely
+** to included crashing the application). The estimatedRows field should
+** therefore only be used if [sqlite3_libversion_number()] returns a
+** value greater than or equal to 3008002. Similarly, the idxFlags field
+** was added for version 3.9.0. It may therefore only be used if
+** sqlite3_libversion_number() returns a value greater than or equal to
+** 3009000.
+struct sqlite3_index_info {
+ /* Inputs */
+ int nConstraint; /* Number of entries in aConstraint */
+ struct sqlite3_index_constraint {
+ int iColumn; /* Column constrained. -1 for ROWID */
+ unsigned char op; /* Constraint operator */
+ unsigned char usable; /* True if this constraint is usable */
+ int iTermOffset; /* Used internally - xBestIndex should ignore */
+ } *aConstraint; /* Table of WHERE clause constraints */
+ int nOrderBy; /* Number of terms in the ORDER BY clause */
+ struct sqlite3_index_orderby {
+ int iColumn; /* Column number */
+ unsigned char desc; /* True for DESC. False for ASC. */
+ } *aOrderBy; /* The ORDER BY clause */
+ /* Outputs */
+ struct sqlite3_index_constraint_usage {
+ int argvIndex; /* if >0, constraint is part of argv to xFilter */
+ unsigned char omit; /* Do not code a test for this constraint */
+ } *aConstraintUsage;
+ int idxNum; /* Number used to identify the index */
+ char *idxStr; /* String, possibly obtained from sqlite3_malloc */
+ int needToFreeIdxStr; /* Free idxStr using sqlite3_free() if true */
+ int orderByConsumed; /* True if output is already ordered */
+ double estimatedCost; /* Estimated cost of using this index */
+ /* Fields below are only available in SQLite 3.8.2 and later */
+ sqlite3_int64 estimatedRows; /* Estimated number of rows returned */
+ /* Fields below are only available in SQLite 3.9.0 and later */
+ int idxFlags; /* Mask of SQLITE_INDEX_SCAN_* flags */
+ /* Fields below are only available in SQLite 3.10.0 and later */
+ sqlite3_uint64 colUsed; /* Input: Mask of columns used by statement */
+** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Scan Flags
+#define SQLITE_INDEX_SCAN_UNIQUE 1 /* Scan visits at most 1 row */
+** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Constraint Operator Codes
+** These macros defined the allowed values for the
+** [sqlite3_index_info].aConstraint[].op field. Each value represents
+** an operator that is part of a constraint term in the wHERE clause of
+** a query that uses a [virtual table].
+** CAPI3REF: Register A Virtual Table Implementation
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^These routines are used to register a new [virtual table module] name.
+** ^Module names must be registered before
+** creating a new [virtual table] using the module and before using a
+** preexisting [virtual table] for the module.
+** ^The module name is registered on the [database connection] specified
+** by the first parameter. ^The name of the module is given by the
+** second parameter. ^The third parameter is a pointer to
+** the implementation of the [virtual table module]. ^The fourth
+** parameter is an arbitrary client data pointer that is passed through
+** into the [xCreate] and [xConnect] methods of the virtual table module
+** when a new virtual table is be being created or reinitialized.
+** ^The sqlite3_create_module_v2() interface has a fifth parameter which
+** is a pointer to a destructor for the pClientData. ^SQLite will
+** invoke the destructor function (if it is not NULL) when SQLite
+** no longer needs the pClientData pointer. ^The destructor will also
+** be invoked if the call to sqlite3_create_module_v2() fails.
+** ^The sqlite3_create_module()
+** interface is equivalent to sqlite3_create_module_v2() with a NULL
+** destructor.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_create_module(
+ sqlite3 *db, /* SQLite connection to register module with */
+ const char *zName, /* Name of the module */
+ const sqlite3_module *p, /* Methods for the module */
+ void *pClientData /* Client data for xCreate/xConnect */
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_create_module_v2(
+ sqlite3 *db, /* SQLite connection to register module with */
+ const char *zName, /* Name of the module */
+ const sqlite3_module *p, /* Methods for the module */
+ void *pClientData, /* Client data for xCreate/xConnect */
+ void(*xDestroy)(void*) /* Module destructor function */
+** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Instance Object
+** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_vtab
+** Every [virtual table module] implementation uses a subclass
+** of this object to describe a particular instance
+** of the [virtual table]. Each subclass will
+** be tailored to the specific needs of the module implementation.
+** The purpose of this superclass is to define certain fields that are
+** common to all module implementations.
+** ^Virtual tables methods can set an error message by assigning a
+** string obtained from [sqlite3_mprintf()] to zErrMsg. The method should
+** take care that any prior string is freed by a call to [sqlite3_free()]
+** prior to assigning a new string to zErrMsg. ^After the error message
+** is delivered up to the client application, the string will be automatically
+** freed by sqlite3_free() and the zErrMsg field will be zeroed.
+struct sqlite3_vtab {
+ const sqlite3_module *pModule; /* The module for this virtual table */
+ int nRef; /* Number of open cursors */
+ char *zErrMsg; /* Error message from sqlite3_mprintf() */
+ /* Virtual table implementations will typically add additional fields */
+** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Cursor Object
+** KEYWORDS: sqlite3_vtab_cursor {virtual table cursor}
+** Every [virtual table module] implementation uses a subclass of the
+** following structure to describe cursors that point into the
+** [virtual table] and are used
+** to loop through the virtual table. Cursors are created using the
+** [sqlite3_module.xOpen | xOpen] method of the module and are destroyed
+** by the [sqlite3_module.xClose | xClose] method. Cursors are used
+** by the [xFilter], [xNext], [xEof], [xColumn], and [xRowid] methods
+** of the module. Each module implementation will define
+** the content of a cursor structure to suit its own needs.
+** This superclass exists in order to define fields of the cursor that
+** are common to all implementations.
+struct sqlite3_vtab_cursor {
+ sqlite3_vtab *pVtab; /* Virtual table of this cursor */
+ /* Virtual table implementations will typically add additional fields */
+** CAPI3REF: Declare The Schema Of A Virtual Table
+** ^The [xCreate] and [xConnect] methods of a
+** [virtual table module] call this interface
+** to declare the format (the names and datatypes of the columns) of
+** the virtual tables they implement.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_declare_vtab(sqlite3*, const char *zSQL);
+** CAPI3REF: Overload A Function For A Virtual Table
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^(Virtual tables can provide alternative implementations of functions
+** using the [xFindFunction] method of the [virtual table module].
+** But global versions of those functions
+** must exist in order to be overloaded.)^
+** ^(This API makes sure a global version of a function with a particular
+** name and number of parameters exists. If no such function exists
+** before this API is called, a new function is created.)^ ^The implementation
+** of the new function always causes an exception to be thrown. So
+** the new function is not good for anything by itself. Its only
+** purpose is to be a placeholder function that can be overloaded
+** by a [virtual table].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_overload_function(sqlite3*, const char *zFuncName, int nArg);
+** The interface to the virtual-table mechanism defined above (back up
+** to a comment remarkably similar to this one) is currently considered
+** to be experimental. The interface might change in incompatible ways.
+** If this is a problem for you, do not use the interface at this time.
+** When the virtual-table mechanism stabilizes, we will declare the
+** interface fixed, support it indefinitely, and remove this comment.
+** CAPI3REF: A Handle To An Open BLOB
+** KEYWORDS: {BLOB handle} {BLOB handles}
+** An instance of this object represents an open BLOB on which
+** [sqlite3_blob_open | incremental BLOB I/O] can be performed.
+** ^Objects of this type are created by [sqlite3_blob_open()]
+** and destroyed by [sqlite3_blob_close()].
+** ^The [sqlite3_blob_read()] and [sqlite3_blob_write()] interfaces
+** can be used to read or write small subsections of the BLOB.
+** ^The [sqlite3_blob_bytes()] interface returns the size of the BLOB in bytes.
+typedef struct sqlite3_blob sqlite3_blob;
+** CAPI3REF: Open A BLOB For Incremental I/O
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** CONSTRUCTOR: sqlite3_blob
+** ^(This interfaces opens a [BLOB handle | handle] to the BLOB located
+** in row iRow, column zColumn, table zTable in database zDb;
+** in other words, the same BLOB that would be selected by:
+** <pre>
+** SELECT zColumn FROM zDb.zTable WHERE [rowid] = iRow;
+** </pre>)^
+** ^(Parameter zDb is not the filename that contains the database, but
+** rather the symbolic name of the database. For attached databases, this is
+** the name that appears after the AS keyword in the [ATTACH] statement.
+** For the main database file, the database name is "main". For TEMP
+** tables, the database name is "temp".)^
+** ^If the flags parameter is non-zero, then the BLOB is opened for read
+** and write access. ^If the flags parameter is zero, the BLOB is opened for
+** read-only access.
+** ^(On success, [SQLITE_OK] is returned and the new [BLOB handle] is stored
+** in *ppBlob. Otherwise an [error code] is returned and, unless the error
+** code is SQLITE_MISUSE, *ppBlob is set to NULL.)^ ^This means that, provided
+** the API is not misused, it is always safe to call [sqlite3_blob_close()]
+** on *ppBlob after this function it returns.
+** This function fails with SQLITE_ERROR if any of the following are true:
+** <ul>
+** <li> ^(Database zDb does not exist)^,
+** <li> ^(Table zTable does not exist within database zDb)^,
+** <li> ^(Table zTable is a WITHOUT ROWID table)^,
+** <li> ^(Column zColumn does not exist)^,
+** <li> ^(Row iRow is not present in the table)^,
+** <li> ^(The specified column of row iRow contains a value that is not
+** a TEXT or BLOB value)^,
+** <li> ^(Column zColumn is part of an index, PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE
+** constraint and the blob is being opened for read/write access)^,
+** <li> ^([foreign key constraints | Foreign key constraints] are enabled,
+** column zColumn is part of a [child key] definition and the blob is
+** being opened for read/write access)^.
+** </ul>
+** ^Unless it returns SQLITE_MISUSE, this function sets the
+** [database connection] error code and message accessible via
+** [sqlite3_errcode()] and [sqlite3_errmsg()] and related functions.
+** ^(If the row that a BLOB handle points to is modified by an
+** [UPDATE], [DELETE], or by [ON CONFLICT] side-effects
+** then the BLOB handle is marked as "expired".
+** This is true if any column of the row is changed, even a column
+** other than the one the BLOB handle is open on.)^
+** ^Calls to [sqlite3_blob_read()] and [sqlite3_blob_write()] for
+** an expired BLOB handle fail with a return code of [SQLITE_ABORT].
+** ^(Changes written into a BLOB prior to the BLOB expiring are not
+** rolled back by the expiration of the BLOB. Such changes will eventually
+** commit if the transaction continues to completion.)^
+** ^Use the [sqlite3_blob_bytes()] interface to determine the size of
+** the opened blob. ^The size of a blob may not be changed by this
+** interface. Use the [UPDATE] SQL command to change the size of a
+** blob.
+** ^The [sqlite3_bind_zeroblob()] and [sqlite3_result_zeroblob()] interfaces
+** and the built-in [zeroblob] SQL function may be used to create a
+** zero-filled blob to read or write using the incremental-blob interface.
+** To avoid a resource leak, every open [BLOB handle] should eventually
+** be released by a call to [sqlite3_blob_close()].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_blob_open(
+ sqlite3*,
+ const char *zDb,
+ const char *zTable,
+ const char *zColumn,
+ sqlite3_int64 iRow,
+ int flags,
+ sqlite3_blob **ppBlob
+** CAPI3REF: Move a BLOB Handle to a New Row
+** METHOD: sqlite3_blob
+** ^This function is used to move an existing blob handle so that it points
+** to a different row of the same database table. ^The new row is identified
+** by the rowid value passed as the second argument. Only the row can be
+** changed. ^The database, table and column on which the blob handle is open
+** remain the same. Moving an existing blob handle to a new row can be
+** faster than closing the existing handle and opening a new one.
+** ^(The new row must meet the same criteria as for [sqlite3_blob_open()] -
+** it must exist and there must be either a blob or text value stored in
+** the nominated column.)^ ^If the new row is not present in the table, or if
+** it does not contain a blob or text value, or if another error occurs, an
+** SQLite error code is returned and the blob handle is considered aborted.
+** ^All subsequent calls to [sqlite3_blob_read()], [sqlite3_blob_write()] or
+** [sqlite3_blob_reopen()] on an aborted blob handle immediately return
+** SQLITE_ABORT. ^Calling [sqlite3_blob_bytes()] on an aborted blob handle
+** always returns zero.
+** ^This function sets the database handle error code and message.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_blob_reopen(sqlite3_blob *, sqlite3_int64);
+** CAPI3REF: Close A BLOB Handle
+** DESTRUCTOR: sqlite3_blob
+** ^This function closes an open [BLOB handle]. ^(The BLOB handle is closed
+** unconditionally. Even if this routine returns an error code, the
+** handle is still closed.)^
+** ^If the blob handle being closed was opened for read-write access, and if
+** the database is in auto-commit mode and there are no other open read-write
+** blob handles or active write statements, the current transaction is
+** committed. ^If an error occurs while committing the transaction, an error
+** code is returned and the transaction rolled back.
+** Calling this function with an argument that is not a NULL pointer or an
+** open blob handle results in undefined behaviour. ^Calling this routine
+** with a null pointer (such as would be returned by a failed call to
+** [sqlite3_blob_open()]) is a harmless no-op. ^Otherwise, if this function
+** is passed a valid open blob handle, the values returned by the
+** sqlite3_errcode() and sqlite3_errmsg() functions are set before returning.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_blob_close(sqlite3_blob *);
+** CAPI3REF: Return The Size Of An Open BLOB
+** METHOD: sqlite3_blob
+** ^Returns the size in bytes of the BLOB accessible via the
+** successfully opened [BLOB handle] in its only argument. ^The
+** incremental blob I/O routines can only read or overwriting existing
+** blob content; they cannot change the size of a blob.
+** This routine only works on a [BLOB handle] which has been created
+** by a prior successful call to [sqlite3_blob_open()] and which has not
+** been closed by [sqlite3_blob_close()]. Passing any other pointer in
+** to this routine results in undefined and probably undesirable behavior.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_blob_bytes(sqlite3_blob *);
+** CAPI3REF: Read Data From A BLOB Incrementally
+** METHOD: sqlite3_blob
+** ^(This function is used to read data from an open [BLOB handle] into a
+** caller-supplied buffer. N bytes of data are copied into buffer Z
+** from the open BLOB, starting at offset iOffset.)^
+** ^If offset iOffset is less than N bytes from the end of the BLOB,
+** [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is read. ^If N or iOffset is
+** less than zero, [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is read.
+** ^The size of the blob (and hence the maximum value of N+iOffset)
+** can be determined using the [sqlite3_blob_bytes()] interface.
+** ^An attempt to read from an expired [BLOB handle] fails with an
+** error code of [SQLITE_ABORT].
+** ^(On success, sqlite3_blob_read() returns SQLITE_OK.
+** Otherwise, an [error code] or an [extended error code] is returned.)^
+** This routine only works on a [BLOB handle] which has been created
+** by a prior successful call to [sqlite3_blob_open()] and which has not
+** been closed by [sqlite3_blob_close()]. Passing any other pointer in
+** to this routine results in undefined and probably undesirable behavior.
+** See also: [sqlite3_blob_write()].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_blob_read(sqlite3_blob *, void *Z, int N, int iOffset);
+** CAPI3REF: Write Data Into A BLOB Incrementally
+** METHOD: sqlite3_blob
+** ^(This function is used to write data into an open [BLOB handle] from a
+** caller-supplied buffer. N bytes of data are copied from the buffer Z
+** into the open BLOB, starting at offset iOffset.)^
+** ^(On success, sqlite3_blob_write() returns SQLITE_OK.
+** Otherwise, an [error code] or an [extended error code] is returned.)^
+** ^Unless SQLITE_MISUSE is returned, this function sets the
+** [database connection] error code and message accessible via
+** [sqlite3_errcode()] and [sqlite3_errmsg()] and related functions.
+** ^If the [BLOB handle] passed as the first argument was not opened for
+** writing (the flags parameter to [sqlite3_blob_open()] was zero),
+** this function returns [SQLITE_READONLY].
+** This function may only modify the contents of the BLOB; it is
+** not possible to increase the size of a BLOB using this API.
+** ^If offset iOffset is less than N bytes from the end of the BLOB,
+** [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is written. The size of the
+** BLOB (and hence the maximum value of N+iOffset) can be determined
+** using the [sqlite3_blob_bytes()] interface. ^If N or iOffset are less
+** than zero [SQLITE_ERROR] is returned and no data is written.
+** ^An attempt to write to an expired [BLOB handle] fails with an
+** error code of [SQLITE_ABORT]. ^Writes to the BLOB that occurred
+** before the [BLOB handle] expired are not rolled back by the
+** expiration of the handle, though of course those changes might
+** have been overwritten by the statement that expired the BLOB handle
+** or by other independent statements.
+** This routine only works on a [BLOB handle] which has been created
+** by a prior successful call to [sqlite3_blob_open()] and which has not
+** been closed by [sqlite3_blob_close()]. Passing any other pointer in
+** to this routine results in undefined and probably undesirable behavior.
+** See also: [sqlite3_blob_read()].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_blob_write(sqlite3_blob *, const void *z, int n, int iOffset);
+** CAPI3REF: Virtual File System Objects
+** A virtual filesystem (VFS) is an [sqlite3_vfs] object
+** that SQLite uses to interact
+** with the underlying operating system. Most SQLite builds come with a
+** single default VFS that is appropriate for the host computer.
+** New VFSes can be registered and existing VFSes can be unregistered.
+** The following interfaces are provided.
+** ^The sqlite3_vfs_find() interface returns a pointer to a VFS given its name.
+** ^Names are case sensitive.
+** ^Names are zero-terminated UTF-8 strings.
+** ^If there is no match, a NULL pointer is returned.
+** ^If zVfsName is NULL then the default VFS is returned.
+** ^New VFSes are registered with sqlite3_vfs_register().
+** ^Each new VFS becomes the default VFS if the makeDflt flag is set.
+** ^The same VFS can be registered multiple times without injury.
+** ^To make an existing VFS into the default VFS, register it again
+** with the makeDflt flag set. If two different VFSes with the
+** same name are registered, the behavior is undefined. If a
+** VFS is registered with a name that is NULL or an empty string,
+** then the behavior is undefined.
+** ^Unregister a VFS with the sqlite3_vfs_unregister() interface.
+** ^(If the default VFS is unregistered, another VFS is chosen as
+** the default. The choice for the new VFS is arbitrary.)^
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_vfs *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_vfs_find(const char *zVfsName);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_vfs_register(sqlite3_vfs*, int makeDflt);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_vfs_unregister(sqlite3_vfs*);
+** CAPI3REF: Mutexes
+** The SQLite core uses these routines for thread
+** synchronization. Though they are intended for internal
+** use by SQLite, code that links against SQLite is
+** permitted to use any of these routines.
+** The SQLite source code contains multiple implementations
+** of these mutex routines. An appropriate implementation
+** is selected automatically at compile-time. The following
+** implementations are available in the SQLite core:
+** <ul>
+** <li> SQLITE_MUTEX_W32
+** </ul>
+** The SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP implementation is a set of routines
+** that does no real locking and is appropriate for use in
+** a single-threaded application. The SQLITE_MUTEX_PTHREADS and
+** SQLITE_MUTEX_W32 implementations are appropriate for use on Unix
+** and Windows.
+** If SQLite is compiled with the SQLITE_MUTEX_APPDEF preprocessor
+** macro defined (with "-DSQLITE_MUTEX_APPDEF=1"), then no mutex
+** implementation is included with the library. In this case the
+** application must supply a custom mutex implementation using the
+** [SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX] option of the sqlite3_config() function
+** before calling sqlite3_initialize() or any other public sqlite3_
+** function that calls sqlite3_initialize().
+** ^The sqlite3_mutex_alloc() routine allocates a new
+** mutex and returns a pointer to it. ^The sqlite3_mutex_alloc()
+** routine returns NULL if it is unable to allocate the requested
+** mutex. The argument to sqlite3_mutex_alloc() must one of these
+** integer constants:
+** <ul>
+** </ul>
+** ^The first two constants (SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST and SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE)
+** cause sqlite3_mutex_alloc() to create
+** a new mutex. ^The new mutex is recursive when SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE
+** is used but not necessarily so when SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST is used.
+** The mutex implementation does not need to make a distinction
+** not want to. SQLite will only request a recursive mutex in
+** cases where it really needs one. If a faster non-recursive mutex
+** implementation is available on the host platform, the mutex subsystem
+** might return such a mutex in response to SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST.
+** ^The other allowed parameters to sqlite3_mutex_alloc() (anything other
+** a pointer to a static preexisting mutex. ^Nine static mutexes are
+** used by the current version of SQLite. Future versions of SQLite
+** may add additional static mutexes. Static mutexes are for internal
+** use by SQLite only. Applications that use SQLite mutexes should
+** use only the dynamic mutexes returned by SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST or
+** ^Note that if one of the dynamic mutex parameters (SQLITE_MUTEX_FAST
+** or SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE) is used then sqlite3_mutex_alloc()
+** returns a different mutex on every call. ^For the static
+** mutex types, the same mutex is returned on every call that has
+** the same type number.
+** ^The sqlite3_mutex_free() routine deallocates a previously
+** allocated dynamic mutex. Attempting to deallocate a static
+** mutex results in undefined behavior.
+** ^The sqlite3_mutex_enter() and sqlite3_mutex_try() routines attempt
+** to enter a mutex. ^If another thread is already within the mutex,
+** sqlite3_mutex_enter() will block and sqlite3_mutex_try() will return
+** SQLITE_BUSY. ^The sqlite3_mutex_try() interface returns [SQLITE_OK]
+** upon successful entry. ^(Mutexes created using
+** SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE can be entered multiple times by the same thread.
+** In such cases, the
+** mutex must be exited an equal number of times before another thread
+** can enter.)^ If the same thread tries to enter any mutex other
+** than an SQLITE_MUTEX_RECURSIVE more than once, the behavior is undefined.
+** ^(Some systems (for example, Windows 95) do not support the operation
+** implemented by sqlite3_mutex_try(). On those systems, sqlite3_mutex_try()
+** will always return SQLITE_BUSY. The SQLite core only ever uses
+** sqlite3_mutex_try() as an optimization so this is acceptable
+** behavior.)^
+** ^The sqlite3_mutex_leave() routine exits a mutex that was
+** previously entered by the same thread. The behavior
+** is undefined if the mutex is not currently entered by the
+** calling thread or is not currently allocated.
+** ^If the argument to sqlite3_mutex_enter(), sqlite3_mutex_try(), or
+** sqlite3_mutex_leave() is a NULL pointer, then all three routines
+** behave as no-ops.
+** See also: [sqlite3_mutex_held()] and [sqlite3_mutex_notheld()].
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_mutex *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_mutex_alloc(int);
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_mutex_free(sqlite3_mutex*);
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_mutex_enter(sqlite3_mutex*);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_mutex_try(sqlite3_mutex*);
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_mutex_leave(sqlite3_mutex*);
+** CAPI3REF: Mutex Methods Object
+** An instance of this structure defines the low-level routines
+** used to allocate and use mutexes.
+** Usually, the default mutex implementations provided by SQLite are
+** sufficient, however the application has the option of substituting a custom
+** implementation for specialized deployments or systems for which SQLite
+** does not provide a suitable implementation. In this case, the application
+** creates and populates an instance of this structure to pass
+** to sqlite3_config() along with the [SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX] option.
+** Additionally, an instance of this structure can be used as an
+** output variable when querying the system for the current mutex
+** implementation, using the [SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMUTEX] option.
+** ^The xMutexInit method defined by this structure is invoked as
+** part of system initialization by the sqlite3_initialize() function.
+** ^The xMutexInit routine is called by SQLite exactly once for each
+** effective call to [sqlite3_initialize()].
+** ^The xMutexEnd method defined by this structure is invoked as
+** part of system shutdown by the sqlite3_shutdown() function. The
+** implementation of this method is expected to release all outstanding
+** resources obtained by the mutex methods implementation, especially
+** those obtained by the xMutexInit method. ^The xMutexEnd()
+** interface is invoked exactly once for each call to [sqlite3_shutdown()].
+** ^(The remaining seven methods defined by this structure (xMutexAlloc,
+** xMutexFree, xMutexEnter, xMutexTry, xMutexLeave, xMutexHeld and
+** xMutexNotheld) implement the following interfaces (respectively):
+** <ul>
+** <li> [sqlite3_mutex_alloc()] </li>
+** <li> [sqlite3_mutex_free()] </li>
+** <li> [sqlite3_mutex_enter()] </li>
+** <li> [sqlite3_mutex_try()] </li>
+** <li> [sqlite3_mutex_leave()] </li>
+** <li> [sqlite3_mutex_held()] </li>
+** <li> [sqlite3_mutex_notheld()] </li>
+** </ul>)^
+** The only difference is that the public sqlite3_XXX functions enumerated
+** above silently ignore any invocations that pass a NULL pointer instead
+** of a valid mutex handle. The implementations of the methods defined
+** by this structure are not required to handle this case, the results
+** of passing a NULL pointer instead of a valid mutex handle are undefined
+** (i.e. it is acceptable to provide an implementation that segfaults if
+** it is passed a NULL pointer).
+** The xMutexInit() method must be threadsafe. It must be harmless to
+** invoke xMutexInit() multiple times within the same process and without
+** intervening calls to xMutexEnd(). Second and subsequent calls to
+** xMutexInit() must be no-ops.
+** xMutexInit() must not use SQLite memory allocation ([sqlite3_malloc()]
+** and its associates). Similarly, xMutexAlloc() must not use SQLite memory
+** allocation for a static mutex. ^However xMutexAlloc() may use SQLite
+** memory allocation for a fast or recursive mutex.
+** ^SQLite will invoke the xMutexEnd() method when [sqlite3_shutdown()] is
+** called, but only if the prior call to xMutexInit returned SQLITE_OK.
+** If xMutexInit fails in any way, it is expected to clean up after itself
+** prior to returning.
+typedef struct sqlite3_mutex_methods sqlite3_mutex_methods;
+struct sqlite3_mutex_methods {
+ int (*xMutexInit)(void);
+ int (*xMutexEnd)(void);
+ sqlite3_mutex *(*xMutexAlloc)(int);
+ void (*xMutexFree)(sqlite3_mutex *);
+ void (*xMutexEnter)(sqlite3_mutex *);
+ int (*xMutexTry)(sqlite3_mutex *);
+ void (*xMutexLeave)(sqlite3_mutex *);
+ int (*xMutexHeld)(sqlite3_mutex *);
+ int (*xMutexNotheld)(sqlite3_mutex *);
+** CAPI3REF: Mutex Verification Routines
+** The sqlite3_mutex_held() and sqlite3_mutex_notheld() routines
+** are intended for use inside assert() statements. The SQLite core
+** never uses these routines except inside an assert() and applications
+** are advised to follow the lead of the core. The SQLite core only
+** provides implementations for these routines when it is compiled
+** with the SQLITE_DEBUG flag. External mutex implementations
+** are only required to provide these routines if SQLITE_DEBUG is
+** defined and if NDEBUG is not defined.
+** These routines should return true if the mutex in their argument
+** is held or not held, respectively, by the calling thread.
+** The implementation is not required to provide versions of these
+** routines that actually work. If the implementation does not provide working
+** versions of these routines, it should at least provide stubs that always
+** return true so that one does not get spurious assertion failures.
+** If the argument to sqlite3_mutex_held() is a NULL pointer then
+** the routine should return 1. This seems counter-intuitive since
+** clearly the mutex cannot be held if it does not exist. But
+** the reason the mutex does not exist is because the build is not
+** using mutexes. And we do not want the assert() containing the
+** call to sqlite3_mutex_held() to fail, so a non-zero return is
+** the appropriate thing to do. The sqlite3_mutex_notheld()
+** interface should also return 1 when given a NULL pointer.
+#ifndef NDEBUG
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_mutex_held(sqlite3_mutex*);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_mutex_notheld(sqlite3_mutex*);
+** CAPI3REF: Mutex Types
+** The [sqlite3_mutex_alloc()] interface takes a single argument
+** which is one of these integer constants.
+** The set of static mutexes may change from one SQLite release to the
+** next. Applications that override the built-in mutex logic must be
+** prepared to accommodate additional static mutexes.
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_MEM 3 /* sqlite3_malloc() */
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_OPEN 4 /* sqlite3BtreeOpen() */
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_PRNG 5 /* sqlite3_random() */
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_LRU 6 /* lru page list */
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_PMEM 7 /* sqlite3PageMalloc() */
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_APP1 8 /* For use by application */
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_APP2 9 /* For use by application */
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_APP3 10 /* For use by application */
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_VFS1 11 /* For use by built-in VFS */
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_VFS2 12 /* For use by extension VFS */
+#define SQLITE_MUTEX_STATIC_VFS3 13 /* For use by application VFS */
+** CAPI3REF: Retrieve the mutex for a database connection
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^This interface returns a pointer the [sqlite3_mutex] object that
+** serializes access to the [database connection] given in the argument
+** when the [threading mode] is Serialized.
+** ^If the [threading mode] is Single-thread or Multi-thread then this
+** routine returns a NULL pointer.
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_mutex *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_db_mutex(sqlite3*);
+** CAPI3REF: Low-Level Control Of Database Files
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^The [sqlite3_file_control()] interface makes a direct call to the
+** xFileControl method for the [sqlite3_io_methods] object associated
+** with a particular database identified by the second argument. ^The
+** name of the database is "main" for the main database or "temp" for the
+** TEMP database, or the name that appears after the AS keyword for
+** databases that are added using the [ATTACH] SQL command.
+** ^A NULL pointer can be used in place of "main" to refer to the
+** main database file.
+** ^The third and fourth parameters to this routine
+** are passed directly through to the second and third parameters of
+** the xFileControl method. ^The return value of the xFileControl
+** method becomes the return value of this routine.
+** ^The SQLITE_FCNTL_FILE_POINTER value for the op parameter causes
+** a pointer to the underlying [sqlite3_file] object to be written into
+** the space pointed to by the 4th parameter. ^The SQLITE_FCNTL_FILE_POINTER
+** case is a short-circuit path which does not actually invoke the
+** underlying sqlite3_io_methods.xFileControl method.
+** ^If the second parameter (zDbName) does not match the name of any
+** open database file, then SQLITE_ERROR is returned. ^This error
+** code is not remembered and will not be recalled by [sqlite3_errcode()]
+** or [sqlite3_errmsg()]. The underlying xFileControl method might
+** also return SQLITE_ERROR. There is no way to distinguish between
+** an incorrect zDbName and an SQLITE_ERROR return from the underlying
+** xFileControl method.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_file_control(sqlite3*, const char *zDbName, int op, void*);
+** CAPI3REF: Testing Interface
+** ^The sqlite3_test_control() interface is used to read out internal
+** state of SQLite and to inject faults into SQLite for testing
+** purposes. ^The first parameter is an operation code that determines
+** the number, meaning, and operation of all subsequent parameters.
+** This interface is not for use by applications. It exists solely
+** for verifying the correct operation of the SQLite library. Depending
+** on how the SQLite library is compiled, this interface might not exist.
+** The details of the operation codes, their meanings, the parameters
+** they take, and what they do are all subject to change without notice.
+** Unlike most of the SQLite API, this function is not guaranteed to
+** operate consistently from one release to the next.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_CDECL sqlite3_test_control(int op, ...);
+** CAPI3REF: Testing Interface Operation Codes
+** These constants are the valid operation code parameters used
+** as the first argument to [sqlite3_test_control()].
+** These parameters and their meanings are subject to change
+** without notice. These values are for testing purposes only.
+** Applications should not use any of these parameters or the
+** [sqlite3_test_control()] interface.
+** CAPI3REF: SQLite Runtime Status
+** ^These interfaces are used to retrieve runtime status information
+** about the performance of SQLite, and optionally to reset various
+** highwater marks. ^The first argument is an integer code for
+** the specific parameter to measure. ^(Recognized integer codes
+** are of the form [status parameters | SQLITE_STATUS_...].)^
+** ^The current value of the parameter is returned into *pCurrent.
+** ^The highest recorded value is returned in *pHighwater. ^If the
+** resetFlag is true, then the highest record value is reset after
+** *pHighwater is written. ^(Some parameters do not record the highest
+** value. For those parameters
+** nothing is written into *pHighwater and the resetFlag is ignored.)^
+** ^(Other parameters record only the highwater mark and not the current
+** value. For these latter parameters nothing is written into *pCurrent.)^
+** ^The sqlite3_status() and sqlite3_status64() routines return
+** SQLITE_OK on success and a non-zero [error code] on failure.
+** If either the current value or the highwater mark is too large to
+** be represented by a 32-bit integer, then the values returned by
+** sqlite3_status() are undefined.
+** See also: [sqlite3_db_status()]
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_status(int op, int *pCurrent, int *pHighwater, int resetFlag);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_status64(
+ int op,
+ sqlite3_int64 *pCurrent,
+ sqlite3_int64 *pHighwater,
+ int resetFlag
+** CAPI3REF: Status Parameters
+** KEYWORDS: {status parameters}
+** These integer constants designate various run-time status parameters
+** that can be returned by [sqlite3_status()].
+** <dl>
+** <dd>This parameter is the current amount of memory checked out
+** using [sqlite3_malloc()], either directly or indirectly. The
+** figure includes calls made to [sqlite3_malloc()] by the application
+** and internal memory usage by the SQLite library. Scratch memory
+** controlled by [SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH] and auxiliary page-cache
+** memory controlled by [SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE] is not included in
+** this parameter. The amount returned is the sum of the allocation
+** sizes as reported by the xSize method in [sqlite3_mem_methods].</dd>)^
+** <dd>This parameter records the largest memory allocation request
+** handed to [sqlite3_malloc()] or [sqlite3_realloc()] (or their
+** internal equivalents). Only the value returned in the
+** *pHighwater parameter to [sqlite3_status()] is of interest.
+** The value written into the *pCurrent parameter is undefined.</dd>)^
+** <dd>This parameter records the number of separate memory allocations
+** currently checked out.</dd>)^
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number of pages used out of the
+** [pagecache memory allocator] that was configured using
+** value returned is in pages, not in bytes.</dd>)^
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number of bytes of page cache
+** allocation which could not be satisfied by the [SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE]
+** buffer and where forced to overflow to [sqlite3_malloc()]. The
+** returned value includes allocations that overflowed because they
+** where too large (they were larger than the "sz" parameter to
+** [SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE]) and allocations that overflowed because
+** no space was left in the page cache.</dd>)^
+** <dd>This parameter records the largest memory allocation request
+** handed to [pagecache memory allocator]. Only the value returned in the
+** *pHighwater parameter to [sqlite3_status()] is of interest.
+** The value written into the *pCurrent parameter is undefined.</dd>)^
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number of allocations used out of the
+** [scratch memory allocator] configured using
+** [SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH]. The value returned is in allocations, not
+** in bytes. Since a single thread may only have one scratch allocation
+** outstanding at time, this parameter also reports the number of threads
+** using scratch memory at the same time.</dd>)^
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number of bytes of scratch memory
+** allocation which could not be satisfied by the [SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH]
+** buffer and where forced to overflow to [sqlite3_malloc()]. The values
+** returned include overflows because the requested allocation was too
+** larger (that is, because the requested allocation was larger than the
+** "sz" parameter to [SQLITE_CONFIG_SCRATCH]) and because no scratch buffer
+** slots were available.
+** </dd>)^
+** <dd>This parameter records the largest memory allocation request
+** handed to [scratch memory allocator]. Only the value returned in the
+** *pHighwater parameter to [sqlite3_status()] is of interest.
+** The value written into the *pCurrent parameter is undefined.</dd>)^
+** <dd>The *pHighwater parameter records the deepest parser stack.
+** The *pCurrent value is undefined. The *pHighwater value is only
+** meaningful if SQLite is compiled with [YYTRACKMAXSTACKDEPTH].</dd>)^
+** </dl>
+** New status parameters may be added from time to time.
+** CAPI3REF: Database Connection Status
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^This interface is used to retrieve runtime status information
+** about a single [database connection]. ^The first argument is the
+** database connection object to be interrogated. ^The second argument
+** is an integer constant, taken from the set of
+** [SQLITE_DBSTATUS options], that
+** determines the parameter to interrogate. The set of
+** [SQLITE_DBSTATUS options] is likely
+** to grow in future releases of SQLite.
+** ^The current value of the requested parameter is written into *pCur
+** and the highest instantaneous value is written into *pHiwtr. ^If
+** the resetFlg is true, then the highest instantaneous value is
+** reset back down to the current value.
+** ^The sqlite3_db_status() routine returns SQLITE_OK on success and a
+** non-zero [error code] on failure.
+** See also: [sqlite3_status()] and [sqlite3_stmt_status()].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_db_status(sqlite3*, int op, int *pCur, int *pHiwtr, int resetFlg);
+** CAPI3REF: Status Parameters for database connections
+** These constants are the available integer "verbs" that can be passed as
+** the second argument to the [sqlite3_db_status()] interface.
+** New verbs may be added in future releases of SQLite. Existing verbs
+** might be discontinued. Applications should check the return code from
+** [sqlite3_db_status()] to make sure that the call worked.
+** The [sqlite3_db_status()] interface will return a non-zero error code
+** if a discontinued or unsupported verb is invoked.
+** <dl>
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number of lookaside memory slots currently
+** checked out.</dd>)^
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number malloc attempts that were
+** satisfied using lookaside memory. Only the high-water value is meaningful;
+** the current value is always zero.)^
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number malloc attempts that might have
+** been satisfied using lookaside memory but failed due to the amount of
+** memory requested being larger than the lookaside slot size.
+** Only the high-water value is meaningful;
+** the current value is always zero.)^
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number malloc attempts that might have
+** been satisfied using lookaside memory but failed due to all lookaside
+** memory already being in use.
+** Only the high-water value is meaningful;
+** the current value is always zero.)^
+** <dd>This parameter returns the approximate number of bytes of heap
+** memory used by all pager caches associated with the database connection.)^
+** ^The highwater mark associated with SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_USED is always 0.
+** <dd>This parameter returns the approximate number of bytes of heap
+** memory used to store the schema for all databases associated
+** with the connection - main, temp, and any [ATTACH]-ed databases.)^
+** ^The full amount of memory used by the schemas is reported, even if the
+** schema memory is shared with other database connections due to
+** [shared cache mode] being enabled.
+** ^The highwater mark associated with SQLITE_DBSTATUS_SCHEMA_USED is always 0.
+** <dd>This parameter returns the approximate number of bytes of heap
+** and lookaside memory used by all prepared statements associated with
+** the database connection.)^
+** ^The highwater mark associated with SQLITE_DBSTATUS_STMT_USED is always 0.
+** </dd>
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number of pager cache hits that have
+** occurred.)^ ^The highwater mark associated with SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_HIT
+** is always 0.
+** </dd>
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number of pager cache misses that have
+** occurred.)^ ^The highwater mark associated with SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_MISS
+** is always 0.
+** </dd>
+** <dd>This parameter returns the number of dirty cache entries that have
+** been written to disk. Specifically, the number of pages written to the
+** wal file in wal mode databases, or the number of pages written to the
+** database file in rollback mode databases. Any pages written as part of
+** transaction rollback or database recovery operations are not included.
+** If an IO or other error occurs while writing a page to disk, the effect
+** on subsequent SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_WRITE requests is undefined.)^ ^The
+** highwater mark associated with SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_WRITE is always 0.
+** </dd>
+** <dd>This parameter returns zero for the current value if and only if
+** all foreign key constraints (deferred or immediate) have been
+** resolved.)^ ^The highwater mark is always 0.
+** </dd>
+** </dl>
+#define SQLITE_DBSTATUS_MAX 10 /* Largest defined DBSTATUS */
+** CAPI3REF: Prepared Statement Status
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^(Each prepared statement maintains various
+** [SQLITE_STMTSTATUS counters] that measure the number
+** of times it has performed specific operations.)^ These counters can
+** be used to monitor the performance characteristics of the prepared
+** statements. For example, if the number of table steps greatly exceeds
+** the number of table searches or result rows, that would tend to indicate
+** that the prepared statement is using a full table scan rather than
+** an index.
+** ^(This interface is used to retrieve and reset counter values from
+** a [prepared statement]. The first argument is the prepared statement
+** object to be interrogated. The second argument
+** is an integer code for a specific [SQLITE_STMTSTATUS counter]
+** to be interrogated.)^
+** ^The current value of the requested counter is returned.
+** ^If the resetFlg is true, then the counter is reset to zero after this
+** interface call returns.
+** See also: [sqlite3_status()] and [sqlite3_db_status()].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_stmt_status(sqlite3_stmt*, int op,int resetFlg);
+** CAPI3REF: Status Parameters for prepared statements
+** These preprocessor macros define integer codes that name counter
+** values associated with the [sqlite3_stmt_status()] interface.
+** The meanings of the various counters are as follows:
+** <dl>
+** <dd>^This is the number of times that SQLite has stepped forward in
+** a table as part of a full table scan. Large numbers for this counter
+** may indicate opportunities for performance improvement through
+** careful use of indices.</dd>
+** <dd>^This is the number of sort operations that have occurred.
+** A non-zero value in this counter may indicate an opportunity to
+** improvement performance through careful use of indices.</dd>
+** <dd>^This is the number of rows inserted into transient indices that
+** were created automatically in order to help joins run faster.
+** A non-zero value in this counter may indicate an opportunity to
+** improvement performance by adding permanent indices that do not
+** need to be reinitialized each time the statement is run.</dd>
+** <dd>^This is the number of virtual machine operations executed
+** by the prepared statement if that number is less than or equal
+** to 2147483647. The number of virtual machine operations can be
+** used as a proxy for the total work done by the prepared statement.
+** If the number of virtual machine operations exceeds 2147483647
+** then the value returned by this statement status code is undefined.
+** </dd>
+** </dl>
+** CAPI3REF: Custom Page Cache Object
+** The sqlite3_pcache type is opaque. It is implemented by
+** the pluggable module. The SQLite core has no knowledge of
+** its size or internal structure and never deals with the
+** sqlite3_pcache object except by holding and passing pointers
+** to the object.
+** See [sqlite3_pcache_methods2] for additional information.
+typedef struct sqlite3_pcache sqlite3_pcache;
+** CAPI3REF: Custom Page Cache Object
+** The sqlite3_pcache_page object represents a single page in the
+** page cache. The page cache will allocate instances of this
+** object. Various methods of the page cache use pointers to instances
+** of this object as parameters or as their return value.
+** See [sqlite3_pcache_methods2] for additional information.
+typedef struct sqlite3_pcache_page sqlite3_pcache_page;
+struct sqlite3_pcache_page {
+ void *pBuf; /* The content of the page */
+ void *pExtra; /* Extra information associated with the page */
+** CAPI3REF: Application Defined Page Cache.
+** KEYWORDS: {page cache}
+** ^(The [sqlite3_config]([SQLITE_CONFIG_PCACHE2], ...) interface can
+** register an alternative page cache implementation by passing in an
+** instance of the sqlite3_pcache_methods2 structure.)^
+** In many applications, most of the heap memory allocated by
+** SQLite is used for the page cache.
+** By implementing a
+** custom page cache using this API, an application can better control
+** the amount of memory consumed by SQLite, the way in which
+** that memory is allocated and released, and the policies used to
+** determine exactly which parts of a database file are cached and for
+** how long.
+** The alternative page cache mechanism is an
+** extreme measure that is only needed by the most demanding applications.
+** The built-in page cache is recommended for most uses.
+** ^(The contents of the sqlite3_pcache_methods2 structure are copied to an
+** internal buffer by SQLite within the call to [sqlite3_config]. Hence
+** the application may discard the parameter after the call to
+** [sqlite3_config()] returns.)^
+** [[the xInit() page cache method]]
+** ^(The xInit() method is called once for each effective
+** call to [sqlite3_initialize()])^
+** (usually only once during the lifetime of the process). ^(The xInit()
+** method is passed a copy of the sqlite3_pcache_methods2.pArg value.)^
+** The intent of the xInit() method is to set up global data structures
+** required by the custom page cache implementation.
+** ^(If the xInit() method is NULL, then the
+** built-in default page cache is used instead of the application defined
+** page cache.)^
+** [[the xShutdown() page cache method]]
+** ^The xShutdown() method is called by [sqlite3_shutdown()].
+** It can be used to clean up
+** any outstanding resources before process shutdown, if required.
+** ^The xShutdown() method may be NULL.
+** ^SQLite automatically serializes calls to the xInit method,
+** so the xInit method need not be threadsafe. ^The
+** xShutdown method is only called from [sqlite3_shutdown()] so it does
+** not need to be threadsafe either. All other methods must be threadsafe
+** in multithreaded applications.
+** ^SQLite will never invoke xInit() more than once without an intervening
+** call to xShutdown().
+** [[the xCreate() page cache methods]]
+** ^SQLite invokes the xCreate() method to construct a new cache instance.
+** SQLite will typically create one cache instance for each open database file,
+** though this is not guaranteed. ^The
+** first parameter, szPage, is the size in bytes of the pages that must
+** be allocated by the cache. ^szPage will always a power of two. ^The
+** second parameter szExtra is a number of bytes of extra storage
+** associated with each page cache entry. ^The szExtra parameter will
+** a number less than 250. SQLite will use the
+** extra szExtra bytes on each page to store metadata about the underlying
+** database page on disk. The value passed into szExtra depends
+** on the SQLite version, the target platform, and how SQLite was compiled.
+** ^The third argument to xCreate(), bPurgeable, is true if the cache being
+** created will be used to cache database pages of a file stored on disk, or
+** false if it is used for an in-memory database. The cache implementation
+** does not have to do anything special based with the value of bPurgeable;
+** it is purely advisory. ^On a cache where bPurgeable is false, SQLite will
+** never invoke xUnpin() except to deliberately delete a page.
+** ^In other words, calls to xUnpin() on a cache with bPurgeable set to
+** false will always have the "discard" flag set to true.
+** ^Hence, a cache created with bPurgeable false will
+** never contain any unpinned pages.
+** [[the xCachesize() page cache method]]
+** ^(The xCachesize() method may be called at any time by SQLite to set the
+** suggested maximum cache-size (number of pages stored by) the cache
+** instance passed as the first argument. This is the value configured using
+** the SQLite "[PRAGMA cache_size]" command.)^ As with the bPurgeable
+** parameter, the implementation is not required to do anything with this
+** value; it is advisory only.
+** [[the xPagecount() page cache methods]]
+** The xPagecount() method must return the number of pages currently
+** stored in the cache, both pinned and unpinned.
+** [[the xFetch() page cache methods]]
+** The xFetch() method locates a page in the cache and returns a pointer to
+** an sqlite3_pcache_page object associated with that page, or a NULL pointer.
+** The pBuf element of the returned sqlite3_pcache_page object will be a
+** pointer to a buffer of szPage bytes used to store the content of a
+** single database page. The pExtra element of sqlite3_pcache_page will be
+** a pointer to the szExtra bytes of extra storage that SQLite has requested
+** for each entry in the page cache.
+** The page to be fetched is determined by the key. ^The minimum key value
+** is 1. After it has been retrieved using xFetch, the page is considered
+** to be "pinned".
+** If the requested page is already in the page cache, then the page cache
+** implementation must return a pointer to the page buffer with its content
+** intact. If the requested page is not already in the cache, then the
+** cache implementation should use the value of the createFlag
+** parameter to help it determined what action to take:
+** <table border=1 width=85% align=center>
+** <tr><th> createFlag <th> Behavior when page is not already in cache
+** <tr><td> 0 <td> Do not allocate a new page. Return NULL.
+** <tr><td> 1 <td> Allocate a new page if it easy and convenient to do so.
+** Otherwise return NULL.
+** <tr><td> 2 <td> Make every effort to allocate a new page. Only return
+** NULL if allocating a new page is effectively impossible.
+** </table>
+** ^(SQLite will normally invoke xFetch() with a createFlag of 0 or 1. SQLite
+** will only use a createFlag of 2 after a prior call with a createFlag of 1
+** failed.)^ In between the to xFetch() calls, SQLite may
+** attempt to unpin one or more cache pages by spilling the content of
+** pinned pages to disk and synching the operating system disk cache.
+** [[the xUnpin() page cache method]]
+** ^xUnpin() is called by SQLite with a pointer to a currently pinned page
+** as its second argument. If the third parameter, discard, is non-zero,
+** then the page must be evicted from the cache.
+** ^If the discard parameter is
+** zero, then the page may be discarded or retained at the discretion of
+** page cache implementation. ^The page cache implementation
+** may choose to evict unpinned pages at any time.
+** The cache must not perform any reference counting. A single
+** call to xUnpin() unpins the page regardless of the number of prior calls
+** to xFetch().
+** [[the xRekey() page cache methods]]
+** The xRekey() method is used to change the key value associated with the
+** page passed as the second argument. If the cache
+** previously contains an entry associated with newKey, it must be
+** discarded. ^Any prior cache entry associated with newKey is guaranteed not
+** to be pinned.
+** When SQLite calls the xTruncate() method, the cache must discard all
+** existing cache entries with page numbers (keys) greater than or equal
+** to the value of the iLimit parameter passed to xTruncate(). If any
+** of these pages are pinned, they are implicitly unpinned, meaning that
+** they can be safely discarded.
+** [[the xDestroy() page cache method]]
+** ^The xDestroy() method is used to delete a cache allocated by xCreate().
+** All resources associated with the specified cache should be freed. ^After
+** calling the xDestroy() method, SQLite considers the [sqlite3_pcache*]
+** handle invalid, and will not use it with any other sqlite3_pcache_methods2
+** functions.
+** [[the xShrink() page cache method]]
+** ^SQLite invokes the xShrink() method when it wants the page cache to
+** free up as much of heap memory as possible. The page cache implementation
+** is not obligated to free any memory, but well-behaved implementations should
+** do their best.
+typedef struct sqlite3_pcache_methods2 sqlite3_pcache_methods2;
+struct sqlite3_pcache_methods2 {
+ int iVersion;
+ void *pArg;
+ int (*xInit)(void*);
+ void (*xShutdown)(void*);
+ sqlite3_pcache *(*xCreate)(int szPage, int szExtra, int bPurgeable);
+ void (*xCachesize)(sqlite3_pcache*, int nCachesize);
+ int (*xPagecount)(sqlite3_pcache*);
+ sqlite3_pcache_page *(*xFetch)(sqlite3_pcache*, unsigned key, int createFlag);
+ void (*xUnpin)(sqlite3_pcache*, sqlite3_pcache_page*, int discard);
+ void (*xRekey)(sqlite3_pcache*, sqlite3_pcache_page*,
+ unsigned oldKey, unsigned newKey);
+ void (*xTruncate)(sqlite3_pcache*, unsigned iLimit);
+ void (*xDestroy)(sqlite3_pcache*);
+ void (*xShrink)(sqlite3_pcache*);
+** This is the obsolete pcache_methods object that has now been replaced
+** by sqlite3_pcache_methods2. This object is not used by SQLite. It is
+** retained in the header file for backwards compatibility only.
+typedef struct sqlite3_pcache_methods sqlite3_pcache_methods;
+struct sqlite3_pcache_methods {
+ void *pArg;
+ int (*xInit)(void*);
+ void (*xShutdown)(void*);
+ sqlite3_pcache *(*xCreate)(int szPage, int bPurgeable);
+ void (*xCachesize)(sqlite3_pcache*, int nCachesize);
+ int (*xPagecount)(sqlite3_pcache*);
+ void *(*xFetch)(sqlite3_pcache*, unsigned key, int createFlag);
+ void (*xUnpin)(sqlite3_pcache*, void*, int discard);
+ void (*xRekey)(sqlite3_pcache*, void*, unsigned oldKey, unsigned newKey);
+ void (*xTruncate)(sqlite3_pcache*, unsigned iLimit);
+ void (*xDestroy)(sqlite3_pcache*);
+** CAPI3REF: Online Backup Object
+** The sqlite3_backup object records state information about an ongoing
+** online backup operation. ^The sqlite3_backup object is created by
+** a call to [sqlite3_backup_init()] and is destroyed by a call to
+** [sqlite3_backup_finish()].
+** See Also: [Using the SQLite Online Backup API]
+typedef struct sqlite3_backup sqlite3_backup;
+** CAPI3REF: Online Backup API.
+** The backup API copies the content of one database into another.
+** It is useful either for creating backups of databases or
+** for copying in-memory databases to or from persistent files.
+** See Also: [Using the SQLite Online Backup API]
+** ^SQLite holds a write transaction open on the destination database file
+** for the duration of the backup operation.
+** ^The source database is read-locked only while it is being read;
+** it is not locked continuously for the entire backup operation.
+** ^Thus, the backup may be performed on a live source database without
+** preventing other database connections from
+** reading or writing to the source database while the backup is underway.
+** ^(To perform a backup operation:
+** <ol>
+** <li><b>sqlite3_backup_init()</b> is called once to initialize the
+** backup,
+** <li><b>sqlite3_backup_step()</b> is called one or more times to transfer
+** the data between the two databases, and finally
+** <li><b>sqlite3_backup_finish()</b> is called to release all resources
+** associated with the backup operation.
+** </ol>)^
+** There should be exactly one call to sqlite3_backup_finish() for each
+** successful call to sqlite3_backup_init().
+** [[sqlite3_backup_init()]] <b>sqlite3_backup_init()</b>
+** ^The D and N arguments to sqlite3_backup_init(D,N,S,M) are the
+** [database connection] associated with the destination database
+** and the database name, respectively.
+** ^The database name is "main" for the main database, "temp" for the
+** temporary database, or the name specified after the AS keyword in
+** an [ATTACH] statement for an attached database.
+** ^The S and M arguments passed to
+** sqlite3_backup_init(D,N,S,M) identify the [database connection]
+** and database name of the source database, respectively.
+** ^The source and destination [database connections] (parameters S and D)
+** must be different or else sqlite3_backup_init(D,N,S,M) will fail with
+** an error.
+** ^A call to sqlite3_backup_init() will fail, returning SQLITE_ERROR, if
+** there is already a read or read-write transaction open on the
+** destination database.
+** ^If an error occurs within sqlite3_backup_init(D,N,S,M), then NULL is
+** returned and an error code and error message are stored in the
+** destination [database connection] D.
+** ^The error code and message for the failed call to sqlite3_backup_init()
+** can be retrieved using the [sqlite3_errcode()], [sqlite3_errmsg()], and/or
+** [sqlite3_errmsg16()] functions.
+** ^A successful call to sqlite3_backup_init() returns a pointer to an
+** [sqlite3_backup] object.
+** ^The [sqlite3_backup] object may be used with the sqlite3_backup_step() and
+** sqlite3_backup_finish() functions to perform the specified backup
+** operation.
+** [[sqlite3_backup_step()]] <b>sqlite3_backup_step()</b>
+** ^Function sqlite3_backup_step(B,N) will copy up to N pages between
+** the source and destination databases specified by [sqlite3_backup] object B.
+** ^If N is negative, all remaining source pages are copied.
+** ^If sqlite3_backup_step(B,N) successfully copies N pages and there
+** are still more pages to be copied, then the function returns [SQLITE_OK].
+** ^If sqlite3_backup_step(B,N) successfully finishes copying all pages
+** from source to destination, then it returns [SQLITE_DONE].
+** ^If an error occurs while running sqlite3_backup_step(B,N),
+** then an [error code] is returned. ^As well as [SQLITE_OK] and
+** [SQLITE_DONE], a call to sqlite3_backup_step() may return [SQLITE_READONLY],
+** [SQLITE_IOERR_ACCESS | SQLITE_IOERR_XXX] extended error code.
+** ^(The sqlite3_backup_step() might return [SQLITE_READONLY] if
+** <ol>
+** <li> the destination database was opened read-only, or
+** <li> the destination database is using write-ahead-log journaling
+** and the destination and source page sizes differ, or
+** <li> the destination database is an in-memory database and the
+** destination and source page sizes differ.
+** </ol>)^
+** ^If sqlite3_backup_step() cannot obtain a required file-system lock, then
+** the [sqlite3_busy_handler | busy-handler function]
+** is invoked (if one is specified). ^If the
+** busy-handler returns non-zero before the lock is available, then
+** [SQLITE_BUSY] is returned to the caller. ^In this case the call to
+** sqlite3_backup_step() can be retried later. ^If the source
+** [database connection]
+** is being used to write to the source database when sqlite3_backup_step()
+** is called, then [SQLITE_LOCKED] is returned immediately. ^Again, in this
+** case the call to sqlite3_backup_step() can be retried later on. ^(If
+** [SQLITE_READONLY] is returned, then
+** there is no point in retrying the call to sqlite3_backup_step(). These
+** errors are considered fatal.)^ The application must accept
+** that the backup operation has failed and pass the backup operation handle
+** to the sqlite3_backup_finish() to release associated resources.
+** ^The first call to sqlite3_backup_step() obtains an exclusive lock
+** on the destination file. ^The exclusive lock is not released until either
+** sqlite3_backup_finish() is called or the backup operation is complete
+** and sqlite3_backup_step() returns [SQLITE_DONE]. ^Every call to
+** sqlite3_backup_step() obtains a [shared lock] on the source database that
+** lasts for the duration of the sqlite3_backup_step() call.
+** ^Because the source database is not locked between calls to
+** sqlite3_backup_step(), the source database may be modified mid-way
+** through the backup process. ^If the source database is modified by an
+** external process or via a database connection other than the one being
+** used by the backup operation, then the backup will be automatically
+** restarted by the next call to sqlite3_backup_step(). ^If the source
+** database is modified by the using the same database connection as is used
+** by the backup operation, then the backup database is automatically
+** updated at the same time.
+** [[sqlite3_backup_finish()]] <b>sqlite3_backup_finish()</b>
+** When sqlite3_backup_step() has returned [SQLITE_DONE], or when the
+** application wishes to abandon the backup operation, the application
+** should destroy the [sqlite3_backup] by passing it to sqlite3_backup_finish().
+** ^The sqlite3_backup_finish() interfaces releases all
+** resources associated with the [sqlite3_backup] object.
+** ^If sqlite3_backup_step() has not yet returned [SQLITE_DONE], then any
+** active write-transaction on the destination database is rolled back.
+** The [sqlite3_backup] object is invalid
+** and may not be used following a call to sqlite3_backup_finish().
+** ^The value returned by sqlite3_backup_finish is [SQLITE_OK] if no
+** sqlite3_backup_step() errors occurred, regardless or whether or not
+** sqlite3_backup_step() completed.
+** ^If an out-of-memory condition or IO error occurred during any prior
+** sqlite3_backup_step() call on the same [sqlite3_backup] object, then
+** sqlite3_backup_finish() returns the corresponding [error code].
+** ^A return of [SQLITE_BUSY] or [SQLITE_LOCKED] from sqlite3_backup_step()
+** is not a permanent error and does not affect the return value of
+** sqlite3_backup_finish().
+** [[sqlite3_backup_remaining()]] [[sqlite3_backup_pagecount()]]
+** <b>sqlite3_backup_remaining() and sqlite3_backup_pagecount()</b>
+** ^The sqlite3_backup_remaining() routine returns the number of pages still
+** to be backed up at the conclusion of the most recent sqlite3_backup_step().
+** ^The sqlite3_backup_pagecount() routine returns the total number of pages
+** in the source database at the conclusion of the most recent
+** sqlite3_backup_step().
+** ^(The values returned by these functions are only updated by
+** sqlite3_backup_step(). If the source database is modified in a way that
+** changes the size of the source database or the number of pages remaining,
+** those changes are not reflected in the output of sqlite3_backup_pagecount()
+** and sqlite3_backup_remaining() until after the next
+** sqlite3_backup_step().)^
+** <b>Concurrent Usage of Database Handles</b>
+** ^The source [database connection] may be used by the application for other
+** purposes while a backup operation is underway or being initialized.
+** ^If SQLite is compiled and configured to support threadsafe database
+** connections, then the source database connection may be used concurrently
+** from within other threads.
+** However, the application must guarantee that the destination
+** [database connection] is not passed to any other API (by any thread) after
+** sqlite3_backup_init() is called and before the corresponding call to
+** sqlite3_backup_finish(). SQLite does not currently check to see
+** if the application incorrectly accesses the destination [database connection]
+** and so no error code is reported, but the operations may malfunction
+** nevertheless. Use of the destination database connection while a
+** backup is in progress might also also cause a mutex deadlock.
+** If running in [shared cache mode], the application must
+** guarantee that the shared cache used by the destination database
+** is not accessed while the backup is running. In practice this means
+** that the application must guarantee that the disk file being
+** backed up to is not accessed by any connection within the process,
+** not just the specific connection that was passed to sqlite3_backup_init().
+** The [sqlite3_backup] object itself is partially threadsafe. Multiple
+** threads may safely make multiple concurrent calls to sqlite3_backup_step().
+** However, the sqlite3_backup_remaining() and sqlite3_backup_pagecount()
+** APIs are not strictly speaking threadsafe. If they are invoked at the
+** same time as another thread is invoking sqlite3_backup_step() it is
+** possible that they return invalid values.
+SQLITE_API sqlite3_backup *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_backup_init(
+ sqlite3 *pDest, /* Destination database handle */
+ const char *zDestName, /* Destination database name */
+ sqlite3 *pSource, /* Source database handle */
+ const char *zSourceName /* Source database name */
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_backup_step(sqlite3_backup *p, int nPage);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_backup_finish(sqlite3_backup *p);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_backup_remaining(sqlite3_backup *p);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_backup_pagecount(sqlite3_backup *p);
+** CAPI3REF: Unlock Notification
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^When running in shared-cache mode, a database operation may fail with
+** an [SQLITE_LOCKED] error if the required locks on the shared-cache or
+** individual tables within the shared-cache cannot be obtained. See
+** [SQLite Shared-Cache Mode] for a description of shared-cache locking.
+** ^This API may be used to register a callback that SQLite will invoke
+** when the connection currently holding the required lock relinquishes it.
+** ^This API is only available if the library was compiled with the
+** [SQLITE_ENABLE_UNLOCK_NOTIFY] C-preprocessor symbol defined.
+** See Also: [Using the SQLite Unlock Notification Feature].
+** ^Shared-cache locks are released when a database connection concludes
+** its current transaction, either by committing it or rolling it back.
+** ^When a connection (known as the blocked connection) fails to obtain a
+** shared-cache lock and SQLITE_LOCKED is returned to the caller, the
+** identity of the database connection (the blocking connection) that
+** has locked the required resource is stored internally. ^After an
+** application receives an SQLITE_LOCKED error, it may call the
+** sqlite3_unlock_notify() method with the blocked connection handle as
+** the first argument to register for a callback that will be invoked
+** when the blocking connections current transaction is concluded. ^The
+** callback is invoked from within the [sqlite3_step] or [sqlite3_close]
+** call that concludes the blocking connections transaction.
+** ^(If sqlite3_unlock_notify() is called in a multi-threaded application,
+** there is a chance that the blocking connection will have already
+** concluded its transaction by the time sqlite3_unlock_notify() is invoked.
+** If this happens, then the specified callback is invoked immediately,
+** from within the call to sqlite3_unlock_notify().)^
+** ^If the blocked connection is attempting to obtain a write-lock on a
+** shared-cache table, and more than one other connection currently holds
+** a read-lock on the same table, then SQLite arbitrarily selects one of
+** the other connections to use as the blocking connection.
+** ^(There may be at most one unlock-notify callback registered by a
+** blocked connection. If sqlite3_unlock_notify() is called when the
+** blocked connection already has a registered unlock-notify callback,
+** then the new callback replaces the old.)^ ^If sqlite3_unlock_notify() is
+** called with a NULL pointer as its second argument, then any existing
+** unlock-notify callback is canceled. ^The blocked connections
+** unlock-notify callback may also be canceled by closing the blocked
+** connection using [sqlite3_close()].
+** The unlock-notify callback is not reentrant. If an application invokes
+** any sqlite3_xxx API functions from within an unlock-notify callback, a
+** crash or deadlock may be the result.
+** ^Unless deadlock is detected (see below), sqlite3_unlock_notify() always
+** returns SQLITE_OK.
+** <b>Callback Invocation Details</b>
+** When an unlock-notify callback is registered, the application provides a
+** single void* pointer that is passed to the callback when it is invoked.
+** However, the signature of the callback function allows SQLite to pass
+** it an array of void* context pointers. The first argument passed to
+** an unlock-notify callback is a pointer to an array of void* pointers,
+** and the second is the number of entries in the array.
+** When a blocking connections transaction is concluded, there may be
+** more than one blocked connection that has registered for an unlock-notify
+** callback. ^If two or more such blocked connections have specified the
+** same callback function, then instead of invoking the callback function
+** multiple times, it is invoked once with the set of void* context pointers
+** specified by the blocked connections bundled together into an array.
+** This gives the application an opportunity to prioritize any actions
+** related to the set of unblocked database connections.
+** <b>Deadlock Detection</b>
+** Assuming that after registering for an unlock-notify callback a
+** database waits for the callback to be issued before taking any further
+** action (a reasonable assumption), then using this API may cause the
+** application to deadlock. For example, if connection X is waiting for
+** connection Y's transaction to be concluded, and similarly connection
+** Y is waiting on connection X's transaction, then neither connection
+** will proceed and the system may remain deadlocked indefinitely.
+** To avoid this scenario, the sqlite3_unlock_notify() performs deadlock
+** detection. ^If a given call to sqlite3_unlock_notify() would put the
+** system in a deadlocked state, then SQLITE_LOCKED is returned and no
+** unlock-notify callback is registered. The system is said to be in
+** a deadlocked state if connection A has registered for an unlock-notify
+** callback on the conclusion of connection B's transaction, and connection
+** B has itself registered for an unlock-notify callback when connection
+** A's transaction is concluded. ^Indirect deadlock is also detected, so
+** the system is also considered to be deadlocked if connection B has
+** registered for an unlock-notify callback on the conclusion of connection
+** C's transaction, where connection C is waiting on connection A. ^Any
+** number of levels of indirection are allowed.
+** <b>The "DROP TABLE" Exception</b>
+** When a call to [sqlite3_step()] returns SQLITE_LOCKED, it is almost
+** always appropriate to call sqlite3_unlock_notify(). There is however,
+** one exception. When executing a "DROP TABLE" or "DROP INDEX" statement,
+** SQLite checks if there are any currently executing SELECT statements
+** that belong to the same connection. If there are, SQLITE_LOCKED is
+** returned. In this case there is no "blocking connection", so invoking
+** sqlite3_unlock_notify() results in the unlock-notify callback being
+** invoked immediately. If the application then re-attempts the "DROP TABLE"
+** or "DROP INDEX" query, an infinite loop might be the result.
+** One way around this problem is to check the extended error code returned
+** by an sqlite3_step() call. ^(If there is a blocking connection, then the
+** extended error code is set to SQLITE_LOCKED_SHAREDCACHE. Otherwise, in
+** the special "DROP TABLE/INDEX" case, the extended error code is just
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_unlock_notify(
+ sqlite3 *pBlocked, /* Waiting connection */
+ void (*xNotify)(void **apArg, int nArg), /* Callback function to invoke */
+ void *pNotifyArg /* Argument to pass to xNotify */
+** CAPI3REF: String Comparison
+** ^The [sqlite3_stricmp()] and [sqlite3_strnicmp()] APIs allow applications
+** and extensions to compare the contents of two buffers containing UTF-8
+** strings in a case-independent fashion, using the same definition of "case
+** independence" that SQLite uses internally when comparing identifiers.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_stricmp(const char *, const char *);
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_strnicmp(const char *, const char *, int);
+** CAPI3REF: String Globbing
+** ^The [sqlite3_strglob(P,X)] interface returns zero if and only if
+** string X matches the [GLOB] pattern P.
+** ^The definition of [GLOB] pattern matching used in
+** [sqlite3_strglob(P,X)] is the same as for the "X GLOB P" operator in the
+** SQL dialect understood by SQLite. ^The [sqlite3_strglob(P,X)] function
+** is case sensitive.
+** Note that this routine returns zero on a match and non-zero if the strings
+** do not match, the same as [sqlite3_stricmp()] and [sqlite3_strnicmp()].
+** See also: [sqlite3_strlike()].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_strglob(const char *zGlob, const char *zStr);
+** CAPI3REF: String LIKE Matching
+** ^The [sqlite3_strlike(P,X,E)] interface returns zero if and only if
+** string X matches the [LIKE] pattern P with escape character E.
+** ^The definition of [LIKE] pattern matching used in
+** [sqlite3_strlike(P,X,E)] is the same as for the "X LIKE P ESCAPE E"
+** operator in the SQL dialect understood by SQLite. ^For "X LIKE P" without
+** the ESCAPE clause, set the E parameter of [sqlite3_strlike(P,X,E)] to 0.
+** ^As with the LIKE operator, the [sqlite3_strlike(P,X,E)] function is case
+** insensitive - equivalent upper and lower case ASCII characters match
+** one another.
+** ^The [sqlite3_strlike(P,X,E)] function matches Unicode characters, though
+** only ASCII characters are case folded.
+** Note that this routine returns zero on a match and non-zero if the strings
+** do not match, the same as [sqlite3_stricmp()] and [sqlite3_strnicmp()].
+** See also: [sqlite3_strglob()].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_strlike(const char *zGlob, const char *zStr, unsigned int cEsc);
+** CAPI3REF: Error Logging Interface
+** ^The [sqlite3_log()] interface writes a message into the [error log]
+** established by the [SQLITE_CONFIG_LOG] option to [sqlite3_config()].
+** ^If logging is enabled, the zFormat string and subsequent arguments are
+** used with [sqlite3_snprintf()] to generate the final output string.
+** The sqlite3_log() interface is intended for use by extensions such as
+** virtual tables, collating functions, and SQL functions. While there is
+** nothing to prevent an application from calling sqlite3_log(), doing so
+** is considered bad form.
+** The zFormat string must not be NULL.
+** To avoid deadlocks and other threading problems, the sqlite3_log() routine
+** will not use dynamically allocated memory. The log message is stored in
+** a fixed-length buffer on the stack. If the log message is longer than
+** a few hundred characters, it will be truncated to the length of the
+** buffer.
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_CDECL sqlite3_log(int iErrCode, const char *zFormat, ...);
+** CAPI3REF: Write-Ahead Log Commit Hook
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^The [sqlite3_wal_hook()] function is used to register a callback that
+** is invoked each time data is committed to a database in wal mode.
+** ^(The callback is invoked by SQLite after the commit has taken place and
+** the associated write-lock on the database released)^, so the implementation
+** may read, write or [checkpoint] the database as required.
+** ^The first parameter passed to the callback function when it is invoked
+** is a copy of the third parameter passed to sqlite3_wal_hook() when
+** registering the callback. ^The second is a copy of the database handle.
+** ^The third parameter is the name of the database that was written to -
+** either "main" or the name of an [ATTACH]-ed database. ^The fourth parameter
+** is the number of pages currently in the write-ahead log file,
+** including those that were just committed.
+** The callback function should normally return [SQLITE_OK]. ^If an error
+** code is returned, that error will propagate back up through the
+** SQLite code base to cause the statement that provoked the callback
+** to report an error, though the commit will have still occurred. If the
+** callback returns [SQLITE_ROW] or [SQLITE_DONE], or if it returns a value
+** that does not correspond to any valid SQLite error code, the results
+** are undefined.
+** A single database handle may have at most a single write-ahead log callback
+** registered at one time. ^Calling [sqlite3_wal_hook()] replaces any
+** previously registered write-ahead log callback. ^Note that the
+** [sqlite3_wal_autocheckpoint()] interface and the
+** [wal_autocheckpoint pragma] both invoke [sqlite3_wal_hook()] and will
+** those overwrite any prior [sqlite3_wal_hook()] settings.
+SQLITE_API void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_wal_hook(
+ sqlite3*,
+ int(*)(void *,sqlite3*,const char*,int),
+ void*
+** CAPI3REF: Configure an auto-checkpoint
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^The [sqlite3_wal_autocheckpoint(D,N)] is a wrapper around
+** [sqlite3_wal_hook()] that causes any database on [database connection] D
+** to automatically [checkpoint]
+** after committing a transaction if there are N or
+** more frames in the [write-ahead log] file. ^Passing zero or
+** a negative value as the nFrame parameter disables automatic
+** checkpoints entirely.
+** ^The callback registered by this function replaces any existing callback
+** registered using [sqlite3_wal_hook()]. ^Likewise, registering a callback
+** using [sqlite3_wal_hook()] disables the automatic checkpoint mechanism
+** configured by this function.
+** ^The [wal_autocheckpoint pragma] can be used to invoke this interface
+** from SQL.
+** ^Checkpoints initiated by this mechanism are
+** [sqlite3_wal_checkpoint_v2|PASSIVE].
+** ^Every new [database connection] defaults to having the auto-checkpoint
+** enabled with a threshold of 1000 or [SQLITE_DEFAULT_WAL_AUTOCHECKPOINT]
+** pages. The use of this interface
+** is only necessary if the default setting is found to be suboptimal
+** for a particular application.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_wal_autocheckpoint(sqlite3 *db, int N);
+** CAPI3REF: Checkpoint a database
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^(The sqlite3_wal_checkpoint(D,X) is equivalent to
+** [sqlite3_wal_checkpoint_v2](D,X,[SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_PASSIVE],0,0).)^
+** In brief, sqlite3_wal_checkpoint(D,X) causes the content in the
+** [write-ahead log] for database X on [database connection] D to be
+** transferred into the database file and for the write-ahead log to
+** be reset. See the [checkpointing] documentation for addition
+** information.
+** This interface used to be the only way to cause a checkpoint to
+** occur. But then the newer and more powerful [sqlite3_wal_checkpoint_v2()]
+** interface was added. This interface is retained for backwards
+** compatibility and as a convenience for applications that need to manually
+** start a callback but which do not need the full power (and corresponding
+** complication) of [sqlite3_wal_checkpoint_v2()].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_wal_checkpoint(sqlite3 *db, const char *zDb);
+** CAPI3REF: Checkpoint a database
+** METHOD: sqlite3
+** ^(The sqlite3_wal_checkpoint_v2(D,X,M,L,C) interface runs a checkpoint
+** operation on database X of [database connection] D in mode M. Status
+** information is written back into integers pointed to by L and C.)^
+** ^(The M parameter must be a valid [checkpoint mode]:)^
+** <dl>
+** ^Checkpoint as many frames as possible without waiting for any database
+** readers or writers to finish, then sync the database file if all frames
+** in the log were checkpointed. ^The [busy-handler callback]
+** is never invoked in the SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_PASSIVE mode.
+** ^On the other hand, passive mode might leave the checkpoint unfinished
+** if there are concurrent readers or writers.
+** ^This mode blocks (it invokes the
+** [sqlite3_busy_handler|busy-handler callback]) until there is no
+** database writer and all readers are reading from the most recent database
+** snapshot. ^It then checkpoints all frames in the log file and syncs the
+** database file. ^This mode blocks new database writers while it is pending,
+** but new database readers are allowed to continue unimpeded.
+** ^This mode works the same way as SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_FULL with the addition
+** that after checkpointing the log file it blocks (calls the
+** [busy-handler callback])
+** until all readers are reading from the database file only. ^This ensures
+** that the next writer will restart the log file from the beginning.
+** ^Like SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_FULL, this mode blocks new
+** database writer attempts while it is pending, but does not impede readers.
+** ^This mode works the same way as SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_RESTART with the
+** addition that it also truncates the log file to zero bytes just prior
+** to a successful return.
+** </dl>
+** ^If pnLog is not NULL, then *pnLog is set to the total number of frames in
+** the log file or to -1 if the checkpoint could not run because
+** of an error or because the database is not in [WAL mode]. ^If pnCkpt is not
+** NULL,then *pnCkpt is set to the total number of checkpointed frames in the
+** log file (including any that were already checkpointed before the function
+** was called) or to -1 if the checkpoint could not run due to an error or
+** because the database is not in WAL mode. ^Note that upon successful
+** completion of an SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_TRUNCATE, the log file will have been
+** truncated to zero bytes and so both *pnLog and *pnCkpt will be set to zero.
+** ^All calls obtain an exclusive "checkpoint" lock on the database file. ^If
+** any other process is running a checkpoint operation at the same time, the
+** lock cannot be obtained and SQLITE_BUSY is returned. ^Even if there is a
+** busy-handler configured, it will not be invoked in this case.
+** ^The SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_FULL, RESTART and TRUNCATE modes also obtain the
+** exclusive "writer" lock on the database file. ^If the writer lock cannot be
+** obtained immediately, and a busy-handler is configured, it is invoked and
+** the writer lock retried until either the busy-handler returns 0 or the lock
+** is successfully obtained. ^The busy-handler is also invoked while waiting for
+** database readers as described above. ^If the busy-handler returns 0 before
+** the writer lock is obtained or while waiting for database readers, the
+** checkpoint operation proceeds from that point in the same way as
+** SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_PASSIVE - checkpointing as many frames as possible
+** without blocking any further. ^SQLITE_BUSY is returned in this case.
+** ^If parameter zDb is NULL or points to a zero length string, then the
+** specified operation is attempted on all WAL databases [attached] to
+** [database connection] db. In this case the
+** values written to output parameters *pnLog and *pnCkpt are undefined. ^If
+** an SQLITE_BUSY error is encountered when processing one or more of the
+** attached WAL databases, the operation is still attempted on any remaining
+** attached databases and SQLITE_BUSY is returned at the end. ^If any other
+** error occurs while processing an attached database, processing is abandoned
+** and the error code is returned to the caller immediately. ^If no error
+** (SQLITE_BUSY or otherwise) is encountered while processing the attached
+** databases, SQLITE_OK is returned.
+** ^If database zDb is the name of an attached database that is not in WAL
+** mode, SQLITE_OK is returned and both *pnLog and *pnCkpt set to -1. ^If
+** zDb is not NULL (or a zero length string) and is not the name of any
+** attached database, SQLITE_ERROR is returned to the caller.
+** ^Unless it returns SQLITE_MISUSE,
+** the sqlite3_wal_checkpoint_v2() interface
+** sets the error information that is queried by
+** [sqlite3_errcode()] and [sqlite3_errmsg()].
+** ^The [PRAGMA wal_checkpoint] command can be used to invoke this interface
+** from SQL.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_wal_checkpoint_v2(
+ sqlite3 *db, /* Database handle */
+ const char *zDb, /* Name of attached database (or NULL) */
+ int eMode, /* SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_* value */
+ int *pnLog, /* OUT: Size of WAL log in frames */
+ int *pnCkpt /* OUT: Total number of frames checkpointed */
+** CAPI3REF: Checkpoint Mode Values
+** KEYWORDS: {checkpoint mode}
+** These constants define all valid values for the "checkpoint mode" passed
+** as the third parameter to the [sqlite3_wal_checkpoint_v2()] interface.
+** See the [sqlite3_wal_checkpoint_v2()] documentation for details on the
+** meaning of each of these checkpoint modes.
+#define SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_PASSIVE 0 /* Do as much as possible w/o blocking */
+#define SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_FULL 1 /* Wait for writers, then checkpoint */
+#define SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_RESTART 2 /* Like FULL but wait for for readers */
+#define SQLITE_CHECKPOINT_TRUNCATE 3 /* Like RESTART but also truncate WAL */
+** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Interface Configuration
+** This function may be called by either the [xConnect] or [xCreate] method
+** of a [virtual table] implementation to configure
+** various facets of the virtual table interface.
+** If this interface is invoked outside the context of an xConnect or
+** xCreate virtual table method then the behavior is undefined.
+** At present, there is only one option that may be configured using
+** this function. (See [SQLITE_VTAB_CONSTRAINT_SUPPORT].) Further options
+** may be added in the future.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_CDECL sqlite3_vtab_config(sqlite3*, int op, ...);
+** CAPI3REF: Virtual Table Configuration Options
+** These macros define the various options to the
+** [sqlite3_vtab_config()] interface that [virtual table] implementations
+** can use to customize and optimize their behavior.
+** <dl>
+** <dd>Calls of the form
+** [sqlite3_vtab_config](db,SQLITE_VTAB_CONSTRAINT_SUPPORT,X) are supported,
+** where X is an integer. If X is zero, then the [virtual table] whose
+** [xCreate] or [xConnect] method invoked [sqlite3_vtab_config()] does not
+** support constraints. In this configuration (which is the default) if
+** a call to the [xUpdate] method returns [SQLITE_CONSTRAINT], then the entire
+** statement is rolled back as if [ON CONFLICT | OR ABORT] had been
+** specified as part of the users SQL statement, regardless of the actual
+** ON CONFLICT mode specified.
+** If X is non-zero, then the virtual table implementation guarantees
+** that if [xUpdate] returns [SQLITE_CONSTRAINT], it will do so before
+** any modifications to internal or persistent data structures have been made.
+** is able to roll back a statement or database transaction, and abandon
+** or continue processing the current SQL statement as appropriate.
+** If the ON CONFLICT mode is REPLACE and the [xUpdate] method returns
+** [SQLITE_CONSTRAINT], SQLite handles this as if the ON CONFLICT mode
+** had been ABORT.
+** Virtual table implementations that are required to handle OR REPLACE
+** must do so within the [xUpdate] method. If a call to the
+** [sqlite3_vtab_on_conflict()] function indicates that the current ON
+** CONFLICT policy is REPLACE, the virtual table implementation should
+** silently replace the appropriate rows within the xUpdate callback and
+** return SQLITE_OK. Or, if this is not possible, it may return
+** SQLITE_CONSTRAINT, in which case SQLite falls back to OR ABORT
+** constraint handling.
+** </dl>
+** CAPI3REF: Determine The Virtual Table Conflict Policy
+** This function may only be called from within a call to the [xUpdate] method
+** of a [virtual table] implementation for an INSERT or UPDATE operation. ^The
+** value returned is one of [SQLITE_ROLLBACK], [SQLITE_IGNORE], [SQLITE_FAIL],
+** [SQLITE_ABORT], or [SQLITE_REPLACE], according to the [ON CONFLICT] mode
+** of the SQL statement that triggered the call to the [xUpdate] method of the
+** [virtual table].
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_vtab_on_conflict(sqlite3 *);
+** CAPI3REF: Conflict resolution modes
+** KEYWORDS: {conflict resolution mode}
+** These constants are returned by [sqlite3_vtab_on_conflict()] to
+** inform a [virtual table] implementation what the [ON CONFLICT] mode
+** is for the SQL statement being evaluated.
+** Note that the [SQLITE_IGNORE] constant is also used as a potential
+** return value from the [sqlite3_set_authorizer()] callback and that
+** [SQLITE_ABORT] is also a [result code].
+/* #define SQLITE_IGNORE 2 // Also used by sqlite3_authorizer() callback */
+#define SQLITE_FAIL 3
+/* #define SQLITE_ABORT 4 // Also an error code */
+** CAPI3REF: Prepared Statement Scan Status Opcodes
+** KEYWORDS: {scanstatus options}
+** The following constants can be used for the T parameter to the
+** [sqlite3_stmt_scanstatus(S,X,T,V)] interface. Each constant designates a
+** different metric for sqlite3_stmt_scanstatus() to return.
+** When the value returned to V is a string, space to hold that string is
+** managed by the prepared statement S and will be automatically freed when
+** S is finalized.
+** <dl>
+** <dd>^The [sqlite3_int64] variable pointed to by the T parameter will be
+** set to the total number of times that the X-th loop has run.</dd>
+** <dd>^The [sqlite3_int64] variable pointed to by the T parameter will be set
+** to the total number of rows examined by all iterations of the X-th loop.</dd>
+** <dd>^The "double" variable pointed to by the T parameter will be set to the
+** query planner's estimate for the average number of rows output from each
+** iteration of the X-th loop. If the query planner's estimates was accurate,
+** then this value will approximate the quotient NVISIT/NLOOP and the
+** product of this value for all prior loops with the same SELECTID will
+** be the NLOOP value for the current loop.
+** <dd>^The "const char *" variable pointed to by the T parameter will be set
+** to a zero-terminated UTF-8 string containing the name of the index or table
+** used for the X-th loop.
+** <dd>^The "const char *" variable pointed to by the T parameter will be set
+** to a zero-terminated UTF-8 string containing the [EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN]
+** description for the X-th loop.
+** <dd>^The "int" variable pointed to by the T parameter will be set to the
+** "select-id" for the X-th loop. The select-id identifies which query or
+** subquery the loop is part of. The main query has a select-id of zero.
+** The select-id is the same value as is output in the first column
+** of an [EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN] query.
+** </dl>
+** CAPI3REF: Prepared Statement Scan Status
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** This interface returns information about the predicted and measured
+** performance for pStmt. Advanced applications can use this
+** interface to compare the predicted and the measured performance and
+** issue warnings and/or rerun [ANALYZE] if discrepancies are found.
+** Since this interface is expected to be rarely used, it is only
+** available if SQLite is compiled using the [SQLITE_ENABLE_STMT_SCANSTATUS]
+** compile-time option.
+** The "iScanStatusOp" parameter determines which status information to return.
+** The "iScanStatusOp" must be one of the [scanstatus options] or the behavior
+** of this interface is undefined.
+** ^The requested measurement is written into a variable pointed to by
+** the "pOut" parameter.
+** Parameter "idx" identifies the specific loop to retrieve statistics for.
+** Loops are numbered starting from zero. ^If idx is out of range - less than
+** zero or greater than or equal to the total number of loops used to implement
+** the statement - a non-zero value is returned and the variable that pOut
+** points to is unchanged.
+** ^Statistics might not be available for all loops in all statements. ^In cases
+** where there exist loops with no available statistics, this function behaves
+** as if the loop did not exist - it returns non-zero and leave the variable
+** that pOut points to unchanged.
+** See also: [sqlite3_stmt_scanstatus_reset()]
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_stmt_scanstatus(
+ sqlite3_stmt *pStmt, /* Prepared statement for which info desired */
+ int idx, /* Index of loop to report on */
+ int iScanStatusOp, /* Information desired. SQLITE_SCANSTAT_* */
+ void *pOut /* Result written here */
+** CAPI3REF: Zero Scan-Status Counters
+** METHOD: sqlite3_stmt
+** ^Zero all [sqlite3_stmt_scanstatus()] related event counters.
+** This API is only available if the library is built with pre-processor
+SQLITE_API void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_stmt_scanstatus_reset(sqlite3_stmt*);
+** CAPI3REF: Flush caches to disk mid-transaction
+** ^If a write-transaction is open on [database connection] D when the
+** [sqlite3_db_cacheflush(D)] interface invoked, any dirty
+** pages in the pager-cache that are not currently in use are written out
+** to disk. A dirty page may be in use if a database cursor created by an
+** active SQL statement is reading from it, or if it is page 1 of a database
+** file (page 1 is always "in use"). ^The [sqlite3_db_cacheflush(D)]
+** interface flushes caches for all schemas - "main", "temp", and
+** any [attached] databases.
+** ^If this function needs to obtain extra database locks before dirty pages
+** can be flushed to disk, it does so. ^If those locks cannot be obtained
+** immediately and there is a busy-handler callback configured, it is invoked
+** in the usual manner. ^If the required lock still cannot be obtained, then
+** the database is skipped and an attempt made to flush any dirty pages
+** belonging to the next (if any) database. ^If any databases are skipped
+** because locks cannot be obtained, but no other error occurs, this
+** function returns SQLITE_BUSY.
+** ^If any other error occurs while flushing dirty pages to disk (for
+** example an IO error or out-of-memory condition), then processing is
+** abandoned and an SQLite [error code] is returned to the caller immediately.
+** ^Otherwise, if no error occurs, [sqlite3_db_cacheflush()] returns SQLITE_OK.
+** ^This function does not set the database handle error code or message
+** returned by the [sqlite3_errcode()] and [sqlite3_errmsg()] functions.
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_db_cacheflush(sqlite3*);
+** CAPI3REF: Database Snapshot
+** KEYWORDS: {snapshot}
+** An instance of the snapshot object records the state of a [WAL mode]
+** database for some specific point in history.
+** In [WAL mode], multiple [database connections] that are open on the
+** same database file can each be reading a different historical version
+** of the database file. When a [database connection] begins a read
+** transaction, that connection sees an unchanging copy of the database
+** as it existed for the point in time when the transaction first started.
+** Subsequent changes to the database from other connections are not seen
+** by the reader until a new read transaction is started.
+** The sqlite3_snapshot object records state information about an historical
+** version of the database file so that it is possible to later open a new read
+** transaction that sees that historical version of the database rather than
+** the most recent version.
+** The constructor for this object is [sqlite3_snapshot_get()]. The
+** [sqlite3_snapshot_open()] method causes a fresh read transaction to refer
+** to an historical snapshot (if possible). The destructor for
+** sqlite3_snapshot objects is [sqlite3_snapshot_free()].
+typedef struct sqlite3_snapshot sqlite3_snapshot;
+** CAPI3REF: Record A Database Snapshot
+** ^The [sqlite3_snapshot_get(D,S,P)] interface attempts to make a
+** new [sqlite3_snapshot] object that records the current state of
+** schema S in database connection D. ^On success, the
+** [sqlite3_snapshot_get(D,S,P)] interface writes a pointer to the newly
+** created [sqlite3_snapshot] object into *P and returns SQLITE_OK.
+** ^If schema S of [database connection] D is not a [WAL mode] database
+** that is in a read transaction, then [sqlite3_snapshot_get(D,S,P)]
+** leaves the *P value unchanged and returns an appropriate [error code].
+** The [sqlite3_snapshot] object returned from a successful call to
+** [sqlite3_snapshot_get()] must be freed using [sqlite3_snapshot_free()]
+** to avoid a memory leak.
+** The [sqlite3_snapshot_get()] interface is only available when the
+** SQLITE_ENABLE_SNAPSHOT compile-time option is used.
+ sqlite3 *db,
+ const char *zSchema,
+ sqlite3_snapshot **ppSnapshot
+** CAPI3REF: Start a read transaction on an historical snapshot
+** ^The [sqlite3_snapshot_open(D,S,P)] interface attempts to move the
+** read transaction that is currently open on schema S of
+** [database connection] D so that it refers to historical [snapshot] P.
+** ^The [sqlite3_snapshot_open()] interface returns SQLITE_OK on success
+** or an appropriate [error code] if it fails.
+** ^In order to succeed, a call to [sqlite3_snapshot_open(D,S,P)] must be
+** the first operation, apart from other sqlite3_snapshot_open() calls,
+** following the [BEGIN] that starts a new read transaction.
+** ^A [snapshot] will fail to open if it has been overwritten by a
+** [checkpoint].
+** The [sqlite3_snapshot_open()] interface is only available when the
+** SQLITE_ENABLE_SNAPSHOT compile-time option is used.
+ sqlite3 *db,
+ const char *zSchema,
+ sqlite3_snapshot *pSnapshot
+** CAPI3REF: Destroy a snapshot
+** ^The [sqlite3_snapshot_free(P)] interface destroys [sqlite3_snapshot] P.
+** The application must eventually free every [sqlite3_snapshot] object
+** using this routine to avoid a memory leak.
+** The [sqlite3_snapshot_free()] interface is only available when the
+** SQLITE_ENABLE_SNAPSHOT compile-time option is used.
+SQLITE_API SQLITE_EXPERIMENTAL void SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_snapshot_free(sqlite3_snapshot*);
+** Undo the hack that converts floating point types to integer for
+** builds on processors without floating point support.
+# undef double
+#if 0
+} /* End of the 'extern "C"' block */
+#endif /* _SQLITE3_H_ */
+** 2010 August 30
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code. In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+** May you do good and not evil.
+** May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+** May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+#ifndef _SQLITE3RTREE_H_
+#define _SQLITE3RTREE_H_
+#if 0
+extern "C" {
+typedef struct sqlite3_rtree_geometry sqlite3_rtree_geometry;
+typedef struct sqlite3_rtree_query_info sqlite3_rtree_query_info;
+/* The double-precision datatype used by RTree depends on the
+** SQLITE_RTREE_INT_ONLY compile-time option.
+ typedef sqlite3_int64 sqlite3_rtree_dbl;
+ typedef double sqlite3_rtree_dbl;
+** Register a geometry callback named zGeom that can be used as part of an
+** R-Tree geometry query as follows:
+** SELECT ... FROM <rtree> WHERE <rtree col> MATCH $zGeom(... params ...)
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_rtree_geometry_callback(
+ sqlite3 *db,
+ const char *zGeom,
+ int (*xGeom)(sqlite3_rtree_geometry*, int, sqlite3_rtree_dbl*,int*),
+ void *pContext
+** A pointer to a structure of the following type is passed as the first
+** argument to callbacks registered using rtree_geometry_callback().
+struct sqlite3_rtree_geometry {
+ void *pContext; /* Copy of pContext passed to s_r_g_c() */
+ int nParam; /* Size of array aParam[] */
+ sqlite3_rtree_dbl *aParam; /* Parameters passed to SQL geom function */
+ void *pUser; /* Callback implementation user data */
+ void (*xDelUser)(void *); /* Called by SQLite to clean up pUser */
+** Register a 2nd-generation geometry callback named zScore that can be
+** used as part of an R-Tree geometry query as follows:
+** SELECT ... FROM <rtree> WHERE <rtree col> MATCH $zQueryFunc(... params ...)
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_rtree_query_callback(
+ sqlite3 *db,
+ const char *zQueryFunc,
+ int (*xQueryFunc)(sqlite3_rtree_query_info*),
+ void *pContext,
+ void (*xDestructor)(void*)
+** A pointer to a structure of the following type is passed as the
+** argument to scored geometry callback registered using
+** sqlite3_rtree_query_callback().
+** Note that the first 5 fields of this structure are identical to
+** sqlite3_rtree_geometry. This structure is a subclass of
+** sqlite3_rtree_geometry.
+struct sqlite3_rtree_query_info {
+ void *pContext; /* pContext from when function registered */
+ int nParam; /* Number of function parameters */
+ sqlite3_rtree_dbl *aParam; /* value of function parameters */
+ void *pUser; /* callback can use this, if desired */
+ void (*xDelUser)(void*); /* function to free pUser */
+ sqlite3_rtree_dbl *aCoord; /* Coordinates of node or entry to check */
+ unsigned int *anQueue; /* Number of pending entries in the queue */
+ int nCoord; /* Number of coordinates */
+ int iLevel; /* Level of current node or entry */
+ int mxLevel; /* The largest iLevel value in the tree */
+ sqlite3_int64 iRowid; /* Rowid for current entry */
+ sqlite3_rtree_dbl rParentScore; /* Score of parent node */
+ int eParentWithin; /* Visibility of parent node */
+ int eWithin; /* OUT: Visiblity */
+ sqlite3_rtree_dbl rScore; /* OUT: Write the score here */
+ /* The following fields are only available in 3.8.11 and later */
+ sqlite3_value **apSqlParam; /* Original SQL values of parameters */
+** Allowed values for sqlite3_rtree_query.eWithin and .eParentWithin.
+#define NOT_WITHIN 0 /* Object completely outside of query region */
+#define PARTLY_WITHIN 1 /* Object partially overlaps query region */
+#define FULLY_WITHIN 2 /* Object fully contained within query region */
+#if 0
+} /* end of the 'extern "C"' block */
+#endif /* ifndef _SQLITE3RTREE_H_ */
+** 2014 May 31
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code. In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+** May you do good and not evil.
+** May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+** May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+** Interfaces to extend FTS5. Using the interfaces defined in this file,
+** FTS5 may be extended with:
+** * custom tokenizers, and
+** * custom auxiliary functions.
+#ifndef _FTS5_H
+#define _FTS5_H
+#if 0
+extern "C" {
+** Virtual table implementations may overload SQL functions by implementing
+** the sqlite3_module.xFindFunction() method.
+typedef struct Fts5ExtensionApi Fts5ExtensionApi;
+typedef struct Fts5Context Fts5Context;
+typedef struct Fts5PhraseIter Fts5PhraseIter;
+typedef void (*fts5_extension_function)(
+ const Fts5ExtensionApi *pApi, /* API offered by current FTS version */
+ Fts5Context *pFts, /* First arg to pass to pApi functions */
+ sqlite3_context *pCtx, /* Context for returning result/error */
+ int nVal, /* Number of values in apVal[] array */
+ sqlite3_value **apVal /* Array of trailing arguments */
+struct Fts5PhraseIter {
+ const unsigned char *a;
+ const unsigned char *b;
+** xUserData(pFts):
+** Return a copy of the context pointer the extension function was
+** registered with.
+** xColumnTotalSize(pFts, iCol, pnToken):
+** If parameter iCol is less than zero, set output variable *pnToken
+** to the total number of tokens in the FTS5 table. Or, if iCol is
+** non-negative but less than the number of columns in the table, return
+** the total number of tokens in column iCol, considering all rows in
+** the FTS5 table.
+** If parameter iCol is greater than or equal to the number of columns
+** in the table, SQLITE_RANGE is returned. Or, if an error occurs (e.g.
+** an OOM condition or IO error), an appropriate SQLite error code is
+** returned.
+** xColumnCount(pFts):
+** Return the number of columns in the table.
+** xColumnSize(pFts, iCol, pnToken):
+** If parameter iCol is less than zero, set output variable *pnToken
+** to the total number of tokens in the current row. Or, if iCol is
+** non-negative but less than the number of columns in the table, set
+** *pnToken to the number of tokens in column iCol of the current row.
+** If parameter iCol is greater than or equal to the number of columns
+** in the table, SQLITE_RANGE is returned. Or, if an error occurs (e.g.
+** an OOM condition or IO error), an appropriate SQLite error code is
+** returned.
+** This function may be quite inefficient if used with an FTS5 table
+** created with the "columnsize=0" option.
+** xColumnText:
+** This function attempts to retrieve the text of column iCol of the
+** current document. If successful, (*pz) is set to point to a buffer
+** containing the text in utf-8 encoding, (*pn) is set to the size in bytes
+** (not characters) of the buffer and SQLITE_OK is returned. Otherwise,
+** if an error occurs, an SQLite error code is returned and the final values
+** of (*pz) and (*pn) are undefined.
+** xPhraseCount:
+** Returns the number of phrases in the current query expression.
+** xPhraseSize:
+** Returns the number of tokens in phrase iPhrase of the query. Phrases
+** are numbered starting from zero.
+** xInstCount:
+** Set *pnInst to the total number of occurrences of all phrases within
+** the query within the current row. Return SQLITE_OK if successful, or
+** an error code (i.e. SQLITE_NOMEM) if an error occurs.
+** This API can be quite slow if used with an FTS5 table created with the
+** "detail=none" or "detail=column" option. If the FTS5 table is created
+** with either "detail=none" or "detail=column" and "content=" option
+** (i.e. if it is a contentless table), then this API always returns 0.
+** xInst:
+** Query for the details of phrase match iIdx within the current row.
+** Phrase matches are numbered starting from zero, so the iIdx argument
+** should be greater than or equal to zero and smaller than the value
+** output by xInstCount().
+** Usually, output parameter *piPhrase is set to the phrase number, *piCol
+** to the column in which it occurs and *piOff the token offset of the
+** first token of the phrase. The exception is if the table was created
+** with the offsets=0 option specified. In this case *piOff is always
+** set to -1.
+** Returns SQLITE_OK if successful, or an error code (i.e. SQLITE_NOMEM)
+** if an error occurs.
+** This API can be quite slow if used with an FTS5 table created with the
+** "detail=none" or "detail=column" option.
+** xRowid:
+** Returns the rowid of the current row.
+** xTokenize:
+** Tokenize text using the tokenizer belonging to the FTS5 table.
+** xQueryPhrase(pFts5, iPhrase, pUserData, xCallback):
+** This API function is used to query the FTS table for phrase iPhrase
+** of the current query. Specifically, a query equivalent to:
+** ... FROM ftstable WHERE ftstable MATCH $p ORDER BY rowid
+** with $p set to a phrase equivalent to the phrase iPhrase of the
+** current query is executed. For each row visited, the callback function
+** passed as the fourth argument is invoked. The context and API objects
+** passed to the callback function may be used to access the properties of
+** each matched row. Invoking Api.xUserData() returns a copy of the pointer
+** passed as the third argument to pUserData.
+** If the callback function returns any value other than SQLITE_OK, the
+** query is abandoned and the xQueryPhrase function returns immediately.
+** If the returned value is SQLITE_DONE, xQueryPhrase returns SQLITE_OK.
+** Otherwise, the error code is propagated upwards.
+** If the query runs to completion without incident, SQLITE_OK is returned.
+** Or, if some error occurs before the query completes or is aborted by
+** the callback, an SQLite error code is returned.
+** xSetAuxdata(pFts5, pAux, xDelete)
+** Save the pointer passed as the second argument as the extension functions
+** "auxiliary data". The pointer may then be retrieved by the current or any
+** future invocation of the same fts5 extension function made as part of
+** of the same MATCH query using the xGetAuxdata() API.
+** Each extension function is allocated a single auxiliary data slot for
+** each FTS query (MATCH expression). If the extension function is invoked
+** more than once for a single FTS query, then all invocations share a
+** single auxiliary data context.
+** If there is already an auxiliary data pointer when this function is
+** invoked, then it is replaced by the new pointer. If an xDelete callback
+** was specified along with the original pointer, it is invoked at this
+** point.
+** The xDelete callback, if one is specified, is also invoked on the
+** auxiliary data pointer after the FTS5 query has finished.
+** If an error (e.g. an OOM condition) occurs within this function, an
+** the auxiliary data is set to NULL and an error code returned. If the
+** xDelete parameter was not NULL, it is invoked on the auxiliary data
+** pointer before returning.
+** xGetAuxdata(pFts5, bClear)
+** Returns the current auxiliary data pointer for the fts5 extension
+** function. See the xSetAuxdata() method for details.
+** If the bClear argument is non-zero, then the auxiliary data is cleared
+** (set to NULL) before this function returns. In this case the xDelete,
+** if any, is not invoked.
+** xRowCount(pFts5, pnRow)
+** This function is used to retrieve the total number of rows in the table.
+** In other words, the same value that would be returned by:
+** SELECT count(*) FROM ftstable;
+** xPhraseFirst()
+** This function is used, along with type Fts5PhraseIter and the xPhraseNext
+** method, to iterate through all instances of a single query phrase within
+** the current row. This is the same information as is accessible via the
+** xInstCount/xInst APIs. While the xInstCount/xInst APIs are more convenient
+** to use, this API may be faster under some circumstances. To iterate
+** through instances of phrase iPhrase, use the following code:
+** Fts5PhraseIter iter;
+** int iCol, iOff;
+** for(pApi->xPhraseFirst(pFts, iPhrase, &iter, &iCol, &iOff);
+** iCol>=0;
+** pApi->xPhraseNext(pFts, &iter, &iCol, &iOff)
+** ){
+** // An instance of phrase iPhrase at offset iOff of column iCol
+** }
+** The Fts5PhraseIter structure is defined above. Applications should not
+** modify this structure directly - it should only be used as shown above
+** with the xPhraseFirst() and xPhraseNext() API methods (and by
+** xPhraseFirstColumn() and xPhraseNextColumn() as illustrated below).
+** This API can be quite slow if used with an FTS5 table created with the
+** "detail=none" or "detail=column" option. If the FTS5 table is created
+** with either "detail=none" or "detail=column" and "content=" option
+** (i.e. if it is a contentless table), then this API always iterates
+** through an empty set (all calls to xPhraseFirst() set iCol to -1).
+** xPhraseNext()
+** See xPhraseFirst above.
+** xPhraseFirstColumn()
+** This function and xPhraseNextColumn() are similar to the xPhraseFirst()
+** and xPhraseNext() APIs described above. The difference is that instead
+** of iterating through all instances of a phrase in the current row, these
+** APIs are used to iterate through the set of columns in the current row
+** that contain one or more instances of a specified phrase. For example:
+** Fts5PhraseIter iter;
+** int iCol;
+** for(pApi->xPhraseFirstColumn(pFts, iPhrase, &iter, &iCol);
+** iCol>=0;
+** pApi->xPhraseNextColumn(pFts, &iter, &iCol)
+** ){
+** // Column iCol contains at least one instance of phrase iPhrase
+** }
+** This API can be quite slow if used with an FTS5 table created with the
+** "detail=none" option. If the FTS5 table is created with either
+** "detail=none" "content=" option (i.e. if it is a contentless table),
+** then this API always iterates through an empty set (all calls to
+** xPhraseFirstColumn() set iCol to -1).
+** The information accessed using this API and its companion
+** xPhraseFirstColumn() may also be obtained using xPhraseFirst/xPhraseNext
+** (or xInst/xInstCount). The chief advantage of this API is that it is
+** significantly more efficient than those alternatives when used with
+** "detail=column" tables.
+** xPhraseNextColumn()
+** See xPhraseFirstColumn above.
+struct Fts5ExtensionApi {
+ int iVersion; /* Currently always set to 3 */
+ void *(*xUserData)(Fts5Context*);
+ int (*xColumnCount)(Fts5Context*);
+ int (*xRowCount)(Fts5Context*, sqlite3_int64 *pnRow);
+ int (*xColumnTotalSize)(Fts5Context*, int iCol, sqlite3_int64 *pnToken);
+ int (*xTokenize)(Fts5Context*,
+ const char *pText, int nText, /* Text to tokenize */
+ void *pCtx, /* Context passed to xToken() */
+ int (*xToken)(void*, int, const char*, int, int, int) /* Callback */
+ );
+ int (*xPhraseCount)(Fts5Context*);
+ int (*xPhraseSize)(Fts5Context*, int iPhrase);
+ int (*xInstCount)(Fts5Context*, int *pnInst);
+ int (*xInst)(Fts5Context*, int iIdx, int *piPhrase, int *piCol, int *piOff);
+ sqlite3_int64 (*xRowid)(Fts5Context*);
+ int (*xColumnText)(Fts5Context*, int iCol, const char **pz, int *pn);
+ int (*xColumnSize)(Fts5Context*, int iCol, int *pnToken);
+ int (*xQueryPhrase)(Fts5Context*, int iPhrase, void *pUserData,
+ int(*)(const Fts5ExtensionApi*,Fts5Context*,void*)
+ );
+ int (*xSetAuxdata)(Fts5Context*, void *pAux, void(*xDelete)(void*));
+ void *(*xGetAuxdata)(Fts5Context*, int bClear);
+ int (*xPhraseFirst)(Fts5Context*, int iPhrase, Fts5PhraseIter*, int*, int*);
+ void (*xPhraseNext)(Fts5Context*, Fts5PhraseIter*, int *piCol, int *piOff);
+ int (*xPhraseFirstColumn)(Fts5Context*, int iPhrase, Fts5PhraseIter*, int*);
+ void (*xPhraseNextColumn)(Fts5Context*, Fts5PhraseIter*, int *piCol);
+** Applications may also register custom tokenizer types. A tokenizer
+** is registered by providing fts5 with a populated instance of the
+** following structure. All structure methods must be defined, setting
+** any member of the fts5_tokenizer struct to NULL leads to undefined
+** behaviour. The structure methods are expected to function as follows:
+** xCreate:
+** This function is used to allocate and inititalize a tokenizer instance.
+** A tokenizer instance is required to actually tokenize text.
+** The first argument passed to this function is a copy of the (void*)
+** pointer provided by the application when the fts5_tokenizer object
+** was registered with FTS5 (the third argument to xCreateTokenizer()).
+** The second and third arguments are an array of nul-terminated strings
+** containing the tokenizer arguments, if any, specified following the
+** tokenizer name as part of the CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE statement used
+** to create the FTS5 table.
+** The final argument is an output variable. If successful, (*ppOut)
+** should be set to point to the new tokenizer handle and SQLITE_OK
+** returned. If an error occurs, some value other than SQLITE_OK should
+** be returned. In this case, fts5 assumes that the final value of *ppOut
+** is undefined.
+** xDelete:
+** This function is invoked to delete a tokenizer handle previously
+** allocated using xCreate(). Fts5 guarantees that this function will
+** be invoked exactly once for each successful call to xCreate().
+** xTokenize:
+** This function is expected to tokenize the nText byte string indicated
+** by argument pText. pText may or may not be nul-terminated. The first
+** argument passed to this function is a pointer to an Fts5Tokenizer object
+** returned by an earlier call to xCreate().
+** The second argument indicates the reason that FTS5 is requesting
+** tokenization of the supplied text. This is always one of the following
+** four values:
+** <ul><li> <b>FTS5_TOKENIZE_DOCUMENT</b> - A document is being inserted into
+** or removed from the FTS table. The tokenizer is being invoked to
+** determine the set of tokens to add to (or delete from) the
+** FTS index.
+** <li> <b>FTS5_TOKENIZE_QUERY</b> - A MATCH query is being executed
+** against the FTS index. The tokenizer is being called to tokenize
+** a bareword or quoted string specified as part of the query.
+** <li> <b>(FTS5_TOKENIZE_QUERY | FTS5_TOKENIZE_PREFIX)</b> - Same as
+** FTS5_TOKENIZE_QUERY, except that the bareword or quoted string is
+** followed by a "*" character, indicating that the last token
+** returned by the tokenizer will be treated as a token prefix.
+** <li> <b>FTS5_TOKENIZE_AUX</b> - The tokenizer is being invoked to
+** satisfy an fts5_api.xTokenize() request made by an auxiliary
+** function. Or an fts5_api.xColumnSize() request made by the same
+** on a columnsize=0 database.
+** </ul>
+** For each token in the input string, the supplied callback xToken() must
+** be invoked. The first argument to it should be a copy of the pointer
+** passed as the second argument to xTokenize(). The third and fourth
+** arguments are a pointer to a buffer containing the token text, and the
+** size of the token in bytes. The 4th and 5th arguments are the byte offsets
+** of the first byte of and first byte immediately following the text from
+** which the token is derived within the input.
+** The second argument passed to the xToken() callback ("tflags") should
+** normally be set to 0. The exception is if the tokenizer supports
+** synonyms. In this case see the discussion below for details.
+** FTS5 assumes the xToken() callback is invoked for each token in the
+** order that they occur within the input text.
+** If an xToken() callback returns any value other than SQLITE_OK, then
+** the tokenization should be abandoned and the xTokenize() method should
+** immediately return a copy of the xToken() return value. Or, if the
+** input buffer is exhausted, xTokenize() should return SQLITE_OK. Finally,
+** if an error occurs with the xTokenize() implementation itself, it
+** may abandon the tokenization and return any error code other than
+** Custom tokenizers may also support synonyms. Consider a case in which a
+** user wishes to query for a phrase such as "first place". Using the
+** built-in tokenizers, the FTS5 query 'first + place' will match instances
+** of "first place" within the document set, but not alternative forms
+** such as "1st place". In some applications, it would be better to match
+** all instances of "first place" or "1st place" regardless of which form
+** the user specified in the MATCH query text.
+** There are several ways to approach this in FTS5:
+** <ol><li> By mapping all synonyms to a single token. In this case, the
+** In the above example, this means that the tokenizer returns the
+** same token for inputs "first" and "1st". Say that token is in
+** fact "first", so that when the user inserts the document "I won
+** 1st place" entries are added to the index for tokens "i", "won",
+** "first" and "place". If the user then queries for '1st + place',
+** the tokenizer substitutes "first" for "1st" and the query works
+** as expected.
+** <li> By adding multiple synonyms for a single term to the FTS index.
+** In this case, when tokenizing query text, the tokenizer may
+** provide multiple synonyms for a single term within the document.
+** FTS5 then queries the index for each synonym individually. For
+** example, faced with the query:
+** <codeblock>
+** ... MATCH 'first place'</codeblock>
+** the tokenizer offers both "1st" and "first" as synonyms for the
+** first token in the MATCH query and FTS5 effectively runs a query
+** similar to:
+** <codeblock>
+** ... MATCH '(first OR 1st) place'</codeblock>
+** except that, for the purposes of auxiliary functions, the query
+** still appears to contain just two phrases - "(first OR 1st)"
+** being treated as a single phrase.
+** <li> By adding multiple synonyms for a single term to the FTS index.
+** Using this method, when tokenizing document text, the tokenizer
+** provides multiple synonyms for each token. So that when a
+** document such as "I won first place" is tokenized, entries are
+** added to the FTS index for "i", "won", "first", "1st" and
+** "place".
+** This way, even if the tokenizer does not provide synonyms
+** when tokenizing query text (it should not - to do would be
+** inefficient), it doesn't matter if the user queries for
+** 'first + place' or '1st + place', as there are entires in the
+** FTS index corresponding to both forms of the first token.
+** </ol>
+** Whether it is parsing document or query text, any call to xToken that
+** specifies a <i>tflags</i> argument with the FTS5_TOKEN_COLOCATED bit
+** is considered to supply a synonym for the previous token. For example,
+** when parsing the document "I won first place", a tokenizer that supports
+** synonyms would call xToken() 5 times, as follows:
+** <codeblock>
+** xToken(pCtx, 0, "i", 1, 0, 1);
+** xToken(pCtx, 0, "won", 3, 2, 5);
+** xToken(pCtx, 0, "first", 5, 6, 11);
+** xToken(pCtx, FTS5_TOKEN_COLOCATED, "1st", 3, 6, 11);
+** xToken(pCtx, 0, "place", 5, 12, 17);
+** It is an error to specify the FTS5_TOKEN_COLOCATED flag the first time
+** xToken() is called. Multiple synonyms may be specified for a single token
+** by making multiple calls to xToken(FTS5_TOKEN_COLOCATED) in sequence.
+** There is no limit to the number of synonyms that may be provided for a
+** single token.
+** In many cases, method (1) above is the best approach. It does not add
+** extra data to the FTS index or require FTS5 to query for multiple terms,
+** so it is efficient in terms of disk space and query speed. However, it
+** does not support prefix queries very well. If, as suggested above, the
+** token "first" is subsituted for "1st" by the tokenizer, then the query:
+** <codeblock>
+** ... MATCH '1s*'</codeblock>
+** will not match documents that contain the token "1st" (as the tokenizer
+** will probably not map "1s" to any prefix of "first").
+** For full prefix support, method (3) may be preferred. In this case,
+** because the index contains entries for both "first" and "1st", prefix
+** queries such as 'fi*' or '1s*' will match correctly. However, because
+** extra entries are added to the FTS index, this method uses more space
+** within the database.
+** Method (2) offers a midpoint between (1) and (3). Using this method,
+** a query such as '1s*' will match documents that contain the literal
+** token "1st", but not "first" (assuming the tokenizer is not able to
+** provide synonyms for prefixes). However, a non-prefix query like '1st'
+** will match against "1st" and "first". This method does not require
+** extra disk space, as no extra entries are added to the FTS index.
+** On the other hand, it may require more CPU cycles to run MATCH queries,
+** as separate queries of the FTS index are required for each synonym.
+** When using methods (2) or (3), it is important that the tokenizer only
+** provide synonyms when tokenizing document text (method (2)) or query
+** text (method (3)), not both. Doing so will not cause any errors, but is
+** inefficient.
+typedef struct Fts5Tokenizer Fts5Tokenizer;
+typedef struct fts5_tokenizer fts5_tokenizer;
+struct fts5_tokenizer {
+ int (*xCreate)(void*, const char **azArg, int nArg, Fts5Tokenizer **ppOut);
+ void (*xDelete)(Fts5Tokenizer*);
+ int (*xTokenize)(Fts5Tokenizer*,
+ void *pCtx,
+ int flags, /* Mask of FTS5_TOKENIZE_* flags */
+ const char *pText, int nText,
+ int (*xToken)(
+ void *pCtx, /* Copy of 2nd argument to xTokenize() */
+ int tflags, /* Mask of FTS5_TOKEN_* flags */
+ const char *pToken, /* Pointer to buffer containing token */
+ int nToken, /* Size of token in bytes */
+ int iStart, /* Byte offset of token within input text */
+ int iEnd /* Byte offset of end of token within input text */
+ )
+ );
+/* Flags that may be passed as the third argument to xTokenize() */
+#define FTS5_TOKENIZE_QUERY 0x0001
+#define FTS5_TOKENIZE_PREFIX 0x0002
+#define FTS5_TOKENIZE_DOCUMENT 0x0004
+#define FTS5_TOKENIZE_AUX 0x0008
+/* Flags that may be passed by the tokenizer implementation back to FTS5
+** as the third argument to the supplied xToken callback. */
+#define FTS5_TOKEN_COLOCATED 0x0001 /* Same position as prev. token */
+typedef struct fts5_api fts5_api;
+struct fts5_api {
+ int iVersion; /* Currently always set to 2 */
+ /* Create a new tokenizer */
+ int (*xCreateTokenizer)(
+ fts5_api *pApi,
+ const char *zName,
+ void *pContext,
+ fts5_tokenizer *pTokenizer,
+ void (*xDestroy)(void*)
+ );
+ /* Find an existing tokenizer */
+ int (*xFindTokenizer)(
+ fts5_api *pApi,
+ const char *zName,
+ void **ppContext,
+ fts5_tokenizer *pTokenizer
+ );
+ /* Create a new auxiliary function */
+ int (*xCreateFunction)(
+ fts5_api *pApi,
+ const char *zName,
+ void *pContext,
+ fts5_extension_function xFunction,
+ void (*xDestroy)(void*)
+ );
+#if 0
+} /* end of the 'extern "C"' block */
+#endif /* _FTS5_H */
+/************** End of sqlite3.h *********************************************/
+/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
+** Include the configuration header output by 'configure' if we're using the
+** autoconf-based build
+#include "config.h"
+/************** Include sqliteLimit.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ***********/
+/************** Begin file sqliteLimit.h *************************************/
+** 2007 May 7
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code. In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+** May you do good and not evil.
+** May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+** May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+** This file defines various limits of what SQLite can process.
+** The maximum length of a TEXT or BLOB in bytes. This also
+** limits the size of a row in a table or index.
+** The hard limit is the ability of a 32-bit signed integer
+** to count the size: 2^31-1 or 2147483647.
+# define SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH 1000000000
+** This is the maximum number of
+** * Columns in a table
+** * Columns in an index
+** * Columns in a view
+** * Terms in the SET clause of an UPDATE statement
+** * Terms in the result set of a SELECT statement
+** * Terms in the GROUP BY or ORDER BY clauses of a SELECT statement.
+** * Terms in the VALUES clause of an INSERT statement
+** The hard upper limit here is 32676. Most database people will
+** tell you that in a well-normalized database, you usually should
+** not have more than a dozen or so columns in any table. And if
+** that is the case, there is no point in having more than a few
+** dozen values in any of the other situations described above.
+# define SQLITE_MAX_COLUMN 2000
+** The maximum length of a single SQL statement in bytes.
+** It used to be the case that setting this value to zero would
+** turn the limit off. That is no longer true. It is not possible
+** to turn this limit off.
+# define SQLITE_MAX_SQL_LENGTH 1000000000
+** The maximum depth of an expression tree. This is limited to
+** some extent by SQLITE_MAX_SQL_LENGTH. But sometime you might
+** want to place more severe limits on the complexity of an
+** expression.
+** A value of 0 used to mean that the limit was not enforced.
+** But that is no longer true. The limit is now strictly enforced
+** at all times.
+# define SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH 1000
+** The maximum number of terms in a compound SELECT statement.
+** The code generator for compound SELECT statements does one
+** level of recursion for each term. A stack overflow can result
+** if the number of terms is too large. In practice, most SQL
+** never has more than 3 or 4 terms. Use a value of 0 to disable
+** any limit on the number of terms in a compount SELECT.
+** The maximum number of opcodes in a VDBE program.
+** Not currently enforced.
+# define SQLITE_MAX_VDBE_OP 25000
+** The maximum number of arguments to an SQL function.
+** The suggested maximum number of in-memory pages to use for
+** the main database table and for temporary tables.
+** IMPLEMENTATION-OF: R-31093-59126 The default suggested cache size
+** is 2000 pages.
+** IMPLEMENTATION-OF: R-48205-43578 The default suggested cache size can be
+** altered using the SQLITE_DEFAULT_CACHE_SIZE compile-time options.
+** The default number of frames to accumulate in the log file before
+** checkpointing the database in WAL mode.
+** The maximum number of attached databases. This must be between 0
+** and 62. The upper bound on 62 is because a 64-bit integer bitmap
+** is used internally to track attached databases.
+** The maximum value of a ?nnn wildcard that the parser will accept.
+/* Maximum page size. The upper bound on this value is 65536. This a limit
+** imposed by the use of 16-bit offsets within each page.
+** Earlier versions of SQLite allowed the user to change this value at
+** compile time. This is no longer permitted, on the grounds that it creates
+** a library that is technically incompatible with an SQLite library
+** compiled with a different limit. If a process operating on a database
+** with a page-size of 65536 bytes crashes, then an instance of SQLite
+** compiled with the default page-size limit will not be able to rollback
+** the aborted transaction. This could lead to database corruption.
+#define SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_SIZE 65536
+** The default size of a database page.
+** Ordinarily, if no value is explicitly provided, SQLite creates databases
+** with page size SQLITE_DEFAULT_PAGE_SIZE. However, based on certain
+** device characteristics (sector-size and atomic write() support),
+** SQLite may choose a larger value. This constant is the maximum value
+** SQLite will choose on its own.
+** Maximum number of pages in one database file.
+** This is really just the default value for the max_page_count pragma.
+** This value can be lowered (or raised) at run-time using that the
+** max_page_count macro.
+# define SQLITE_MAX_PAGE_COUNT 1073741823
+** Maximum length (in bytes) of the pattern in a LIKE or GLOB
+** operator.
+** Maximum depth of recursion for triggers.
+** A value of 1 means that a trigger program will not be able to itself
+** fire any triggers. A value of 0 means that no trigger programs at all
+** may be executed.
+/************** End of sqliteLimit.h *****************************************/
+/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
+/* Disable nuisance warnings on Borland compilers */
+#if defined(__BORLANDC__)
+#pragma warn -rch /* unreachable code */
+#pragma warn -ccc /* Condition is always true or false */
+#pragma warn -aus /* Assigned value is never used */
+#pragma warn -csu /* Comparing signed and unsigned */
+#pragma warn -spa /* Suspicious pointer arithmetic */
+** Include standard header files as necessary
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <inttypes.h>
+** The following macros are used to cast pointers to integers and
+** integers to pointers. The way you do this varies from one compiler
+** to the next, so we have developed the following set of #if statements
+** to generate appropriate macros for a wide range of compilers.
+** The correct "ANSI" way to do this is to use the intptr_t type.
+** Unfortunately, that typedef is not available on all compilers, or
+** if it is available, it requires an #include of specific headers
+** that vary from one machine to the next.
+** Ticket #3860: The llvm-gcc-4.2 compiler from Apple chokes on
+** the ((void*)&((char*)0)[X]) construct. But MSVC chokes on ((void*)(X)).
+** So we have to define the macros in different ways depending on the
+** compiler.
+#if defined(__PTRDIFF_TYPE__) /* This case should work for GCC */
+# define SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(X) ((void*)(__PTRDIFF_TYPE__)(X))
+# define SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(X) ((int)(__PTRDIFF_TYPE__)(X))
+#elif !defined(__GNUC__) /* Works for compilers other than LLVM */
+# define SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(X) ((void*)&((char*)0)[X])
+# define SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(X) ((int)(((char*)X)-(char*)0))
+#elif defined(HAVE_STDINT_H) /* Use this case if we have ANSI headers */
+# define SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(X) ((void*)(intptr_t)(X))
+# define SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(X) ((int)(intptr_t)(X))
+#else /* Generates a warning - but it always works */
+# define SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(X) ((void*)(X))
+# define SQLITE_PTR_TO_INT(X) ((int)(X))
+** The SQLITE_WITHIN(P,S,E) macro checks to see if pointer P points to
+** something between S (inclusive) and E (exclusive).
+** In other words, S is a buffer and E is a pointer to the first byte after
+** the end of buffer S. This macro returns true if P points to something
+** contained within the buffer S.
+#if defined(HAVE_STDINT_H)
+# define SQLITE_WITHIN(P,S,E) \
+ ((uintptr_t)(P)>=(uintptr_t)(S) && (uintptr_t)(P)<(uintptr_t)(E))
+# define SQLITE_WITHIN(P,S,E) ((P)>=(S) && (P)<(E))
+** A macro to hint to the compiler that a function should not be
+** inlined.
+#if defined(__GNUC__)
+# define SQLITE_NOINLINE __attribute__((noinline))
+#elif defined(_MSC_VER) && _MSC_VER>=1310
+# define SQLITE_NOINLINE __declspec(noinline)
+** Make sure that the compiler intrinsics we desire are enabled when
+** compiling with an appropriate version of MSVC unless prevented by
+# if defined(_MSC_VER) && _MSC_VER>=1300
+# if !defined(_WIN32_WCE)
+# include <intrin.h>
+# pragma intrinsic(_byteswap_ushort)
+# pragma intrinsic(_byteswap_ulong)
+# pragma intrinsic(_ReadWriteBarrier)
+# else
+# include <cmnintrin.h>
+# endif
+# endif
+** The SQLITE_THREADSAFE macro must be defined as 0, 1, or 2.
+** 0 means mutexes are permanently disable and the library is never
+** threadsafe. 1 means the library is serialized which is the highest
+** level of threadsafety. 2 means the library is multithreaded - multiple
+** threads can use SQLite as long as no two threads try to use the same
+** database connection at the same time.
+** Older versions of SQLite used an optional THREADSAFE macro.
+** We support that for legacy.
+#if !defined(SQLITE_THREADSAFE)
+# if defined(THREADSAFE)
+# else
+# define SQLITE_THREADSAFE 1 /* IMP: R-07272-22309 */
+# endif
+** Powersafe overwrite is on by default. But can be turned off using
+** the -DSQLITE_POWERSAFE_OVERWRITE=0 command-line option.
+** EVIDENCE-OF: R-25715-37072 Memory allocation statistics are enabled by
+** default unless SQLite is compiled with SQLITE_DEFAULT_MEMSTATUS=0 in
+** which case memory allocation statistics are disabled by default.
+** Exactly one of the following macros must be defined in order to
+** specify which memory allocation subsystem to use.
+** SQLITE_SYSTEM_MALLOC // Use normal system malloc()
+** SQLITE_WIN32_MALLOC // Use Win32 native heap API
+** SQLITE_ZERO_MALLOC // Use a stub allocator that always fails
+** SQLITE_MEMDEBUG // Debugging version of system malloc()
+** On Windows, if the SQLITE_WIN32_MALLOC_VALIDATE macro is defined and the
+** assert() macro is enabled, each call into the Win32 native heap subsystem
+** will cause HeapValidate to be called. If heap validation should fail, an
+** assertion will be triggered.
+** If none of the above are defined, then set SQLITE_SYSTEM_MALLOC as
+** the default.
+#if defined(SQLITE_SYSTEM_MALLOC) \
+ + defined(SQLITE_WIN32_MALLOC) \
+ + defined(SQLITE_ZERO_MALLOC) \
+ + defined(SQLITE_MEMDEBUG)>1
+# error "Two or more of the following compile-time configuration options\
+ are defined but at most one is allowed:\
+#if defined(SQLITE_SYSTEM_MALLOC) \
+ + defined(SQLITE_WIN32_MALLOC) \
+ + defined(SQLITE_ZERO_MALLOC) \
+ + defined(SQLITE_MEMDEBUG)==0
+** If SQLITE_MALLOC_SOFT_LIMIT is not zero, then try to keep the
+** sizes of memory allocations below this value where possible.
+** We need to define _XOPEN_SOURCE as follows in order to enable
+** recursive mutexes on most Unix systems and fchmod() on OpenBSD.
+** But _XOPEN_SOURCE define causes problems for Mac OS X, so omit
+** it.
+#if !defined(_XOPEN_SOURCE) && !defined(__DARWIN__) && !defined(__APPLE__)
+# define _XOPEN_SOURCE 600
+** NDEBUG and SQLITE_DEBUG are opposites. It should always be true that
+** defined(NDEBUG)==!defined(SQLITE_DEBUG). If this is not currently true,
+** make it true by defining or undefining NDEBUG.
+** Setting NDEBUG makes the code smaller and faster by disabling the
+** assert() statements in the code. So we want the default action
+** to be for NDEBUG to be set and NDEBUG to be undefined only if SQLITE_DEBUG
+** is set. Thus NDEBUG becomes an opt-in rather than an opt-out
+** feature.
+#if !defined(NDEBUG) && !defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
+# define NDEBUG 1
+#if defined(NDEBUG) && defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
+# undef NDEBUG
+** The testcase() macro is used to aid in coverage testing. When
+** doing coverage testing, the condition inside the argument to
+** testcase() must be evaluated both true and false in order to
+** get full branch coverage. The testcase() macro is inserted
+** to help ensure adequate test coverage in places where simple
+** condition/decision coverage is inadequate. For example, testcase()
+** can be used to make sure boundary values are tested. For
+** bitmask tests, testcase() can be used to make sure each bit
+** is significant and used at least once. On switch statements
+** where multiple cases go to the same block of code, testcase()
+** can insure that all cases are evaluated.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Coverage(int);
+# define testcase(X) if( X ){ sqlite3Coverage(__LINE__); }
+# define testcase(X)
+** The TESTONLY macro is used to enclose variable declarations or
+** other bits of code that are needed to support the arguments
+** within testcase() and assert() macros.
+#if !defined(NDEBUG) || defined(SQLITE_COVERAGE_TEST)
+# define TESTONLY(X) X
+# define TESTONLY(X)
+** Sometimes we need a small amount of code such as a variable initialization
+** to setup for a later assert() statement. We do not want this code to
+** appear when assert() is disabled. The following macro is therefore
+** used to contain that setup code. The "VVA" acronym stands for
+** "Verification, Validation, and Accreditation". In other words, the
+** code within VVA_ONLY() will only run during verification processes.
+#ifndef NDEBUG
+# define VVA_ONLY(X) X
+# define VVA_ONLY(X)
+** The ALWAYS and NEVER macros surround boolean expressions which
+** are intended to always be true or false, respectively. Such
+** expressions could be omitted from the code completely. But they
+** are included in a few cases in order to enhance the resilience
+** of SQLite to unexpected behavior - to make the code "self-healing"
+** or "ductile" rather than being "brittle" and crashing at the first
+** hint of unplanned behavior.
+** In other words, ALWAYS and NEVER are added for defensive code.
+** When doing coverage testing ALWAYS and NEVER are hard-coded to
+** be true and false so that the unreachable code they specify will
+** not be counted as untested code.
+# define ALWAYS(X) (1)
+# define NEVER(X) (0)
+#elif !defined(NDEBUG)
+# define ALWAYS(X) ((X)?1:(assert(0),0))
+# define NEVER(X) ((X)?(assert(0),1):0)
+# define ALWAYS(X) (X)
+# define NEVER(X) (X)
+** Some malloc failures are only possible if SQLITE_TEST_REALLOC_STRESS is
+** defined. We need to defend against those failures when testing with
+** SQLITE_TEST_REALLOC_STRESS, but we don't want the unreachable branches
+** during a normal build. The following macro can be used to disable tests
+** that are always false except when SQLITE_TEST_REALLOC_STRESS is set.
+#elif !defined(NDEBUG)
+# define ONLY_IF_REALLOC_STRESS(X) ((X)?(assert(0),1):0)
+** Declarations used for tracing the operating system interfaces.
+#if defined(SQLITE_FORCE_OS_TRACE) || defined(SQLITE_TEST) || \
+ extern int sqlite3OSTrace;
+# define OSTRACE(X) if( sqlite3OSTrace ) sqlite3DebugPrintf X
+# define OSTRACE(X)
+** Is the sqlite3ErrName() function needed in the build? Currently,
+** it is needed by "mutex_w32.c" (when debugging), "os_win.c" (when
+** OSTRACE is enabled), and by several "test*.c" files (which are
+** compiled using SQLITE_TEST).
+#if defined(SQLITE_HAVE_OS_TRACE) || defined(SQLITE_TEST) || \
+** Return true (non-zero) if the input is an integer that is too large
+** to fit in 32-bits. This macro is used inside of various testcase()
+** macros to verify that we have tested SQLite for large-file support.
+#define IS_BIG_INT(X) (((X)&~(i64)0xffffffff)!=0)
+** The macro unlikely() is a hint that surrounds a boolean
+** expression that is usually false. Macro likely() surrounds
+** a boolean expression that is usually true. These hints could,
+** in theory, be used by the compiler to generate better code, but
+** currently they are just comments for human readers.
+#define likely(X) (X)
+#define unlikely(X) (X)
+/************** Include hash.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ******************/
+/************** Begin file hash.h ********************************************/
+** 2001 September 22
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code. In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+** May you do good and not evil.
+** May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+** May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+** This is the header file for the generic hash-table implementation
+** used in SQLite.
+#ifndef _SQLITE_HASH_H_
+#define _SQLITE_HASH_H_
+/* Forward declarations of structures. */
+typedef struct Hash Hash;
+typedef struct HashElem HashElem;
+/* A complete hash table is an instance of the following structure.
+** The internals of this structure are intended to be opaque -- client
+** code should not attempt to access or modify the fields of this structure
+** directly. Change this structure only by using the routines below.
+** However, some of the "procedures" and "functions" for modifying and
+** accessing this structure are really macros, so we can't really make
+** this structure opaque.
+** All elements of the hash table are on a single doubly-linked list.
+** Hash.first points to the head of this list.
+** There are Hash.htsize buckets. Each bucket points to a spot in
+** the global doubly-linked list. The contents of the bucket are the
+** element pointed to plus the next _ht.count-1 elements in the list.
+** Hash.htsize and may be zero. In that case lookup is done
+** by a linear search of the global list. For small tables, the
+** table is never allocated because if there are few elements
+** in the table, it is faster to do a linear search than to manage
+** the hash table.
+struct Hash {
+ unsigned int htsize; /* Number of buckets in the hash table */
+ unsigned int count; /* Number of entries in this table */
+ HashElem *first; /* The first element of the array */
+ struct _ht { /* the hash table */
+ int count; /* Number of entries with this hash */
+ HashElem *chain; /* Pointer to first entry with this hash */
+ } *ht;
+/* Each element in the hash table is an instance of the following
+** structure. All elements are stored on a single doubly-linked list.
+** Again, this structure is intended to be opaque, but it can't really
+** be opaque because it is used by macros.
+struct HashElem {
+ HashElem *next, *prev; /* Next and previous elements in the table */
+ void *data; /* Data associated with this element */
+ const char *pKey; /* Key associated with this element */
+** Access routines. To delete, insert a NULL pointer.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3HashInit(Hash*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3HashInsert(Hash*, const char *pKey, void *pData);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3HashFind(const Hash*, const char *pKey);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3HashClear(Hash*);
+** Macros for looping over all elements of a hash table. The idiom is
+** like this:
+** Hash h;
+** HashElem *p;
+** ...
+** for(p=sqliteHashFirst(&h); p; p=sqliteHashNext(p)){
+** SomeStructure *pData = sqliteHashData(p);
+** // do something with pData
+** }
+#define sqliteHashFirst(H) ((H)->first)
+#define sqliteHashNext(E) ((E)->next)
+#define sqliteHashData(E) ((E)->data)
+/* #define sqliteHashKey(E) ((E)->pKey) // NOT USED */
+/* #define sqliteHashKeysize(E) ((E)->nKey) // NOT USED */
+** Number of entries in a hash table
+/* #define sqliteHashCount(H) ((H)->count) // NOT USED */
+#endif /* _SQLITE_HASH_H_ */
+/************** End of hash.h ************************************************/
+/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
+/************** Include parse.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h *****************/
+/************** Begin file parse.h *******************************************/
+#define TK_SEMI 1
+#define TK_EXPLAIN 2
+#define TK_QUERY 3
+#define TK_PLAN 4
+#define TK_BEGIN 5
+#define TK_DEFERRED 7
+#define TK_IMMEDIATE 8
+#define TK_EXCLUSIVE 9
+#define TK_COMMIT 10
+#define TK_END 11
+#define TK_ROLLBACK 12
+#define TK_SAVEPOINT 13
+#define TK_RELEASE 14
+#define TK_TO 15
+#define TK_TABLE 16
+#define TK_CREATE 17
+#define TK_IF 18
+#define TK_NOT 19
+#define TK_EXISTS 20
+#define TK_TEMP 21
+#define TK_LP 22
+#define TK_RP 23
+#define TK_AS 24
+#define TK_WITHOUT 25
+#define TK_COMMA 26
+#define TK_ID 27
+#define TK_INDEXED 28
+#define TK_ABORT 29
+#define TK_ACTION 30
+#define TK_AFTER 31
+#define TK_ANALYZE 32
+#define TK_ASC 33
+#define TK_ATTACH 34
+#define TK_BEFORE 35
+#define TK_BY 36
+#define TK_CASCADE 37
+#define TK_CAST 38
+#define TK_COLUMNKW 39
+#define TK_CONFLICT 40
+#define TK_DATABASE 41
+#define TK_DESC 42
+#define TK_DETACH 43
+#define TK_EACH 44
+#define TK_FAIL 45
+#define TK_FOR 46
+#define TK_IGNORE 47
+#define TK_INITIALLY 48
+#define TK_INSTEAD 49
+#define TK_LIKE_KW 50
+#define TK_MATCH 51
+#define TK_NO 52
+#define TK_KEY 53
+#define TK_OF 54
+#define TK_OFFSET 55
+#define TK_PRAGMA 56
+#define TK_RAISE 57
+#define TK_RECURSIVE 58
+#define TK_REPLACE 59
+#define TK_RESTRICT 60
+#define TK_ROW 61
+#define TK_TRIGGER 62
+#define TK_VACUUM 63
+#define TK_VIEW 64
+#define TK_VIRTUAL 65
+#define TK_WITH 66
+#define TK_REINDEX 67
+#define TK_RENAME 68
+#define TK_CTIME_KW 69
+#define TK_ANY 70
+#define TK_OR 71
+#define TK_AND 72
+#define TK_IS 73
+#define TK_BETWEEN 74
+#define TK_IN 75
+#define TK_ISNULL 76
+#define TK_NOTNULL 77
+#define TK_NE 78
+#define TK_EQ 79
+#define TK_GT 80
+#define TK_LE 81
+#define TK_LT 82
+#define TK_GE 83
+#define TK_ESCAPE 84
+#define TK_BITAND 85
+#define TK_BITOR 86
+#define TK_LSHIFT 87
+#define TK_RSHIFT 88
+#define TK_PLUS 89
+#define TK_MINUS 90
+#define TK_STAR 91
+#define TK_SLASH 92
+#define TK_REM 93
+#define TK_CONCAT 94
+#define TK_COLLATE 95
+#define TK_BITNOT 96
+#define TK_STRING 97
+#define TK_JOIN_KW 98
+#define TK_CONSTRAINT 99
+#define TK_DEFAULT 100
+#define TK_NULL 101
+#define TK_PRIMARY 102
+#define TK_UNIQUE 103
+#define TK_CHECK 104
+#define TK_REFERENCES 105
+#define TK_AUTOINCR 106
+#define TK_ON 107
+#define TK_INSERT 108
+#define TK_DELETE 109
+#define TK_UPDATE 110
+#define TK_SET 111
+#define TK_DEFERRABLE 112
+#define TK_FOREIGN 113
+#define TK_DROP 114
+#define TK_UNION 115
+#define TK_ALL 116
+#define TK_EXCEPT 117
+#define TK_INTERSECT 118
+#define TK_SELECT 119
+#define TK_VALUES 120
+#define TK_DISTINCT 121
+#define TK_DOT 122
+#define TK_FROM 123
+#define TK_JOIN 124
+#define TK_USING 125
+#define TK_ORDER 126
+#define TK_GROUP 127
+#define TK_HAVING 128
+#define TK_LIMIT 129
+#define TK_WHERE 130
+#define TK_INTO 131
+#define TK_INTEGER 132
+#define TK_FLOAT 133
+#define TK_BLOB 134
+#define TK_VARIABLE 135
+#define TK_CASE 136
+#define TK_WHEN 137
+#define TK_THEN 138
+#define TK_ELSE 139
+#define TK_INDEX 140
+#define TK_ALTER 141
+#define TK_ADD 142
+#define TK_TO_TEXT 143
+#define TK_TO_BLOB 144
+#define TK_TO_NUMERIC 145
+#define TK_TO_INT 146
+#define TK_TO_REAL 147
+#define TK_ISNOT 148
+#define TK_END_OF_FILE 149
+#define TK_FUNCTION 151
+#define TK_COLUMN 152
+#define TK_AGG_FUNCTION 153
+#define TK_AGG_COLUMN 154
+#define TK_UMINUS 155
+#define TK_UPLUS 156
+#define TK_REGISTER 157
+#define TK_ASTERISK 158
+#define TK_SPACE 159
+#define TK_ILLEGAL 160
+/* The token codes above must all fit in 8 bits */
+#define TKFLG_MASK 0xff
+/* Flags that can be added to a token code when it is not
+** being stored in a u8: */
+#define TKFLG_DONTFOLD 0x100 /* Omit constant folding optimizations */
+/************** End of parse.h ***********************************************/
+/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <assert.h>
+#include <stddef.h>
+** If compiling for a processor that lacks floating point support,
+** substitute integer for floating-point
+# define double sqlite_int64
+# define float sqlite_int64
+# define LONGDOUBLE_TYPE sqlite_int64
+# ifndef SQLITE_BIG_DBL
+# define SQLITE_BIG_DBL (((sqlite3_int64)1)<<50)
+# endif
+# define SQLITE_BIG_DBL (1e99)
+** OMIT_TEMPDB is set to 1 if SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB is defined, or 0
+** afterward. Having this macro allows us to cause the C compiler
+** to omit code used by TEMP tables without messy #ifndef statements.
+#define OMIT_TEMPDB 1
+#define OMIT_TEMPDB 0
+** The "file format" number is an integer that is incremented whenever
+** the VDBE-level file format changes. The following macros define the
+** the default file format for new databases and the maximum file format
+** that the library can read.
+** Determine whether triggers are recursive by default. This can be
+** changed at run-time using a pragma.
+** Provide a default value for SQLITE_TEMP_STORE in case it is not specified
+** on the command-line
+# define SQLITE_TEMP_STORE_xc 1 /* Exclude from ctime.c */
+** If no value has been provided for SQLITE_MAX_WORKER_THREADS, or if
+** SQLITE_TEMP_STORE is set to 3 (never use temporary files), set it
+** to zero.
+** The default initial allocation for the pagecache when using separate
+** pagecaches for each database connection. A positive number is the
+** number of pages. A negative number N translations means that a buffer
+** of -1024*N bytes is allocated and used for as many pages as it will hold.
+** GCC does not define the offsetof() macro so we'll have to do it
+** ourselves.
+#ifndef offsetof
+#define offsetof(STRUCTURE,FIELD) ((int)((char*)&((STRUCTURE*)0)->FIELD))
+** Macros to compute minimum and maximum of two numbers.
+#define MIN(A,B) ((A)<(B)?(A):(B))
+#define MAX(A,B) ((A)>(B)?(A):(B))
+** Swap two objects of type TYPE.
+#define SWAP(TYPE,A,B) {TYPE t=A; A=B; B=t;}
+** Check to see if this machine uses EBCDIC. (Yes, believe it or
+** not, there are still machines out there that use EBCDIC.)
+#if 'A' == '\301'
+# define SQLITE_EBCDIC 1
+# define SQLITE_ASCII 1
+** Integers of known sizes. These typedefs might change for architectures
+** where the sizes very. Preprocessor macros are available so that the
+** types can be conveniently redefined at compile-type. Like this:
+** cc '-DUINTPTR_TYPE=long long int' ...
+#ifndef UINT32_TYPE
+# ifdef HAVE_UINT32_T
+# define UINT32_TYPE uint32_t
+# else
+# define UINT32_TYPE unsigned int
+# endif
+#ifndef UINT16_TYPE
+# ifdef HAVE_UINT16_T
+# define UINT16_TYPE uint16_t
+# else
+# define UINT16_TYPE unsigned short int
+# endif
+#ifndef INT16_TYPE
+# ifdef HAVE_INT16_T
+# define INT16_TYPE int16_t
+# else
+# define INT16_TYPE short int
+# endif
+#ifndef UINT8_TYPE
+# ifdef HAVE_UINT8_T
+# define UINT8_TYPE uint8_t
+# else
+# define UINT8_TYPE unsigned char
+# endif
+#ifndef INT8_TYPE
+# ifdef HAVE_INT8_T
+# define INT8_TYPE int8_t
+# else
+# define INT8_TYPE signed char
+# endif
+# define LONGDOUBLE_TYPE long double
+typedef sqlite_int64 i64; /* 8-byte signed integer */
+typedef sqlite_uint64 u64; /* 8-byte unsigned integer */
+typedef UINT32_TYPE u32; /* 4-byte unsigned integer */
+typedef UINT16_TYPE u16; /* 2-byte unsigned integer */
+typedef INT16_TYPE i16; /* 2-byte signed integer */
+typedef UINT8_TYPE u8; /* 1-byte unsigned integer */
+typedef INT8_TYPE i8; /* 1-byte signed integer */
+** SQLITE_MAX_U32 is a u64 constant that is the maximum u64 value
+** that can be stored in a u32 without loss of data. The value
+** is 0x00000000ffffffff. But because of quirks of some compilers, we
+** have to specify the value in the less intuitive manner shown:
+#define SQLITE_MAX_U32 ((((u64)1)<<32)-1)
+** The datatype used to store estimates of the number of rows in a
+** table or index. This is an unsigned integer type. For 99.9% of
+** the world, a 32-bit integer is sufficient. But a 64-bit integer
+** can be used at compile-time if desired.
+ typedef u64 tRowcnt; /* 64-bit only if requested at compile-time */
+ typedef u32 tRowcnt; /* 32-bit is the default */
+** Estimated quantities used for query planning are stored as 16-bit
+** logarithms. For quantity X, the value stored is 10*log2(X). This
+** gives a possible range of values of approximately 1.0e986 to 1e-986.
+** But the allowed values are "grainy". Not every value is representable.
+** For example, quantities 16 and 17 are both represented by a LogEst
+** of 40. However, since LogEst quantities are suppose to be estimates,
+** not exact values, this imprecision is not a problem.
+** "LogEst" is short for "Logarithmic Estimate".
+** Examples:
+** 1 -> 0 20 -> 43 10000 -> 132
+** 2 -> 10 25 -> 46 25000 -> 146
+** 3 -> 16 100 -> 66 1000000 -> 199
+** 4 -> 20 1000 -> 99 1048576 -> 200
+** 10 -> 33 1024 -> 100 4294967296 -> 320
+** The LogEst can be negative to indicate fractional values.
+** Examples:
+** 0.5 -> -10 0.1 -> -33 0.0625 -> -40
+typedef INT16_TYPE LogEst;
+** Set the SQLITE_PTRSIZE macro to the number of bytes in a pointer
+# if defined(__SIZEOF_POINTER__)
+# elif defined(i386) || defined(__i386__) || defined(_M_IX86) || \
+ defined(_M_ARM) || defined(__arm__) || defined(__x86)
+# define SQLITE_PTRSIZE 4
+# else
+# define SQLITE_PTRSIZE 8
+# endif
+** Macros to determine whether the machine is big or little endian,
+** and whether or not that determination is run-time or compile-time.
+** For best performance, an attempt is made to guess at the byte-order
+** using C-preprocessor macros. If that is unsuccessful, or if
+** -DSQLITE_RUNTIME_BYTEORDER=1 is set, then byte-order is determined
+** at run-time.
+#if (defined(i386) || defined(__i386__) || defined(_M_IX86) || \
+ defined(__x86_64) || defined(__x86_64__) || defined(_M_X64) || \
+ defined(_M_AMD64) || defined(_M_ARM) || defined(__x86) || \
+ defined(__arm__)) && !defined(SQLITE_RUNTIME_BYTEORDER)
+# define SQLITE_BYTEORDER 1234
+#if (defined(sparc) || defined(__ppc__)) \
+# define SQLITE_BYTEORDER 4321
+#if !defined(SQLITE_BYTEORDER)
+ const int sqlite3one = 1;
+# else
+ extern const int sqlite3one;
+# endif
+# define SQLITE_BYTEORDER 0 /* 0 means "unknown at compile-time" */
+# define SQLITE_BIGENDIAN (*(char *)(&sqlite3one)==0)
+# define SQLITE_LITTLEENDIAN (*(char *)(&sqlite3one)==1)
+** Constants for the largest and smallest possible 64-bit signed integers.
+** These macros are designed to work correctly on both 32-bit and 64-bit
+** compilers.
+#define LARGEST_INT64 (0xffffffff|(((i64)0x7fffffff)<<32))
+#define SMALLEST_INT64 (((i64)-1) - LARGEST_INT64)
+** Round up a number to the next larger multiple of 8. This is used
+** to force 8-byte alignment on 64-bit architectures.
+#define ROUND8(x) (((x)+7)&~7)
+** Round down to the nearest multiple of 8
+#define ROUNDDOWN8(x) ((x)&~7)
+** Assert that the pointer X is aligned to an 8-byte boundary. This
+** macro is used only within assert() to verify that the code gets
+** all alignment restrictions correct.
+** Except, if SQLITE_4_BYTE_ALIGNED_MALLOC is defined, then the
+** underlying malloc() implementation might return us 4-byte aligned
+** pointers. In that case, only verify 4-byte alignment.
+# define EIGHT_BYTE_ALIGNMENT(X) ((((char*)(X) - (char*)0)&3)==0)
+# define EIGHT_BYTE_ALIGNMENT(X) ((((char*)(X) - (char*)0)&7)==0)
+** Disable MMAP on platforms where it is known to not work
+#if defined(__OpenBSD__) || defined(__QNXNTO__)
+** Default maximum size of memory used by memory-mapped I/O in the VFS
+#ifdef __APPLE__
+# include <TargetConditionals.h>
+# if defined(__linux__) \
+ || defined(_WIN32) \
+ || (defined(__APPLE__) && defined(__MACH__)) \
+ || defined(__sun) \
+ || defined(__FreeBSD__) \
+ || defined(__DragonFly__)
+# define SQLITE_MAX_MMAP_SIZE 0x7fff0000 /* 2147418112 */
+# else
+# endif
+# define SQLITE_MAX_MMAP_SIZE_xc 1 /* exclude from ctime.c */
+** The default MMAP_SIZE is zero on all platforms. Or, even if a larger
+** default MMAP_SIZE is specified at compile-time, make sure that it does
+** not exceed the maximum mmap size.
+# define SQLITE_DEFAULT_MMAP_SIZE_xc 1 /* Exclude from ctime.c */
+** Only one of SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT3 or SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4 can be defined.
+** Priority is given to SQLITE_ENABLE_STAT4. If either are defined, also
+** SELECTTRACE_ENABLED will be either 1 or 0 depending on whether or not
+** the Select query generator tracing logic is turned on.
+** An instance of the following structure is used to store the busy-handler
+** callback for a given sqlite handle.
+** The sqlite.busyHandler member of the sqlite struct contains the busy
+** callback for the database handle. Each pager opened via the sqlite
+** handle is passed a pointer to sqlite.busyHandler. The busy-handler
+** callback is currently invoked only from within pager.c.
+typedef struct BusyHandler BusyHandler;
+struct BusyHandler {
+ int (*xFunc)(void *,int); /* The busy callback */
+ void *pArg; /* First arg to busy callback */
+ int nBusy; /* Incremented with each busy call */
+** Name of the master database table. The master database table
+** is a special table that holds the names and attributes of all
+** user tables and indices.
+#define MASTER_NAME "sqlite_master"
+#define TEMP_MASTER_NAME "sqlite_temp_master"
+** The root-page of the master database table.
+#define MASTER_ROOT 1
+** The name of the schema table.
+** A convenience macro that returns the number of elements in
+** an array.
+#define ArraySize(X) ((int)(sizeof(X)/sizeof(X[0])))
+** Determine if the argument is a power of two
+#define IsPowerOfTwo(X) (((X)&((X)-1))==0)
+** The following value as a destructor means to use sqlite3DbFree().
+** The sqlite3DbFree() routine requires two parameters instead of the
+** one parameter that destructors normally want. So we have to introduce
+** this magic value that the code knows to handle differently. Any
+** pointer will work here as long as it is distinct from SQLITE_STATIC
+#define SQLITE_DYNAMIC ((sqlite3_destructor_type)sqlite3MallocSize)
+** When SQLITE_OMIT_WSD is defined, it means that the target platform does
+** not support Writable Static Data (WSD) such as global and static variables.
+** All variables must either be on the stack or dynamically allocated from
+** the heap. When WSD is unsupported, the variable declarations scattered
+** throughout the SQLite code must become constants instead. The SQLITE_WSD
+** macro is used for this purpose. And instead of referencing the variable
+** directly, we use its constant as a key to lookup the run-time allocated
+** buffer that holds real variable. The constant is also the initializer
+** for the run-time allocated buffer.
+** In the usual case where WSD is supported, the SQLITE_WSD and GLOBAL
+** macros become no-ops and have zero performance impact.
+ #define SQLITE_WSD const
+ #define GLOBAL(t,v) (*(t*)sqlite3_wsd_find((void*)&(v), sizeof(v)))
+ #define sqlite3GlobalConfig GLOBAL(struct Sqlite3Config, sqlite3Config)
+SQLITE_API int SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_wsd_init(int N, int J);
+SQLITE_API void *SQLITE_STDCALL sqlite3_wsd_find(void *K, int L);
+ #define SQLITE_WSD
+ #define GLOBAL(t,v) v
+ #define sqlite3GlobalConfig sqlite3Config
+** The following macros are used to suppress compiler warnings and to
+** make it clear to human readers when a function parameter is deliberately
+** left unused within the body of a function. This usually happens when
+** a function is called via a function pointer. For example the
+** implementation of an SQL aggregate step callback may not use the
+** parameter indicating the number of arguments passed to the aggregate,
+** if it knows that this is enforced elsewhere.
+** When a function parameter is not used at all within the body of a function,
+** it is generally named "NotUsed" or "NotUsed2" to make things even clearer.
+** However, these macros may also be used to suppress warnings related to
+** parameters that may or may not be used depending on compilation options.
+** For example those parameters only used in assert() statements. In these
+** cases the parameters are named as per the usual conventions.
+#define UNUSED_PARAMETER(x) (void)(x)
+** Forward references to structures
+typedef struct AggInfo AggInfo;
+typedef struct AuthContext AuthContext;
+typedef struct AutoincInfo AutoincInfo;
+typedef struct Bitvec Bitvec;
+typedef struct CollSeq CollSeq;
+typedef struct Column Column;
+typedef struct Db Db;
+typedef struct Schema Schema;
+typedef struct Expr Expr;
+typedef struct ExprList ExprList;
+typedef struct ExprSpan ExprSpan;
+typedef struct FKey FKey;
+typedef struct FuncDestructor FuncDestructor;
+typedef struct FuncDef FuncDef;
+typedef struct FuncDefHash FuncDefHash;
+typedef struct IdList IdList;
+typedef struct Index Index;
+typedef struct IndexSample IndexSample;
+typedef struct KeyClass KeyClass;
+typedef struct KeyInfo KeyInfo;
+typedef struct Lookaside Lookaside;
+typedef struct LookasideSlot LookasideSlot;
+typedef struct Module Module;
+typedef struct NameContext NameContext;
+typedef struct Parse Parse;
+typedef struct PrintfArguments PrintfArguments;
+typedef struct RowSet RowSet;
+typedef struct Savepoint Savepoint;
+typedef struct Select Select;
+typedef struct SQLiteThread SQLiteThread;
+typedef struct SelectDest SelectDest;
+typedef struct SrcList SrcList;
+typedef struct StrAccum StrAccum;
+typedef struct Table Table;
+typedef struct TableLock TableLock;
+typedef struct Token Token;
+typedef struct TreeView TreeView;
+typedef struct Trigger Trigger;
+typedef struct TriggerPrg TriggerPrg;
+typedef struct TriggerStep TriggerStep;
+typedef struct UnpackedRecord UnpackedRecord;
+typedef struct VTable VTable;
+typedef struct VtabCtx VtabCtx;
+typedef struct Walker Walker;
+typedef struct WhereInfo WhereInfo;
+typedef struct With With;
+** Defer sourcing vdbe.h and btree.h until after the "u8" and
+** "BusyHandler" typedefs. vdbe.h also requires a few of the opaque
+** pointer types (i.e. FuncDef) defined above.
+/************** Include btree.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h *****************/
+/************** Begin file btree.h *******************************************/
+** 2001 September 15
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code. In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+** May you do good and not evil.
+** May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+** May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+** This header file defines the interface that the sqlite B-Tree file
+** subsystem. See comments in the source code for a detailed description
+** of what each interface routine does.
+#ifndef _BTREE_H_
+#define _BTREE_H_
+/* TODO: This definition is just included so other modules compile. It
+** needs to be revisited.
+** If defined as non-zero, auto-vacuum is enabled by default. Otherwise
+** it must be turned on for each database using "PRAGMA auto_vacuum = 1".
+#define BTREE_AUTOVACUUM_NONE 0 /* Do not do auto-vacuum */
+#define BTREE_AUTOVACUUM_FULL 1 /* Do full auto-vacuum */
+#define BTREE_AUTOVACUUM_INCR 2 /* Incremental vacuum */
+** Forward declarations of structure
+typedef struct Btree Btree;
+typedef struct BtCursor BtCursor;
+typedef struct BtShared BtShared;
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeOpen(
+ sqlite3_vfs *pVfs, /* VFS to use with this b-tree */
+ const char *zFilename, /* Name of database file to open */
+ sqlite3 *db, /* Associated database connection */
+ Btree **ppBtree, /* Return open Btree* here */
+ int flags, /* Flags */
+ int vfsFlags /* Flags passed through to VFS open */
+/* The flags parameter to sqlite3BtreeOpen can be the bitwise or of the
+** following values.
+** NOTE: These values must match the corresponding PAGER_ values in
+** pager.h.
+#define BTREE_OMIT_JOURNAL 1 /* Do not create or use a rollback journal */
+#define BTREE_MEMORY 2 /* This is an in-memory DB */
+#define BTREE_SINGLE 4 /* The file contains at most 1 b-tree */
+#define BTREE_UNORDERED 8 /* Use of a hash implementation is OK */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeClose(Btree*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetCacheSize(Btree*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetSpillSize(Btree*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetMmapLimit(Btree*,sqlite3_int64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetPagerFlags(Btree*,unsigned);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSyncDisabled(Btree*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetPageSize(Btree *p, int nPagesize, int nReserve, int eFix);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeGetPageSize(Btree*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeMaxPageCount(Btree*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3BtreeLastPage(Btree*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSecureDelete(Btree*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeGetOptimalReserve(Btree*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeGetReserveNoMutex(Btree *p);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetAutoVacuum(Btree *, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeGetAutoVacuum(Btree *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeBeginTrans(Btree*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCommitPhaseOne(Btree*, const char *zMaster);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCommitPhaseTwo(Btree*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCommit(Btree*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeRollback(Btree*,int,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeBeginStmt(Btree*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCreateTable(Btree*, int*, int flags);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeIsInTrans(Btree*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeIsInReadTrans(Btree*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeIsInBackup(Btree*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3BtreeSchema(Btree *, int, void(*)(void *));
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSchemaLocked(Btree *pBtree);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeLockTable(Btree *pBtree, int iTab, u8 isWriteLock);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSavepoint(Btree *, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3BtreeGetFilename(Btree *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3BtreeGetJournalname(Btree *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCopyFile(Btree *, Btree *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeIncrVacuum(Btree *);
+/* The flags parameter to sqlite3BtreeCreateTable can be the bitwise OR
+** of the flags shown below.
+** Every SQLite table must have either BTREE_INTKEY or BTREE_BLOBKEY set.
+** With BTREE_INTKEY, the table key is a 64-bit integer and arbitrary data
+** is stored in the leaves. (BTREE_INTKEY is used for SQL tables.) With
+** BTREE_BLOBKEY, the key is an arbitrary BLOB and no content is stored
+** anywhere - the key is the content. (BTREE_BLOBKEY is used for SQL
+** indices.)
+#define BTREE_INTKEY 1 /* Table has only 64-bit signed integer keys */
+#define BTREE_BLOBKEY 2 /* Table has keys only - no data */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeDropTable(Btree*, int, int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeClearTable(Btree*, int, int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeClearTableOfCursor(BtCursor*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeTripAllCursors(Btree*, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeGetMeta(Btree *pBtree, int idx, u32 *pValue);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeUpdateMeta(Btree*, int idx, u32 value);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeNewDb(Btree *p);
+** The second parameter to sqlite3BtreeGetMeta or sqlite3BtreeUpdateMeta
+** should be one of the following values. The integer values are assigned
+** to constants so that the offset of the corresponding field in an
+** SQLite database header may be found using the following formula:
+** offset = 36 + (idx * 4)
+** For example, the free-page-count field is located at byte offset 36 of
+** the database file header. The incr-vacuum-flag field is located at
+** byte offset 64 (== 36+4*7).
+** The BTREE_DATA_VERSION value is not really a value stored in the header.
+** It is a read-only number computed by the pager. But we merge it with
+** the header value access routines since its access pattern is the same.
+** Call it a "virtual meta value".
+#define BTREE_DATA_VERSION 15 /* A virtual meta-value */
+** Kinds of hints that can be passed into the sqlite3BtreeCursorHint()
+** interface.
+** BTREE_HINT_RANGE (arguments: Expr*, Mem*)
+** The first argument is an Expr* (which is guaranteed to be constant for
+** the lifetime of the cursor) that defines constraints on which rows
+** might be fetched with this cursor. The Expr* tree may contain
+** TK_REGISTER nodes that refer to values stored in the array of registers
+** passed as the second parameter. In other words, if Expr.op==TK_REGISTER
+** then the value of the node is the value in Mem[pExpr.iTable]. Any
+** TK_COLUMN node in the expression tree refers to the Expr.iColumn-th
+** column of the b-tree of the cursor. The Expr tree will not contain
+** any function calls nor subqueries nor references to b-trees other than
+** the cursor being hinted.
+** The design of the _RANGE hint is aid b-tree implementations that try
+** to prefetch content from remote machines - to provide those
+** implementations with limits on what needs to be prefetched and thereby
+** reduce network bandwidth.
+** Note that BTREE_HINT_FLAGS with BTREE_BULKLOAD is the only hint used by
+** standard SQLite. The other hints are provided for extentions that use
+** the SQLite parser and code generator but substitute their own storage
+** engine.
+#define BTREE_HINT_RANGE 0 /* Range constraints on queries */
+** Values that may be OR'd together to form the argument to the
+** BTREE_HINT_FLAGS hint for sqlite3BtreeCursorHint():
+** The BTREE_BULKLOAD flag is set on index cursors when the index is going
+** to be filled with content that is already in sorted order.
+** The BTREE_SEEK_EQ flag is set on cursors that will get OP_SeekGE or
+** OP_SeekLE opcodes for a range search, but where the range of entries
+** selected will all have the same key. In other words, the cursor will
+** be used only for equality key searches.
+#define BTREE_BULKLOAD 0x00000001 /* Used to full index in sorted order */
+#define BTREE_SEEK_EQ 0x00000002 /* EQ seeks only - no range seeks */
+** Flags passed as the third argument to sqlite3BtreeCursor().
+** For read-only cursors the wrFlag argument is always zero. For read-write
+** cursors it may be set to either (BTREE_WRCSR|BTREE_FORDELETE) or just
+** (BTREE_WRCSR). If the BTREE_FORDELETE bit is set, then the cursor will
+** only be used by SQLite for the following:
+** * to seek to and then delete specific entries, and/or
+** * to read values that will be used to create keys that other
+** BTREE_FORDELETE cursors will seek to and delete.
+** The BTREE_FORDELETE flag is an optimization hint. It is not used by
+** by this, the native b-tree engine of SQLite, but it is available to
+** alternative storage engines that might be substituted in place of this
+** b-tree system. For alternative storage engines in which a delete of
+** the main table row automatically deletes corresponding index rows,
+** the FORDELETE flag hint allows those alternative storage engines to
+** skip a lot of work. Namely: FORDELETE cursors may treat all SEEK
+** and DELETE operations as no-ops, and any READ operation against a
+** FORDELETE cursor may return a null row: 0x01 0x00.
+#define BTREE_WRCSR 0x00000004 /* read-write cursor */
+#define BTREE_FORDELETE 0x00000008 /* Cursor is for seek/delete only */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursor(
+ Btree*, /* BTree containing table to open */
+ int iTable, /* Index of root page */
+ int wrFlag, /* 1 for writing. 0 for read-only */
+ struct KeyInfo*, /* First argument to compare function */
+ BtCursor *pCursor /* Space to write cursor structure */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursorSize(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeCursorZero(BtCursor*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeCursorHintFlags(BtCursor*, unsigned);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeCursorHint(BtCursor*, int, ...);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCloseCursor(BtCursor*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeMovetoUnpacked(
+ BtCursor*,
+ UnpackedRecord *pUnKey,
+ i64 intKey,
+ int bias,
+ int *pRes
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursorHasMoved(BtCursor*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursorRestore(BtCursor*, int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeDelete(BtCursor*, u8 flags);
+/* Allowed flags for the 2nd argument to sqlite3BtreeDelete() */
+#define BTREE_SAVEPOSITION 0x02 /* Leave cursor pointing at NEXT or PREV */
+#define BTREE_AUXDELETE 0x04 /* not the primary delete operation */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeInsert(BtCursor*, const void *pKey, i64 nKey,
+ const void *pData, int nData,
+ int nZero, int bias, int seekResult);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeFirst(BtCursor*, int *pRes);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeLast(BtCursor*, int *pRes);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeNext(BtCursor*, int *pRes);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeEof(BtCursor*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreePrevious(BtCursor*, int *pRes);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeKeySize(BtCursor*, i64 *pSize);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeKey(BtCursor*, u32 offset, u32 amt, void*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const void *sqlite3BtreeKeyFetch(BtCursor*, u32 *pAmt);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const void *sqlite3BtreeDataFetch(BtCursor*, u32 *pAmt);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeDataSize(BtCursor*, u32 *pSize);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeData(BtCursor*, u32 offset, u32 amt, void*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3BtreeIntegrityCheck(Btree*, int *aRoot, int nRoot, int, int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE struct Pager *sqlite3BtreePager(Btree*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreePutData(BtCursor*, u32 offset, u32 amt, void*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeIncrblobCursor(BtCursor *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeClearCursor(BtCursor *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSetVersion(Btree *pBt, int iVersion);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursorHasHint(BtCursor*, unsigned int mask);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeIsReadonly(Btree *pBt);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3HeaderSizeBtree(void);
+#ifndef NDEBUG
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursorIsValid(BtCursor*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCount(BtCursor *, i64 *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCursorInfo(BtCursor*, int*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeCursorList(Btree*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeCheckpoint(Btree*, int, int *, int *);
+** If we are not using shared cache, then there is no need to
+** use mutexes to access the BtShared structures. So make the
+** Enter and Leave procedures no-ops.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeEnter(Btree*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeEnterAll(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeSharable(Btree*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeEnterCursor(BtCursor*);
+# define sqlite3BtreeEnter(X)
+# define sqlite3BtreeEnterAll(X)
+# define sqlite3BtreeSharable(X) 0
+# define sqlite3BtreeEnterCursor(X)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeLeave(Btree*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeLeaveCursor(BtCursor*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BtreeLeaveAll(sqlite3*);
+#ifndef NDEBUG
+ /* These routines are used inside assert() statements only. */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeHoldsMutex(Btree*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BtreeHoldsAllMutexes(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SchemaMutexHeld(sqlite3*,int,Schema*);
+# define sqlite3BtreeLeave(X)
+# define sqlite3BtreeLeaveCursor(X)
+# define sqlite3BtreeLeaveAll(X)
+# define sqlite3BtreeHoldsMutex(X) 1
+# define sqlite3BtreeHoldsAllMutexes(X) 1
+# define sqlite3SchemaMutexHeld(X,Y,Z) 1
+#endif /* _BTREE_H_ */
+/************** End of btree.h ***********************************************/
+/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
+/************** Include vdbe.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ******************/
+/************** Begin file vdbe.h ********************************************/
+** 2001 September 15
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code. In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+** May you do good and not evil.
+** May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+** May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+** Header file for the Virtual DataBase Engine (VDBE)
+** This header defines the interface to the virtual database engine
+** or VDBE. The VDBE implements an abstract machine that runs a
+** simple program to access and modify the underlying database.
+#ifndef _SQLITE_VDBE_H_
+#define _SQLITE_VDBE_H_
+/* #include <stdio.h> */
+** A single VDBE is an opaque structure named "Vdbe". Only routines
+** in the source file sqliteVdbe.c are allowed to see the insides
+** of this structure.
+typedef struct Vdbe Vdbe;
+** The names of the following types declared in vdbeInt.h are required
+** for the VdbeOp definition.
+typedef struct Mem Mem;
+typedef struct SubProgram SubProgram;
+** A single instruction of the virtual machine has an opcode
+** and as many as three operands. The instruction is recorded
+** as an instance of the following structure:
+struct VdbeOp {
+ u8 opcode; /* What operation to perform */
+ signed char p4type; /* One of the P4_xxx constants for p4 */
+ u8 opflags; /* Mask of the OPFLG_* flags in opcodes.h */
+ u8 p5; /* Fifth parameter is an unsigned character */
+ int p1; /* First operand */
+ int p2; /* Second parameter (often the jump destination) */
+ int p3; /* The third parameter */
+ union p4union { /* fourth parameter */
+ int i; /* Integer value if p4type==P4_INT32 */
+ void *p; /* Generic pointer */
+ char *z; /* Pointer to data for string (char array) types */
+ i64 *pI64; /* Used when p4type is P4_INT64 */
+ double *pReal; /* Used when p4type is P4_REAL */
+ FuncDef *pFunc; /* Used when p4type is P4_FUNCDEF */
+ sqlite3_context *pCtx; /* Used when p4type is P4_FUNCCTX */
+ CollSeq *pColl; /* Used when p4type is P4_COLLSEQ */
+ Mem *pMem; /* Used when p4type is P4_MEM */
+ VTable *pVtab; /* Used when p4type is P4_VTAB */
+ KeyInfo *pKeyInfo; /* Used when p4type is P4_KEYINFO */
+ int *ai; /* Used when p4type is P4_INTARRAY */
+ SubProgram *pProgram; /* Used when p4type is P4_SUBPROGRAM */
+ Expr *pExpr; /* Used when p4type is P4_EXPR */
+ int (*xAdvance)(BtCursor *, int *);
+ } p4;
+ char *zComment; /* Comment to improve readability */
+ u32 cnt; /* Number of times this instruction was executed */
+ u64 cycles; /* Total time spent executing this instruction */
+ int iSrcLine; /* Source-code line that generated this opcode */
+typedef struct VdbeOp VdbeOp;
+** A sub-routine used to implement a trigger program.
+struct SubProgram {
+ VdbeOp *aOp; /* Array of opcodes for sub-program */
+ int nOp; /* Elements in aOp[] */
+ int nMem; /* Number of memory cells required */
+ int nCsr; /* Number of cursors required */
+ int nOnce; /* Number of OP_Once instructions */
+ void *token; /* id that may be used to recursive triggers */
+ SubProgram *pNext; /* Next sub-program already visited */
+** A smaller version of VdbeOp used for the VdbeAddOpList() function because
+** it takes up less space.
+struct VdbeOpList {
+ u8 opcode; /* What operation to perform */
+ signed char p1; /* First operand */
+ signed char p2; /* Second parameter (often the jump destination) */
+ signed char p3; /* Third parameter */
+typedef struct VdbeOpList VdbeOpList;
+** Allowed values of VdbeOp.p4type
+#define P4_NOTUSED 0 /* The P4 parameter is not used */
+#define P4_DYNAMIC (-1) /* Pointer to a string obtained from sqliteMalloc() */
+#define P4_STATIC (-2) /* Pointer to a static string */
+#define P4_COLLSEQ (-4) /* P4 is a pointer to a CollSeq structure */
+#define P4_FUNCDEF (-5) /* P4 is a pointer to a FuncDef structure */
+#define P4_KEYINFO (-6) /* P4 is a pointer to a KeyInfo structure */
+#define P4_EXPR (-7) /* P4 is a pointer to an Expr tree */
+#define P4_MEM (-8) /* P4 is a pointer to a Mem* structure */
+#define P4_TRANSIENT 0 /* P4 is a pointer to a transient string */
+#define P4_VTAB (-10) /* P4 is a pointer to an sqlite3_vtab structure */
+#define P4_MPRINTF (-11) /* P4 is a string obtained from sqlite3_mprintf() */
+#define P4_REAL (-12) /* P4 is a 64-bit floating point value */
+#define P4_INT64 (-13) /* P4 is a 64-bit signed integer */
+#define P4_INT32 (-14) /* P4 is a 32-bit signed integer */
+#define P4_INTARRAY (-15) /* P4 is a vector of 32-bit integers */
+#define P4_SUBPROGRAM (-18) /* P4 is a pointer to a SubProgram structure */
+#define P4_ADVANCE (-19) /* P4 is a pointer to BtreeNext() or BtreePrev() */
+#define P4_FUNCCTX (-20) /* P4 is a pointer to an sqlite3_context object */
+/* Error message codes for OP_Halt */
+#define P5_ConstraintNotNull 1
+#define P5_ConstraintUnique 2
+#define P5_ConstraintCheck 3
+#define P5_ConstraintFK 4
+** The Vdbe.aColName array contains 5n Mem structures, where n is the
+** number of columns of data returned by the statement.
+#define COLNAME_NAME 0
+#define COLNAME_TABLE 3
+# define COLNAME_N 5 /* Number of COLNAME_xxx symbols */
+# define COLNAME_N 1 /* Store only the name */
+# else
+# define COLNAME_N 2 /* Store the name and decltype */
+# endif
+** The following macro converts a relative address in the p2 field
+** of a VdbeOp structure into a negative number so that
+** sqlite3VdbeAddOpList() knows that the address is relative. Calling
+** the macro again restores the address.
+#define ADDR(X) (-1-(X))
+** The makefile scans the vdbe.c source file and creates the "opcodes.h"
+** header file that defines a number for each opcode used by the VDBE.
+/************** Include opcodes.h in the middle of vdbe.h ********************/
+/************** Begin file opcodes.h *****************************************/
+/* Automatically generated. Do not edit */
+/* See the tool/mkopcodeh.tcl script for details */
+#define OP_Savepoint 0
+#define OP_AutoCommit 1
+#define OP_Transaction 2
+#define OP_SorterNext 3
+#define OP_PrevIfOpen 4
+#define OP_NextIfOpen 5
+#define OP_Prev 6
+#define OP_Next 7
+#define OP_Checkpoint 8
+#define OP_JournalMode 9
+#define OP_Vacuum 10
+#define OP_VFilter 11 /* synopsis: iplan=r[P3] zplan='P4' */
+#define OP_VUpdate 12 /* synopsis: data=r[P3@P2] */
+#define OP_Goto 13
+#define OP_Gosub 14
+#define OP_Return 15
+#define OP_InitCoroutine 16
+#define OP_EndCoroutine 17
+#define OP_Yield 18
+#define OP_Not 19 /* same as TK_NOT, synopsis: r[P2]= !r[P1] */
+#define OP_HaltIfNull 20 /* synopsis: if r[P3]=null halt */
+#define OP_Halt 21
+#define OP_Integer 22 /* synopsis: r[P2]=P1 */
+#define OP_Int64 23 /* synopsis: r[P2]=P4 */
+#define OP_String 24 /* synopsis: r[P2]='P4' (len=P1) */
+#define OP_Null 25 /* synopsis: r[P2..P3]=NULL */
+#define OP_SoftNull 26 /* synopsis: r[P1]=NULL */
+#define OP_Blob 27 /* synopsis: r[P2]=P4 (len=P1) */
+#define OP_Variable 28 /* synopsis: r[P2]=parameter(P1,P4) */
+#define OP_Move 29 /* synopsis: r[P2@P3]=r[P1@P3] */
+#define OP_Copy 30 /* synopsis: r[P2@P3+1]=r[P1@P3+1] */
+#define OP_SCopy 31 /* synopsis: r[P2]=r[P1] */
+#define OP_IntCopy 32 /* synopsis: r[P2]=r[P1] */
+#define OP_ResultRow 33 /* synopsis: output=r[P1@P2] */
+#define OP_CollSeq 34
+#define OP_Function0 35 /* synopsis: r[P3]=func(r[P2@P5]) */
+#define OP_Function 36 /* synopsis: r[P3]=func(r[P2@P5]) */
+#define OP_AddImm 37 /* synopsis: r[P1]=r[P1]+P2 */
+#define OP_MustBeInt 38
+#define OP_RealAffinity 39
+#define OP_Cast 40 /* synopsis: affinity(r[P1]) */
+#define OP_Permutation 41
+#define OP_Compare 42 /* synopsis: r[P1@P3] <-> r[P2@P3] */
+#define OP_Jump 43
+#define OP_Once 44
+#define OP_If 45
+#define OP_IfNot 46
+#define OP_Column 47 /* synopsis: r[P3]=PX */
+#define OP_Affinity 48 /* synopsis: affinity(r[P1@P2]) */
+#define OP_MakeRecord 49 /* synopsis: r[P3]=mkrec(r[P1@P2]) */
+#define OP_Count 50 /* synopsis: r[P2]=count() */
+#define OP_ReadCookie 51
+#define OP_SetCookie 52
+#define OP_ReopenIdx 53 /* synopsis: root=P2 iDb=P3 */
+#define OP_OpenRead 54 /* synopsis: root=P2 iDb=P3 */
+#define OP_OpenWrite 55 /* synopsis: root=P2 iDb=P3 */
+#define OP_OpenAutoindex 56 /* synopsis: nColumn=P2 */
+#define OP_OpenEphemeral 57 /* synopsis: nColumn=P2 */
+#define OP_SorterOpen 58
+#define OP_SequenceTest 59 /* synopsis: if( cursor[P1].ctr++ ) pc = P2 */
+#define OP_OpenPseudo 60 /* synopsis: P3 columns in r[P2] */
+#define OP_Close 61
+#define OP_ColumnsUsed 62
+#define OP_SeekLT 63 /* synopsis: key=r[P3@P4] */
+#define OP_SeekLE 64 /* synopsis: key=r[P3@P4] */
+#define OP_SeekGE 65 /* synopsis: key=r[P3@P4] */
+#define OP_SeekGT 66 /* synopsis: key=r[P3@P4] */
+#define OP_NoConflict 67 /* synopsis: key=r[P3@P4] */
+#define OP_NotFound 68 /* synopsis: key=r[P3@P4] */
+#define OP_Found 69 /* synopsis: key=r[P3@P4] */
+#define OP_NotExists 70 /* synopsis: intkey=r[P3] */
+#define OP_Or 71 /* same as TK_OR, synopsis: r[P3]=(r[P1] || r[P2]) */
+#define OP_And 72 /* same as TK_AND, synopsis: r[P3]=(r[P1] && r[P2]) */
+#define OP_Sequence 73 /* synopsis: r[P2]=cursor[P1].ctr++ */
+#define OP_NewRowid 74 /* synopsis: r[P2]=rowid */
+#define OP_Insert 75 /* synopsis: intkey=r[P3] data=r[P2] */
+#define OP_IsNull 76 /* same as TK_ISNULL, synopsis: if r[P1]==NULL goto P2 */
+#define OP_NotNull 77 /* same as TK_NOTNULL, synopsis: if r[P1]!=NULL goto P2 */
+#define OP_Ne 78 /* same as TK_NE, synopsis: if r[P1]!=r[P3] goto P2 */
+#define OP_Eq 79 /* same as TK_EQ, synopsis: if r[P1]==r[P3] goto P2 */
+#define OP_Gt 80 /* same as TK_GT, synopsis: if r[P1]>r[P3] goto P2 */
+#define OP_Le 81 /* same as TK_LE, synopsis: if r[P1]<=r[P3] goto P2 */
+#define OP_Lt 82 /* same as TK_LT, synopsis: if r[P1]<r[P3] goto P2 */
+#define OP_Ge 83 /* same as TK_GE, synopsis: if r[P1]>=r[P3] goto P2 */
+#define OP_InsertInt 84 /* synopsis: intkey=P3 data=r[P2] */
+#define OP_BitAnd 85 /* same as TK_BITAND, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]&r[P2] */
+#define OP_BitOr 86 /* same as TK_BITOR, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]|r[P2] */
+#define OP_ShiftLeft 87 /* same as TK_LSHIFT, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]<<r[P1] */
+#define OP_ShiftRight 88 /* same as TK_RSHIFT, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]>>r[P1] */
+#define OP_Add 89 /* same as TK_PLUS, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]+r[P2] */
+#define OP_Subtract 90 /* same as TK_MINUS, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]-r[P1] */
+#define OP_Multiply 91 /* same as TK_STAR, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P1]*r[P2] */
+#define OP_Divide 92 /* same as TK_SLASH, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]/r[P1] */
+#define OP_Remainder 93 /* same as TK_REM, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]%r[P1] */
+#define OP_Concat 94 /* same as TK_CONCAT, synopsis: r[P3]=r[P2]+r[P1] */
+#define OP_Delete 95
+#define OP_BitNot 96 /* same as TK_BITNOT, synopsis: r[P1]= ~r[P1] */
+#define OP_String8 97 /* same as TK_STRING, synopsis: r[P2]='P4' */
+#define OP_ResetCount 98
+#define OP_SorterCompare 99 /* synopsis: if key(P1)!=trim(r[P3],P4) goto P2 */
+#define OP_SorterData 100 /* synopsis: r[P2]=data */
+#define OP_RowKey 101 /* synopsis: r[P2]=key */
+#define OP_RowData 102 /* synopsis: r[P2]=data */
+#define OP_Rowid 103 /* synopsis: r[P2]=rowid */
+#define OP_NullRow 104
+#define OP_Last 105
+#define OP_SorterSort 106
+#define OP_Sort 107
+#define OP_Rewind 108
+#define OP_SorterInsert 109
+#define OP_IdxInsert 110 /* synopsis: key=r[P2] */
+#define OP_IdxDelete 111 /* synopsis: key=r[P2@P3] */
+#define OP_Seek 112 /* synopsis: Move P3 to P1.rowid */
+#define OP_IdxRowid 113 /* synopsis: r[P2]=rowid */
+#define OP_IdxLE 114 /* synopsis: key=r[P3@P4] */
+#define OP_IdxGT 115 /* synopsis: key=r[P3@P4] */
+#define OP_IdxLT 116 /* synopsis: key=r[P3@P4] */
+#define OP_IdxGE 117 /* synopsis: key=r[P3@P4] */
+#define OP_Destroy 118
+#define OP_Clear 119
+#define OP_ResetSorter 120
+#define OP_CreateIndex 121 /* synopsis: r[P2]=root iDb=P1 */
+#define OP_CreateTable 122 /* synopsis: r[P2]=root iDb=P1 */
+#define OP_ParseSchema 123
+#define OP_LoadAnalysis 124
+#define OP_DropTable 125
+#define OP_DropIndex 126
+#define OP_DropTrigger 127
+#define OP_IntegrityCk 128
+#define OP_RowSetAdd 129 /* synopsis: rowset(P1)=r[P2] */
+#define OP_RowSetRead 130 /* synopsis: r[P3]=rowset(P1) */
+#define OP_RowSetTest 131 /* synopsis: if r[P3] in rowset(P1) goto P2 */
+#define OP_Program 132
+#define OP_Real 133 /* same as TK_FLOAT, synopsis: r[P2]=P4 */
+#define OP_Param 134
+#define OP_FkCounter 135 /* synopsis: fkctr[P1]+=P2 */
+#define OP_FkIfZero 136 /* synopsis: if fkctr[P1]==0 goto P2 */
+#define OP_MemMax 137 /* synopsis: r[P1]=max(r[P1],r[P2]) */
+#define OP_IfPos 138 /* synopsis: if r[P1]>0 then r[P1]-=P3, goto P2 */
+#define OP_OffsetLimit 139 /* synopsis: if r[P1]>0 then r[P2]=r[P1]+max(0,r[P3]) else r[P2]=(-1) */
+#define OP_IfNotZero 140 /* synopsis: if r[P1]!=0 then r[P1]-=P3, goto P2 */
+#define OP_DecrJumpZero 141 /* synopsis: if (--r[P1])==0 goto P2 */
+#define OP_JumpZeroIncr 142 /* synopsis: if (r[P1]++)==0 ) goto P2 */
+#define OP_AggStep0 143 /* synopsis: accum=r[P3] step(r[P2@P5]) */
+#define OP_AggStep 144 /* synopsis: accum=r[P3] step(r[P2@P5]) */
+#define OP_AggFinal 145 /* synopsis: accum=r[P1] N=P2 */
+#define OP_IncrVacuum 146
+#define OP_Expire 147
+#define OP_TableLock 148 /* synopsis: iDb=P1 root=P2 write=P3 */
+#define OP_VBegin 149
+#define OP_VCreate 150
+#define OP_VDestroy 151
+#define OP_VOpen 152
+#define OP_VColumn 153 /* synopsis: r[P3]=vcolumn(P2) */
+#define OP_VNext 154
+#define OP_VRename 155
+#define OP_Pagecount 156
+#define OP_MaxPgcnt 157
+#define OP_Init 158 /* synopsis: Start at P2 */
+#define OP_CursorHint 159
+#define OP_Noop 160
+#define OP_Explain 161
+/* Properties such as "out2" or "jump" that are specified in
+** comments following the "case" for each opcode in the vdbe.c
+** are encoded into bitvectors as follows:
+#define OPFLG_JUMP 0x01 /* jump: P2 holds jmp target */
+#define OPFLG_IN1 0x02 /* in1: P1 is an input */
+#define OPFLG_IN2 0x04 /* in2: P2 is an input */
+#define OPFLG_IN3 0x08 /* in3: P3 is an input */
+#define OPFLG_OUT2 0x10 /* out2: P2 is an output */
+#define OPFLG_OUT3 0x20 /* out3: P3 is an output */
+/* 0 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01,\
+/* 8 */ 0x00, 0x10, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x01, 0x01, 0x02,\
+/* 16 */ 0x01, 0x02, 0x03, 0x12, 0x08, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10,\
+/* 24 */ 0x10, 0x10, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10,\
+/* 32 */ 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x03, 0x02,\
+/* 40 */ 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x01, 0x03, 0x03, 0x00,\
+/* 48 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
+/* 56 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x09,\
+/* 64 */ 0x09, 0x09, 0x09, 0x09, 0x09, 0x09, 0x09, 0x26,\
+/* 72 */ 0x26, 0x10, 0x10, 0x00, 0x03, 0x03, 0x0b, 0x0b,\
+/* 80 */ 0x0b, 0x0b, 0x0b, 0x0b, 0x00, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26,\
+/* 88 */ 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0x00,\
+/* 96 */ 0x12, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10,\
+/* 104 */ 0x00, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x04, 0x04, 0x00,\
+/* 112 */ 0x00, 0x10, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x01, 0x10, 0x00,\
+/* 120 */ 0x00, 0x10, 0x10, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
+/* 128 */ 0x00, 0x06, 0x23, 0x0b, 0x01, 0x10, 0x10, 0x00,\
+/* 136 */ 0x01, 0x04, 0x03, 0x1a, 0x03, 0x03, 0x03, 0x00,\
+/* 144 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,\
+/* 152 */ 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x10, 0x10, 0x01, 0x00,\
+/* 160 */ 0x00, 0x00,}
+/************** End of opcodes.h *********************************************/
+/************** Continuing where we left off in vdbe.h ***********************/
+** Prototypes for the VDBE interface. See comments on the implementation
+** for a description of what each of these routines does.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Vdbe *sqlite3VdbeCreate(Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(Vdbe*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(Vdbe*,int,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(Vdbe*,int,int,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeGoto(Vdbe*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeLoadString(Vdbe*,int,const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMultiLoad(Vdbe*,int,const char*,...);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(Vdbe*,int,int,int,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(Vdbe*,int,int,int,int,const char *zP4,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Dup8(Vdbe*,int,int,int,int,const u8*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(Vdbe*,int,int,int,int,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeEndCoroutine(Vdbe*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeVerifyNoMallocRequired(Vdbe *p, int N);
+# define sqlite3VdbeVerifyNoMallocRequired(A,B)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE VdbeOp *sqlite3VdbeAddOpList(Vdbe*, int nOp, VdbeOpList const *aOp, int iLineno);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeAddParseSchemaOp(Vdbe*,int,char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeOpcode(Vdbe*, u32 addr, u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP1(Vdbe*, u32 addr, int P1);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP2(Vdbe*, u32 addr, int P2);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP3(Vdbe*, u32 addr, int P3);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(Vdbe*, u8 P5);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(Vdbe*, int addr);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeChangeToNoop(Vdbe*, int addr);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeDeletePriorOpcode(Vdbe*, u8 op);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(Vdbe*, int addr, const char *zP4, int N);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetP4KeyInfo(Parse*, Index*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeUsesBtree(Vdbe*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE VdbeOp *sqlite3VdbeGetOp(Vdbe*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(Vdbe*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeRunOnlyOnce(Vdbe*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeDelete(Vdbe*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeClearObject(sqlite3*,Vdbe*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeMakeReady(Vdbe*,Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeFinalize(Vdbe*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(Vdbe*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(Vdbe*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeAssertMayAbort(Vdbe *, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeResetStepResult(Vdbe*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeRewind(Vdbe*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeReset(Vdbe*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetNumCols(Vdbe*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeSetColName(Vdbe*, int, int, const char *, void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeCountChanges(Vdbe*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3 *sqlite3VdbeDb(Vdbe*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetSql(Vdbe*, const char *z, int n, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSwap(Vdbe*,Vdbe*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE VdbeOp *sqlite3VdbeTakeOpArray(Vdbe*, int*, int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_value *sqlite3VdbeGetBoundValue(Vdbe*, int, u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetVarmask(Vdbe*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3VdbeExpandSql(Vdbe*, const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MemCompare(const Mem*, const Mem*, const CollSeq*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeRecordUnpack(KeyInfo*,int,const void*,UnpackedRecord*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare(int,const void*,UnpackedRecord*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeRecordCompareWithSkip(int, const void *, UnpackedRecord *, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE UnpackedRecord *sqlite3VdbeAllocUnpackedRecord(KeyInfo *, char *, int, char **);
+typedef int (*RecordCompare)(int,const void*,UnpackedRecord*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE RecordCompare sqlite3VdbeFindCompare(UnpackedRecord*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeLinkSubProgram(Vdbe *, SubProgram *);
+/* Use SQLITE_ENABLE_COMMENTS to enable generation of extra comments on
+** each VDBE opcode.
+** Use the SQLITE_ENABLE_MODULE_COMMENTS macro to see some extra no-op
+** comments in VDBE programs that show key decision points in the code
+** generator.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeComment(Vdbe*, const char*, ...);
+# define VdbeComment(X) sqlite3VdbeComment X
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeNoopComment(Vdbe*, const char*, ...);
+# define VdbeNoopComment(X) sqlite3VdbeNoopComment X
+# define VdbeModuleComment(X) sqlite3VdbeNoopComment X
+# else
+# define VdbeModuleComment(X)
+# endif
+# define VdbeComment(X)
+# define VdbeNoopComment(X)
+# define VdbeModuleComment(X)
+** The VdbeCoverage macros are used to set a coverage testing point
+** for VDBE branch instructions. The coverage testing points are line
+** numbers in the sqlite3.c source file. VDBE branch coverage testing
+** only works with an amalagmation build. That's ok since a VDBE branch
+** coverage build designed for testing the test suite only. No application
+** should ever ship with VDBE branch coverage measuring turned on.
+** VdbeCoverage(v) // Mark the previously coded instruction
+** // as a branch
+** VdbeCoverageIf(v, conditional) // Mark previous if conditional true
+** VdbeCoverageAlwaysTaken(v) // Previous branch is always taken
+** VdbeCoverageNeverTaken(v) // Previous branch is never taken
+** Every VDBE branch operation must be tagged with one of the macros above.
+** If not, then when "make test" is run with -DSQLITE_VDBE_COVERAGE and
+** -DSQLITE_DEBUG then an ALWAYS() will fail in the vdbeTakeBranch()
+** routine in vdbe.c, alerting the developer to the missed tag.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetLineNumber(Vdbe*,int);
+# define VdbeCoverage(v) sqlite3VdbeSetLineNumber(v,__LINE__)
+# define VdbeCoverageIf(v,x) if(x)sqlite3VdbeSetLineNumber(v,__LINE__)
+# define VdbeCoverageAlwaysTaken(v) sqlite3VdbeSetLineNumber(v,2);
+# define VdbeCoverageNeverTaken(v) sqlite3VdbeSetLineNumber(v,1);
+# define VDBE_OFFSET_LINENO(x) (__LINE__+x)
+# define VdbeCoverage(v)
+# define VdbeCoverageIf(v,x)
+# define VdbeCoverageAlwaysTaken(v)
+# define VdbeCoverageNeverTaken(v)
+# define VDBE_OFFSET_LINENO(x) 0
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeScanStatus(Vdbe*, int, int, int, LogEst, const char*);
+# define sqlite3VdbeScanStatus(a,b,c,d,e)
+/************** End of vdbe.h ************************************************/
+/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
+/************** Include pager.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h *****************/
+/************** Begin file pager.h *******************************************/
+** 2001 September 15
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code. In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+** May you do good and not evil.
+** May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+** May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+** This header file defines the interface that the sqlite page cache
+** subsystem. The page cache subsystem reads and writes a file a page
+** at a time and provides a journal for rollback.
+#ifndef _PAGER_H_
+#define _PAGER_H_
+** Default maximum size for persistent journal files. A negative
+** value means no limit. This value may be overridden using the
+** sqlite3PagerJournalSizeLimit() API. See also "PRAGMA journal_size_limit".
+** The type used to represent a page number. The first page in a file
+** is called page 1. 0 is used to represent "not a page".
+typedef u32 Pgno;
+** Each open file is managed by a separate instance of the "Pager" structure.
+typedef struct Pager Pager;
+** Handle type for pages.
+typedef struct PgHdr DbPage;
+** Page number PAGER_MJ_PGNO is never used in an SQLite database (it is
+** reserved for working around a windows/posix incompatibility). It is
+** used in the journal to signify that the remainder of the journal file
+** is devoted to storing a master journal name - there are no more pages to
+** roll back. See comments for function writeMasterJournal() in pager.c
+** for details.
+#define PAGER_MJ_PGNO(x) ((Pgno)((PENDING_BYTE/((x)->pageSize))+1))
+** Allowed values for the flags parameter to sqlite3PagerOpen().
+** NOTE: These values must match the corresponding BTREE_ values in btree.h.
+#define PAGER_OMIT_JOURNAL 0x0001 /* Do not use a rollback journal */
+#define PAGER_MEMORY 0x0002 /* In-memory database */
+** Valid values for the second argument to sqlite3PagerLockingMode().
+** Numeric constants that encode the journalmode.
+#define PAGER_JOURNALMODE_QUERY (-1) /* Query the value of journalmode */
+#define PAGER_JOURNALMODE_DELETE 0 /* Commit by deleting journal file */
+#define PAGER_JOURNALMODE_PERSIST 1 /* Commit by zeroing journal header */
+#define PAGER_JOURNALMODE_OFF 2 /* Journal omitted. */
+#define PAGER_JOURNALMODE_TRUNCATE 3 /* Commit by truncating journal */
+#define PAGER_JOURNALMODE_MEMORY 4 /* In-memory journal file */
+#define PAGER_JOURNALMODE_WAL 5 /* Use write-ahead logging */
+** Flags that make up the mask passed to sqlite3PagerGet().
+#define PAGER_GET_NOCONTENT 0x01 /* Do not load data from disk */
+#define PAGER_GET_READONLY 0x02 /* Read-only page is acceptable */
+** Flags for sqlite3PagerSetFlags()
+#define PAGER_SYNCHRONOUS_OFF 0x01 /* PRAGMA synchronous=OFF */
+#define PAGER_SYNCHRONOUS_NORMAL 0x02 /* PRAGMA synchronous=NORMAL */
+#define PAGER_SYNCHRONOUS_FULL 0x03 /* PRAGMA synchronous=FULL */
+#define PAGER_SYNCHRONOUS_EXTRA 0x04 /* PRAGMA synchronous=EXTRA */
+#define PAGER_SYNCHRONOUS_MASK 0x07 /* Mask for four values above */
+#define PAGER_FULLFSYNC 0x08 /* PRAGMA fullfsync=ON */
+#define PAGER_CKPT_FULLFSYNC 0x10 /* PRAGMA checkpoint_fullfsync=ON */
+#define PAGER_CACHESPILL 0x20 /* PRAGMA cache_spill=ON */
+#define PAGER_FLAGS_MASK 0x38 /* All above except SYNCHRONOUS */
+** The remainder of this file contains the declarations of the functions
+** that make up the Pager sub-system API. See source code comments for
+** a detailed description of each routine.
+/* Open and close a Pager connection. */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerOpen(
+ sqlite3_vfs*,
+ Pager **ppPager,
+ const char*,
+ int,
+ int,
+ int,
+ void(*)(DbPage*)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerClose(Pager *pPager);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerReadFileheader(Pager*, int, unsigned char*);
+/* Functions used to configure a Pager object. */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetBusyhandler(Pager*, int(*)(void *), void *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerSetPagesize(Pager*, u32*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerAlignReserve(Pager*,Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerMaxPageCount(Pager*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetCachesize(Pager*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerSetSpillsize(Pager*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetMmapLimit(Pager *, sqlite3_int64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerShrink(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerSetFlags(Pager*,unsigned);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerLockingMode(Pager *, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerSetJournalMode(Pager *, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerGetJournalMode(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerOkToChangeJournalMode(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE i64 sqlite3PagerJournalSizeLimit(Pager *, i64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_backup **sqlite3PagerBackupPtr(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerFlush(Pager*);
+/* Functions used to obtain and release page references. */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerGet(Pager *pPager, Pgno pgno, DbPage **ppPage, int clrFlag);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE DbPage *sqlite3PagerLookup(Pager *pPager, Pgno pgno);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerRef(DbPage*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerUnref(DbPage*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerUnrefNotNull(DbPage*);
+/* Operations on page references. */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerWrite(DbPage*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerDontWrite(DbPage*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerMovepage(Pager*,DbPage*,Pgno,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerPageRefcount(DbPage*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3PagerGetData(DbPage *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3PagerGetExtra(DbPage *);
+/* Functions used to manage pager transactions and savepoints. */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerPagecount(Pager*, int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerBegin(Pager*, int exFlag, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerCommitPhaseOne(Pager*,const char *zMaster, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerExclusiveLock(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerSync(Pager *pPager, const char *zMaster);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerCommitPhaseTwo(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerRollback(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerOpenSavepoint(Pager *pPager, int n);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerSavepoint(Pager *pPager, int op, int iSavepoint);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerSharedLock(Pager *pPager);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerCheckpoint(Pager *pPager, int, int*, int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerWalSupported(Pager *pPager);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerWalCallback(Pager *pPager);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerOpenWal(Pager *pPager, int *pisOpen);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerCloseWal(Pager *pPager);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerSnapshotGet(Pager *pPager, sqlite3_snapshot **ppSnapshot);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerSnapshotOpen(Pager *pPager, sqlite3_snapshot *pSnapshot);
+# endif
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerWalFramesize(Pager *pPager);
+/* Functions used to query pager state and configuration. */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE u8 sqlite3PagerIsreadonly(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3PagerDataVersion(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerRefcount(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerMemUsed(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3PagerFilename(Pager*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_vfs *sqlite3PagerVfs(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_file *sqlite3PagerFile(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_file *sqlite3PagerJrnlFile(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3PagerJournalname(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerNosync(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3PagerTempSpace(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerIsMemdb(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerCacheStat(Pager *, int, int, int *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerClearCache(Pager *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SectorSize(sqlite3_file *);
+/* Functions used to truncate the database file. */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerTruncateImage(Pager*,Pgno);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerRekey(DbPage*, Pgno, u16);
+#if defined(SQLITE_HAS_CODEC) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_WAL)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3PagerCodec(DbPage *);
+/* Functions to support testing and debugging. */
+#if !defined(NDEBUG) || defined(SQLITE_TEST)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Pgno sqlite3PagerPagenumber(DbPage*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PagerIswriteable(DbPage*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int *sqlite3PagerStats(Pager*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PagerRefdump(Pager*);
+ void disable_simulated_io_errors(void);
+ void enable_simulated_io_errors(void);
+# define disable_simulated_io_errors()
+# define enable_simulated_io_errors()
+#endif /* _PAGER_H_ */
+/************** End of pager.h ***********************************************/
+/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
+/************** Include pcache.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ****************/
+/************** Begin file pcache.h ******************************************/
+** 2008 August 05
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code. In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+** May you do good and not evil.
+** May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+** May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+** This header file defines the interface that the sqlite page cache
+** subsystem.
+#ifndef _PCACHE_H_
+typedef struct PgHdr PgHdr;
+typedef struct PCache PCache;
+** Every page in the cache is controlled by an instance of the following
+** structure.
+struct PgHdr {
+ sqlite3_pcache_page *pPage; /* Pcache object page handle */
+ void *pData; /* Page data */
+ void *pExtra; /* Extra content */
+ PgHdr *pDirty; /* Transient list of dirty pages */
+ Pager *pPager; /* The pager this page is part of */
+ Pgno pgno; /* Page number for this page */
+ u32 pageHash; /* Hash of page content */
+ u16 flags; /* PGHDR flags defined below */
+ /**********************************************************************
+ ** Elements above are public. All that follows is private to pcache.c
+ ** and should not be accessed by other modules.
+ */
+ i16 nRef; /* Number of users of this page */
+ PCache *pCache; /* Cache that owns this page */
+ PgHdr *pDirtyNext; /* Next element in list of dirty pages */
+ PgHdr *pDirtyPrev; /* Previous element in list of dirty pages */
+/* Bit values for PgHdr.flags */
+#define PGHDR_CLEAN 0x001 /* Page not on the PCache.pDirty list */
+#define PGHDR_DIRTY 0x002 /* Page is on the PCache.pDirty list */
+#define PGHDR_WRITEABLE 0x004 /* Journaled and ready to modify */
+#define PGHDR_NEED_SYNC 0x008 /* Fsync the rollback journal before
+ ** writing this page to the database */
+#define PGHDR_NEED_READ 0x010 /* Content is unread */
+#define PGHDR_DONT_WRITE 0x020 /* Do not write content to disk */
+#define PGHDR_MMAP 0x040 /* This is an mmap page object */
+#define PGHDR_WAL_APPEND 0x080 /* Appended to wal file */
+/* Initialize and shutdown the page cache subsystem */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcacheInitialize(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheShutdown(void);
+/* Page cache buffer management:
+** These routines implement SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PCacheBufferSetup(void *, int sz, int n);
+/* Create a new pager cache.
+** Under memory stress, invoke xStress to try to make pages clean.
+** Only clean and unpinned pages can be reclaimed.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcacheOpen(
+ int szPage, /* Size of every page */
+ int szExtra, /* Extra space associated with each page */
+ int bPurgeable, /* True if pages are on backing store */
+ int (*xStress)(void*, PgHdr*), /* Call to try to make pages clean */
+ void *pStress, /* Argument to xStress */
+ PCache *pToInit /* Preallocated space for the PCache */
+/* Modify the page-size after the cache has been created. */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcacheSetPageSize(PCache *, int);
+/* Return the size in bytes of a PCache object. Used to preallocate
+** storage space.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcacheSize(void);
+/* One release per successful fetch. Page is pinned until released.
+** Reference counted.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_pcache_page *sqlite3PcacheFetch(PCache*, Pgno, int createFlag);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcacheFetchStress(PCache*, Pgno, sqlite3_pcache_page**);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE PgHdr *sqlite3PcacheFetchFinish(PCache*, Pgno, sqlite3_pcache_page *pPage);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheRelease(PgHdr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheDrop(PgHdr*); /* Remove page from cache */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheMakeDirty(PgHdr*); /* Make sure page is marked dirty */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheMakeClean(PgHdr*); /* Mark a single page as clean */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheCleanAll(PCache*); /* Mark all dirty list pages as clean */
+/* Change a page number. Used by incr-vacuum. */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheMove(PgHdr*, Pgno);
+/* Remove all pages with pgno>x. Reset the cache if x==0 */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheTruncate(PCache*, Pgno x);
+/* Get a list of all dirty pages in the cache, sorted by page number */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE PgHdr *sqlite3PcacheDirtyList(PCache*);
+/* Reset and close the cache object */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheClose(PCache*);
+/* Clear flags from pages of the page cache */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheClearSyncFlags(PCache *);
+/* Discard the contents of the cache */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheClear(PCache*);
+/* Return the total number of outstanding page references */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcacheRefCount(PCache*);
+/* Increment the reference count of an existing page */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheRef(PgHdr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcachePageRefcount(PgHdr*);
+/* Return the total number of pages stored in the cache */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcachePagecount(PCache*);
+#if defined(SQLITE_CHECK_PAGES) || defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
+/* Iterate through all dirty pages currently stored in the cache. This
+** interface is only available if SQLITE_CHECK_PAGES is defined when the
+** library is built.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheIterateDirty(PCache *pCache, void (*xIter)(PgHdr *));
+/* Set and get the suggested cache-size for the specified pager-cache.
+** If no global maximum is configured, then the system attempts to limit
+** the total number of pages cached by purgeable pager-caches to the sum
+** of the suggested cache-sizes.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheSetCachesize(PCache *, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcacheGetCachesize(PCache *);
+/* Set or get the suggested spill-size for the specified pager-cache.
+** The spill-size is the minimum number of pages in cache before the cache
+** will attempt to spill dirty pages by calling xStress.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcacheSetSpillsize(PCache *, int);
+/* Free up as much memory as possible from the page cache */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheShrink(PCache*);
+/* Try to return memory used by the pcache module to the main memory heap */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PcacheReleaseMemory(int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PcacheStats(int*,int*,int*,int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PCacheSetDefault(void);
+/* Return the header size */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3HeaderSizePcache(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3HeaderSizePcache1(void);
+#endif /* _PCACHE_H_ */
+/************** End of pcache.h **********************************************/
+/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
+/************** Include os.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h ********************/
+/************** Begin file os.h **********************************************/
+** 2001 September 16
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code. In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+** May you do good and not evil.
+** May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+** May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+** This header file (together with is companion C source-code file
+** "os.c") attempt to abstract the underlying operating system so that
+** the SQLite library will work on both POSIX and windows systems.
+** This header file is #include-ed by sqliteInt.h and thus ends up
+** being included by every source file.
+#ifndef _SQLITE_OS_H_
+#define _SQLITE_OS_H_
+** Attempt to automatically detect the operating system and setup the
+** necessary pre-processor macros for it.
+/************** Include os_setup.h in the middle of os.h *********************/
+/************** Begin file os_setup.h ****************************************/
+** 2013 November 25
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code. In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+** May you do good and not evil.
+** May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+** May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+** This file contains pre-processor directives related to operating system
+** detection and/or setup.
+#ifndef _OS_SETUP_H_
+#define _OS_SETUP_H_
+** Figure out if we are dealing with Unix, Windows, or some other operating
+** system.
+** After the following block of preprocess macros, all of SQLITE_OS_UNIX,
+** SQLITE_OS_WIN, and SQLITE_OS_OTHER will defined to either 1 or 0. One of
+** the three will be 1. The other two will be 0.
+#if defined(SQLITE_OS_OTHER)
+# define SQLITE_OS_UNIX 0
+# undef SQLITE_OS_WIN
+# define SQLITE_OS_WIN 0
+# else
+# endif
+#if !defined(SQLITE_OS_UNIX) && !defined(SQLITE_OS_OTHER)
+# define SQLITE_OS_OTHER 0
+# ifndef SQLITE_OS_WIN
+# if defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32) || defined(__CYGWIN__) || \
+ defined(__MINGW32__) || defined(__BORLANDC__)
+# define SQLITE_OS_WIN 1
+# define SQLITE_OS_UNIX 0
+# else
+# define SQLITE_OS_WIN 0
+# define SQLITE_OS_UNIX 1
+# endif
+# else
+# define SQLITE_OS_UNIX 0
+# endif
+# ifndef SQLITE_OS_WIN
+# define SQLITE_OS_WIN 0
+# endif
+#endif /* _OS_SETUP_H_ */
+/************** End of os_setup.h ********************************************/
+/************** Continuing where we left off in os.h *************************/
+/* If the SET_FULLSYNC macro is not defined above, then make it
+** a no-op
+# define SET_FULLSYNC(x,y)
+** The default size of a disk sector
+** Temporary files are named starting with this prefix followed by 16 random
+** alphanumeric characters, and no file extension. They are stored in the
+** OS's standard temporary file directory, and are deleted prior to exit.
+** If sqlite is being embedded in another program, you may wish to change the
+** prefix to reflect your program's name, so that if your program exits
+** prematurely, old temporary files can be easily identified. This can be done
+** using -DSQLITE_TEMP_FILE_PREFIX=myprefix_ on the compiler command line.
+** 2006-10-31: The default prefix used to be "sqlite_". But then
+** Mcafee started using SQLite in their anti-virus product and it
+** started putting files with the "sqlite" name in the c:/temp folder.
+** This annoyed many windows users. Those users would then do a
+** Google search for "sqlite", find the telephone numbers of the
+** developers and call to wake them up at night and complain.
+** For this reason, the default name prefix is changed to be "sqlite"
+** spelled backwards. So the temp files are still identified, but
+** anybody smart enough to figure out the code is also likely smart
+** enough to know that calling the developer will not help get rid
+** of the file.
+# define SQLITE_TEMP_FILE_PREFIX "etilqs_"
+** The following values may be passed as the second argument to
+** sqlite3OsLock(). The various locks exhibit the following semantics:
+** SHARED: Any number of processes may hold a SHARED lock simultaneously.
+** RESERVED: A single process may hold a RESERVED lock on a file at
+** any time. Other processes may hold and obtain new SHARED locks.
+** PENDING: A single process may hold a PENDING lock on a file at
+** any one time. Existing SHARED locks may persist, but no new
+** SHARED locks may be obtained by other processes.
+** EXCLUSIVE: An EXCLUSIVE lock precludes all other locks.
+** PENDING_LOCK may not be passed directly to sqlite3OsLock(). Instead, a
+** process that requests an EXCLUSIVE lock may actually obtain a PENDING
+** lock. This can be upgraded to an EXCLUSIVE lock by a subsequent call to
+** sqlite3OsLock().
+#define NO_LOCK 0
+#define SHARED_LOCK 1
+#define RESERVED_LOCK 2
+#define PENDING_LOCK 3
+** File Locking Notes: (Mostly about windows but also some info for Unix)
+** We cannot use LockFileEx() or UnlockFileEx() on Win95/98/ME because
+** those functions are not available. So we use only LockFile() and
+** UnlockFile().
+** LockFile() prevents not just writing but also reading by other processes.
+** A SHARED_LOCK is obtained by locking a single randomly-chosen
+** byte out of a specific range of bytes. The lock byte is obtained at
+** random so two separate readers can probably access the file at the
+** same time, unless they are unlucky and choose the same lock byte.
+** An EXCLUSIVE_LOCK is obtained by locking all bytes in the range.
+** There can only be one writer. A RESERVED_LOCK is obtained by locking
+** a single byte of the file that is designated as the reserved lock byte.
+** A PENDING_LOCK is obtained by locking a designated byte different from
+** the RESERVED_LOCK byte.
+** On WinNT/2K/XP systems, LockFileEx() and UnlockFileEx() are available,
+** which means we can use reader/writer locks. When reader/writer locks
+** are used, the lock is placed on the same range of bytes that is used
+** for probabilistic locking in Win95/98/ME. Hence, the locking scheme
+** will support two or more Win95 readers or two or more WinNT readers.
+** But a single Win95 reader will lock out all WinNT readers and a single
+** WinNT reader will lock out all other Win95 readers.
+** The following #defines specify the range of bytes used for locking.
+** SHARED_SIZE is the number of bytes available in the pool from which
+** a random byte is selected for a shared lock. The pool of bytes for
+** shared locks begins at SHARED_FIRST.
+** The same locking strategy and
+** byte ranges are used for Unix. This leaves open the possibility of having
+** clients on win95, winNT, and unix all talking to the same shared file
+** and all locking correctly. To do so would require that samba (or whatever
+** tool is being used for file sharing) implements locks correctly between
+** windows and unix. I'm guessing that isn't likely to happen, but by
+** using the same locking range we are at least open to the possibility.
+** Locking in windows is manditory. For this reason, we cannot store
+** actual data in the bytes used for locking. The pager never allocates
+** the pages involved in locking therefore. SHARED_SIZE is selected so
+** that all locks will fit on a single page even at the minimum page size.
+** PENDING_BYTE defines the beginning of the locks. By default PENDING_BYTE
+** is set high so that we don't have to allocate an unused page except
+** for very large databases. But one should test the page skipping logic
+** by setting PENDING_BYTE low and running the entire regression suite.
+** Changing the value of PENDING_BYTE results in a subtly incompatible
+** file format. Depending on how it is changed, you might not notice
+** the incompatibility right away, even running a full regression test.
+** The default location of PENDING_BYTE is the first byte past the
+** 1GB boundary.
+# define PENDING_BYTE (0x40000000)
+# define PENDING_BYTE sqlite3PendingByte
+#define SHARED_SIZE 510
+** Wrapper around OS specific sqlite3_os_init() function.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsInit(void);
+** Functions for accessing sqlite3_file methods
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsClose(sqlite3_file*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsRead(sqlite3_file*, void*, int amt, i64 offset);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsWrite(sqlite3_file*, const void*, int amt, i64 offset);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsTruncate(sqlite3_file*, i64 size);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSync(sqlite3_file*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFileSize(sqlite3_file*, i64 *pSize);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsLock(sqlite3_file*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsUnlock(sqlite3_file*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCheckReservedLock(sqlite3_file *id, int *pResOut);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFileControl(sqlite3_file*,int,void*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OsFileControlHint(sqlite3_file*,int,void*);
+#define SQLITE_FCNTL_DB_UNCHANGED 0xca093fa0
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSectorSize(sqlite3_file *id);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsDeviceCharacteristics(sqlite3_file *id);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsShmMap(sqlite3_file *,int,int,int,void volatile **);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsShmLock(sqlite3_file *id, int, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OsShmBarrier(sqlite3_file *id);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsShmUnmap(sqlite3_file *id, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFetch(sqlite3_file *id, i64, int, void **);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsUnfetch(sqlite3_file *, i64, void *);
+** Functions for accessing sqlite3_vfs methods
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsOpen(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, sqlite3_file*, int, int *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsDelete(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsAccess(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, int, int *pResOut);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsFullPathname(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, int, char *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3OsDlOpen(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OsDlError(sqlite3_vfs *, int, char *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void (*sqlite3OsDlSym(sqlite3_vfs *, void *, const char *))(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OsDlClose(sqlite3_vfs *, void *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsRandomness(sqlite3_vfs *, int, char *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsSleep(sqlite3_vfs *, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCurrentTimeInt64(sqlite3_vfs *, sqlite3_int64*);
+** Convenience functions for opening and closing files using
+** sqlite3_malloc() to obtain space for the file-handle structure.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsOpenMalloc(sqlite3_vfs *, const char *, sqlite3_file **, int,int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OsCloseFree(sqlite3_file *);
+#endif /* _SQLITE_OS_H_ */
+/************** End of os.h **************************************************/
+/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
+/************** Include mutex.h in the middle of sqliteInt.h *****************/
+/************** Begin file mutex.h *******************************************/
+** 2007 August 28
+** The author disclaims copyright to this source code. In place of
+** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
+** May you do good and not evil.
+** May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
+** May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
+** This file contains the common header for all mutex implementations.
+** The sqliteInt.h header #includes this file so that it is available
+** to all source files. We break it out in an effort to keep the code
+** better organized.
+** NOTE: source files should *not* #include this header file directly.
+** Source files should #include the sqliteInt.h file and let that file
+** include this one indirectly.
+** Figure out what version of the code to use. The choices are
+** SQLITE_MUTEX_OMIT No mutex logic. Not even stubs. The
+** mutexes implementation cannot be overridden
+** at start-time.
+** SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP For single-threaded applications. No
+** mutual exclusion is provided. But this
+** implementation can be overridden at
+** start-time.
+** SQLITE_MUTEX_PTHREADS For multi-threaded applications on Unix.
+** SQLITE_MUTEX_W32 For multi-threaded applications on Win32.
+# define SQLITE_MUTEX_W32
+# else
+# endif
+** If this is a no-op implementation, implement everything as macros.
+#define sqlite3_mutex_alloc(X) ((sqlite3_mutex*)8)
+#define sqlite3_mutex_free(X)
+#define sqlite3_mutex_enter(X)
+#define sqlite3_mutex_try(X) SQLITE_OK
+#define sqlite3_mutex_leave(X)
+#define sqlite3_mutex_held(X) ((void)(X),1)
+#define sqlite3_mutex_notheld(X) ((void)(X),1)
+#define sqlite3MutexAlloc(X) ((sqlite3_mutex*)8)
+#define sqlite3MutexInit() SQLITE_OK
+#define sqlite3MutexEnd()
+#define MUTEX_LOGIC(X)
+#define MUTEX_LOGIC(X) X
+#endif /* defined(SQLITE_MUTEX_OMIT) */
+/************** End of mutex.h ***********************************************/
+/************** Continuing where we left off in sqliteInt.h ******************/
+** Each database file to be accessed by the system is an instance
+** of the following structure. There are normally two of these structures
+** in the sqlite.aDb[] array. aDb[0] is the main database file and
+** aDb[1] is the database file used to hold temporary tables. Additional
+** databases may be attached.
+struct Db {
+ char *zName; /* Name of this database */
+ Btree *pBt; /* The B*Tree structure for this database file */
+ u8 safety_level; /* How aggressive at syncing data to disk */
+ Schema *pSchema; /* Pointer to database schema (possibly shared) */
+** An instance of the following structure stores a database schema.
+** Most Schema objects are associated with a Btree. The exception is
+** the Schema for the TEMP databaes (sqlite3.aDb[1]) which is free-standing.
+** In shared cache mode, a single Schema object can be shared by multiple
+** Btrees that refer to the same underlying BtShared object.
+** Schema objects are automatically deallocated when the last Btree that
+** references them is destroyed. The TEMP Schema is manually freed by
+** sqlite3_close().
+** A thread must be holding a mutex on the corresponding Btree in order
+** to access Schema content. This implies that the thread must also be
+** holding a mutex on the sqlite3 connection pointer that owns the Btree.
+** For a TEMP Schema, only the connection mutex is required.
+struct Schema {
+ int schema_cookie; /* Database schema version number for this file */
+ int iGeneration; /* Generation counter. Incremented with each change */
+ Hash tblHash; /* All tables indexed by name */
+ Hash idxHash; /* All (named) indices indexed by name */
+ Hash trigHash; /* All triggers indexed by name */
+ Hash fkeyHash; /* All foreign keys by referenced table name */
+ Table *pSeqTab; /* The sqlite_sequence table used by AUTOINCREMENT */
+ u8 file_format; /* Schema format version for this file */
+ u8 enc; /* Text encoding used by this database */
+ u16 schemaFlags; /* Flags associated with this schema */
+ int cache_size; /* Number of pages to use in the cache */
+** These macros can be used to test, set, or clear bits in the
+** Db.pSchema->flags field.
+#define DbHasProperty(D,I,P) (((D)->aDb[I].pSchema->schemaFlags&(P))==(P))
+#define DbHasAnyProperty(D,I,P) (((D)->aDb[I].pSchema->schemaFlags&(P))!=0)
+#define DbSetProperty(D,I,P) (D)->aDb[I].pSchema->schemaFlags|=(P)
+#define DbClearProperty(D,I,P) (D)->aDb[I].pSchema->schemaFlags&=~(P)
+** Allowed values for the DB.pSchema->flags field.
+** The DB_SchemaLoaded flag is set after the database schema has been
+** read into internal hash tables.
+** DB_UnresetViews means that one or more views have column names that
+** have been filled out. If the schema changes, these column names might
+** changes and so the view will need to be reset.
+#define DB_SchemaLoaded 0x0001 /* The schema has been loaded */
+#define DB_UnresetViews 0x0002 /* Some views have defined column names */
+#define DB_Empty 0x0004 /* The file is empty (length 0 bytes) */
+** The number of different kinds of things that can be limited
+** using the sqlite3_limit() interface.
+** Lookaside malloc is a set of fixed-size buffers that can be used
+** to satisfy small transient memory allocation requests for objects
+** associated with a particular database connection. The use of
+** lookaside malloc provides a significant performance enhancement
+** (approx 10%) by avoiding numerous malloc/free requests while parsing
+** SQL statements.
+** The Lookaside structure holds configuration information about the
+** lookaside malloc subsystem. Each available memory allocation in
+** the lookaside subsystem is stored on a linked list of LookasideSlot
+** objects.
+** Lookaside allocations are only allowed for objects that are associated
+** with a particular database connection. Hence, schema information cannot
+** be stored in lookaside because in shared cache mode the schema information
+** is shared by multiple database connections. Therefore, while parsing
+** schema information, the Lookaside.bEnabled flag is cleared so that
+** lookaside allocations are not used to construct the schema objects.
+struct Lookaside {
+ u32 bDisable; /* Only operate the lookaside when zero */
+ u16 sz; /* Size of each buffer in bytes */
+ u8 bMalloced; /* True if pStart obtained from sqlite3_malloc() */
+ int nOut; /* Number of buffers currently checked out */
+ int mxOut; /* Highwater mark for nOut */
+ int anStat[3]; /* 0: hits. 1: size misses. 2: full misses */
+ LookasideSlot *pFree; /* List of available buffers */
+ void *pStart; /* First byte of available memory space */
+ void *pEnd; /* First byte past end of available space */
+struct LookasideSlot {
+ LookasideSlot *pNext; /* Next buffer in the list of free buffers */
+** A hash table for function definitions.
+** Hash each FuncDef structure into one of the FuncDefHash.a[] slots.
+** Collisions are on the FuncDef.pHash chain.
+struct FuncDefHash {
+ FuncDef *a[23]; /* Hash table for functions */
+** Information held in the "sqlite3" database connection object and used
+** to manage user authentication.
+typedef struct sqlite3_userauth sqlite3_userauth;
+struct sqlite3_userauth {
+ u8 authLevel; /* Current authentication level */
+ int nAuthPW; /* Size of the zAuthPW in bytes */
+ char *zAuthPW; /* Password used to authenticate */
+ char *zAuthUser; /* User name used to authenticate */
+/* Allowed values for sqlite3_userauth.authLevel */
+#define UAUTH_Unknown 0 /* Authentication not yet checked */
+#define UAUTH_Fail 1 /* User authentication failed */
+#define UAUTH_User 2 /* Authenticated as a normal user */
+#define UAUTH_Admin 3 /* Authenticated as an administrator */
+/* Functions used only by user authorization logic */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3UserAuthTable(const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3UserAuthCheckLogin(sqlite3*,const char*,u8*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3UserAuthInit(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CryptFunc(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**);
+** typedef for the authorization callback function.
+ typedef int (*sqlite3_xauth)(void*,int,const char*,const char*,const char*,
+ const char*, const char*);
+ typedef int (*sqlite3_xauth)(void*,int,const char*,const char*,const char*,
+ const char*);
+** Each database connection is an instance of the following structure.
+struct sqlite3 {
+ sqlite3_vfs *pVfs; /* OS Interface */
+ struct Vdbe *pVdbe; /* List of active virtual machines */
+ CollSeq *pDfltColl; /* The default collating sequence (BINARY) */
+ sqlite3_mutex *mutex; /* Connection mutex */
+ Db *aDb; /* All backends */
+ int nDb; /* Number of backends currently in use */
+ int flags; /* Miscellaneous flags. See below */
+ i64 lastRowid; /* ROWID of most recent insert (see above) */
+ i64 szMmap; /* Default mmap_size setting */
+ unsigned int openFlags; /* Flags passed to sqlite3_vfs.xOpen() */
+ int errCode; /* Most recent error code (SQLITE_*) */
+ int errMask; /* & result codes with this before returning */
+ u16 dbOptFlags; /* Flags to enable/disable optimizations */
+ u8 enc; /* Text encoding */
+ u8 autoCommit; /* The auto-commit flag. */
+ u8 temp_store; /* 1: file 2: memory 0: default */
+ u8 mallocFailed; /* True if we have seen a malloc failure */
+ u8 bBenignMalloc; /* Do not require OOMs if true */
+ u8 dfltLockMode; /* Default locking-mode for attached dbs */
+ signed char nextAutovac; /* Autovac setting after VACUUM if >=0 */
+ u8 suppressErr; /* Do not issue error messages if true */
+ u8 vtabOnConflict; /* Value to return for s3_vtab_on_conflict() */
+ u8 isTransactionSavepoint; /* True if the outermost savepoint is a TS */
+ int nextPagesize; /* Pagesize after VACUUM if >0 */
+ u32 magic; /* Magic number for detect library misuse */
+ int nChange; /* Value returned by sqlite3_changes() */
+ int nTotalChange; /* Value returned by sqlite3_total_changes() */
+ int aLimit[SQLITE_N_LIMIT]; /* Limits */
+ int nMaxSorterMmap; /* Maximum size of regions mapped by sorter */
+ struct sqlite3InitInfo { /* Information used during initialization */
+ int newTnum; /* Rootpage of table being initialized */
+ u8 iDb; /* Which db file is being initialized */
+ u8 busy; /* TRUE if currently initializing */
+ u8 orphanTrigger; /* Last statement is orphaned TEMP trigger */
+ u8 imposterTable; /* Building an imposter table */
+ } init;
+ int nVdbeActive; /* Number of VDBEs currently running */
+ int nVdbeRead; /* Number of active VDBEs that read or write */
+ int nVdbeWrite; /* Number of active VDBEs that read and write */
+ int nVdbeExec; /* Number of nested calls to VdbeExec() */
+ int nVDestroy; /* Number of active OP_VDestroy operations */
+ int nExtension; /* Number of loaded extensions */
+ void **aExtension; /* Array of shared library handles */
+ void (*xTrace)(void*,const char*); /* Trace function */
+ void *pTraceArg; /* Argument to the trace function */
+ void (*xProfile)(void*,const char*,u64); /* Profiling function */
+ void *pProfileArg; /* Argument to profile function */
+ void *pCommitArg; /* Argument to xCommitCallback() */
+ int (*xCommitCallback)(void*); /* Invoked at every commit. */
+ void *pRollbackArg; /* Argument to xRollbackCallback() */
+ void (*xRollbackCallback)(void*); /* Invoked at every commit. */
+ void *pUpdateArg;
+ void (*xUpdateCallback)(void*,int, const char*,const char*,sqlite_int64);
+ int (*xWalCallback)(void *, sqlite3 *, const char *, int);
+ void *pWalArg;
+ void(*xCollNeeded)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const char*);
+ void(*xCollNeeded16)(void*,sqlite3*,int eTextRep,const void*);
+ void *pCollNeededArg;
+ sqlite3_value *pErr; /* Most recent error message */
+ union {
+ volatile int isInterrupted; /* True if sqlite3_interrupt has been called */
+ double notUsed1; /* Spacer */
+ } u1;
+ Lookaside lookaside; /* Lookaside malloc configuration */
+ sqlite3_xauth xAuth; /* Access authorization function */
+ void *pAuthArg; /* 1st argument to the access auth function */
+ int (*xProgress)(void *); /* The progress callback */
+ void *pProgressArg; /* Argument to the progress callback */
+ unsigned nProgressOps; /* Number of opcodes for progress callback */
+ int nVTrans; /* Allocated size of aVTrans */
+ Hash aModule; /* populated by sqlite3_create_module() */
+ VtabCtx *pVtabCtx; /* Context for active vtab connect/create */
+ VTable **aVTrans; /* Virtual tables with open transactions */
+ VTable *pDisconnect; /* Disconnect these in next sqlite3_prepare() */
+ FuncDefHash aFunc; /* Hash table of connection functions */
+ Hash aCollSeq; /* All collating sequences */
+ BusyHandler busyHandler; /* Busy callback */
+ Db aDbStatic[2]; /* Static space for the 2 default backends */
+ Savepoint *pSavepoint; /* List of active savepoints */
+ int busyTimeout; /* Busy handler timeout, in msec */
+ int nSavepoint; /* Number of non-transaction savepoints */
+ int nStatement; /* Number of nested statement-transactions */
+ i64 nDeferredCons; /* Net deferred constraints this transaction. */
+ i64 nDeferredImmCons; /* Net deferred immediate constraints */
+ int *pnBytesFreed; /* If not NULL, increment this in DbFree() */
+ /* The following variables are all protected by the STATIC_MASTER
+ ** mutex, not by sqlite3.mutex. They are used by code in notify.c.
+ **
+ ** When X.pUnlockConnection==Y, that means that X is waiting for Y to
+ ** unlock so that it can proceed.
+ **
+ ** When X.pBlockingConnection==Y, that means that something that X tried
+ ** tried to do recently failed with an SQLITE_LOCKED error due to locks
+ ** held by Y.
+ */
+ sqlite3 *pBlockingConnection; /* Connection that caused SQLITE_LOCKED */
+ sqlite3 *pUnlockConnection; /* Connection to watch for unlock */
+ void *pUnlockArg; /* Argument to xUnlockNotify */
+ void (*xUnlockNotify)(void **, int); /* Unlock notify callback */
+ sqlite3 *pNextBlocked; /* Next in list of all blocked connections */
+ sqlite3_userauth auth; /* User authentication information */
+** A macro to discover the encoding of a database.
+#define SCHEMA_ENC(db) ((db)->aDb[0].pSchema->enc)
+#define ENC(db) ((db)->enc)
+** Possible values for the sqlite3.flags.
+#define SQLITE_VdbeTrace 0x00000001 /* True to trace VDBE execution */
+#define SQLITE_InternChanges 0x00000002 /* Uncommitted Hash table changes */
+#define SQLITE_FullColNames 0x00000004 /* Show full column names on SELECT */
+#define SQLITE_FullFSync 0x00000008 /* Use full fsync on the backend */
+#define SQLITE_CkptFullFSync 0x00000010 /* Use full fsync for checkpoint */
+#define SQLITE_CacheSpill 0x00000020 /* OK to spill pager cache */
+#define SQLITE_ShortColNames 0x00000040 /* Show short columns names */
+#define SQLITE_CountRows 0x00000080 /* Count rows changed by INSERT, */
+ /* DELETE, or UPDATE and return */
+ /* the count using a callback. */
+#define SQLITE_NullCallback 0x00000100 /* Invoke the callback once if the */
+ /* result set is empty */
+#define SQLITE_SqlTrace 0x00000200 /* Debug print SQL as it executes */
+#define SQLITE_VdbeListing 0x00000400 /* Debug listings of VDBE programs */
+#define SQLITE_WriteSchema 0x00000800 /* OK to update SQLITE_MASTER */
+#define SQLITE_VdbeAddopTrace 0x00001000 /* Trace sqlite3VdbeAddOp() calls */
+#define SQLITE_IgnoreChecks 0x00002000 /* Do not enforce check constraints */
+#define SQLITE_ReadUncommitted 0x0004000 /* For shared-cache mode */
+#define SQLITE_LegacyFileFmt 0x00008000 /* Create new databases in format 1 */
+#define SQLITE_RecoveryMode 0x00010000 /* Ignore schema errors */
+#define SQLITE_ReverseOrder 0x00020000 /* Reverse unordered SELECTs */
+#define SQLITE_RecTriggers 0x00040000 /* Enable recursive triggers */
+#define SQLITE_ForeignKeys 0x00080000 /* Enforce foreign key constraints */
+#define SQLITE_AutoIndex 0x00100000 /* Enable automatic indexes */
+#define SQLITE_PreferBuiltin 0x00200000 /* Preference to built-in funcs */
+#define SQLITE_LoadExtension 0x00400000 /* Enable load_extension */
+#define SQLITE_EnableTrigger 0x00800000 /* True to enable triggers */
+#define SQLITE_DeferFKs 0x01000000 /* Defer all FK constraints */
+#define SQLITE_QueryOnly 0x02000000 /* Disable database changes */
+#define SQLITE_VdbeEQP 0x04000000 /* Debug EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN */
+#define SQLITE_Vacuum 0x08000000 /* Currently in a VACUUM */
+#define SQLITE_CellSizeCk 0x10000000 /* Check btree cell sizes on load */
+** Bits of the sqlite3.dbOptFlags field that are used by the
+** sqlite3_test_control(SQLITE_TESTCTRL_OPTIMIZATIONS,...) interface to
+** selectively disable various optimizations.
+#define SQLITE_QueryFlattener 0x0001 /* Query flattening */
+#define SQLITE_ColumnCache 0x0002 /* Column cache */
+#define SQLITE_GroupByOrder 0x0004 /* GROUPBY cover of ORDERBY */
+#define SQLITE_FactorOutConst 0x0008 /* Constant factoring */
+/* not used 0x0010 // Was: SQLITE_IdxRealAsInt */
+#define SQLITE_DistinctOpt 0x0020 /* DISTINCT using indexes */
+#define SQLITE_CoverIdxScan 0x0040 /* Covering index scans */
+#define SQLITE_OrderByIdxJoin 0x0080 /* ORDER BY of joins via index */
+#define SQLITE_SubqCoroutine 0x0100 /* Evaluate subqueries as coroutines */
+#define SQLITE_Transitive 0x0200 /* Transitive constraints */
+#define SQLITE_OmitNoopJoin 0x0400 /* Omit unused tables in joins */
+#define SQLITE_Stat34 0x0800 /* Use STAT3 or STAT4 data */
+#define SQLITE_CursorHints 0x2000 /* Add OP_CursorHint opcodes */
+#define SQLITE_AllOpts 0xffff /* All optimizations */
+** Macros for testing whether or not optimizations are enabled or disabled.
+#define OptimizationDisabled(db, mask) (((db)->dbOptFlags&(mask))!=0)
+#define OptimizationEnabled(db, mask) (((db)->dbOptFlags&(mask))==0)
+#define OptimizationDisabled(db, mask) 0
+#define OptimizationEnabled(db, mask) 1
+** Return true if it OK to factor constant expressions into the initialization
+** code. The argument is a Parse object for the code generator.
+#define ConstFactorOk(P) ((P)->okConstFactor)
+** Possible values for the sqlite.magic field.
+** The numbers are obtained at random and have no special meaning, other
+** than being distinct from one another.
+#define SQLITE_MAGIC_OPEN 0xa029a697 /* Database is open */
+#define SQLITE_MAGIC_CLOSED 0x9f3c2d33 /* Database is closed */
+#define SQLITE_MAGIC_SICK 0x4b771290 /* Error and awaiting close */
+#define SQLITE_MAGIC_BUSY 0xf03b7906 /* Database currently in use */
+#define SQLITE_MAGIC_ERROR 0xb5357930 /* An SQLITE_MISUSE error occurred */
+#define SQLITE_MAGIC_ZOMBIE 0x64cffc7f /* Close with last statement close */
+** Each SQL function is defined by an instance of the following
+** structure. A pointer to this structure is stored in the sqlite.aFunc
+** hash table. When multiple functions have the same name, the hash table
+** points to a linked list of these structures.
+struct FuncDef {
+ i16 nArg; /* Number of arguments. -1 means unlimited */
+ u16 funcFlags; /* Some combination of SQLITE_FUNC_* */
+ void *pUserData; /* User data parameter */
+ FuncDef *pNext; /* Next function with same name */
+ void (*xSFunc)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**); /* func or agg-step */
+ void (*xFinalize)(sqlite3_context*); /* Agg finalizer */
+ char *zName; /* SQL name of the function. */
+ FuncDef *pHash; /* Next with a different name but the same hash */
+ FuncDestructor *pDestructor; /* Reference counted destructor function */
+** This structure encapsulates a user-function destructor callback (as
+** configured using create_function_v2()) and a reference counter. When
+** create_function_v2() is called to create a function with a destructor,
+** a single object of this type is allocated. FuncDestructor.nRef is set to
+** the number of FuncDef objects created (either 1 or 3, depending on whether
+** or not the specified encoding is SQLITE_ANY). The FuncDef.pDestructor
+** member of each of the new FuncDef objects is set to point to the allocated
+** FuncDestructor.
+** Thereafter, when one of the FuncDef objects is deleted, the reference
+** count on this object is decremented. When it reaches 0, the destructor
+** is invoked and the FuncDestructor structure freed.
+struct FuncDestructor {
+ int nRef;
+ void (*xDestroy)(void *);
+ void *pUserData;
+** Possible values for FuncDef.flags. Note that the _LENGTH and _TYPEOF
+** values must correspond to OPFLAG_LENGTHARG and OPFLAG_TYPEOFARG. And
+** are assert() statements in the code to verify this.
+#define SQLITE_FUNC_LIKE 0x0004 /* Candidate for the LIKE optimization */
+#define SQLITE_FUNC_CASE 0x0008 /* Case-sensitive LIKE-type function */
+#define SQLITE_FUNC_EPHEM 0x0010 /* Ephemeral. Delete with VDBE */
+#define SQLITE_FUNC_NEEDCOLL 0x0020 /* sqlite3GetFuncCollSeq() might be called*/
+#define SQLITE_FUNC_LENGTH 0x0040 /* Built-in length() function */
+#define SQLITE_FUNC_TYPEOF 0x0080 /* Built-in typeof() function */
+#define SQLITE_FUNC_COUNT 0x0100 /* Built-in count(*) aggregate */
+#define SQLITE_FUNC_COALESCE 0x0200 /* Built-in coalesce() or ifnull() */
+#define SQLITE_FUNC_UNLIKELY 0x0400 /* Built-in unlikely() function */
+#define SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT 0x0800 /* Constant inputs give a constant output */
+#define SQLITE_FUNC_MINMAX 0x1000 /* True for min() and max() aggregates */
+#define SQLITE_FUNC_SLOCHNG 0x2000 /* "Slow Change". Value constant during a
+ ** single query - might change over time */
+** The following three macros, FUNCTION(), LIKEFUNC() and AGGREGATE() are
+** used to create the initializers for the FuncDef structures.
+** FUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc)
+** Used to create a scalar function definition of a function zName
+** implemented by C function xFunc that accepts nArg arguments. The
+** value passed as iArg is cast to a (void*) and made available
+** as the user-data (sqlite3_user_data()) for the function. If
+** argument bNC is true, then the SQLITE_FUNC_NEEDCOLL flag is set.
+** VFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc)
+** Like FUNCTION except it omits the SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT flag.
+** DFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc)
+** Like FUNCTION except it omits the SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT flag and
+** adds the SQLITE_FUNC_SLOCHNG flag. Used for date & time functions
+** and functions like sqlite_version() that can change, but not during
+** a single query.
+** AGGREGATE(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xStep, xFinal)
+** Used to create an aggregate function definition implemented by
+** the C functions xStep and xFinal. The first four parameters
+** are interpreted in the same way as the first 4 parameters to
+** LIKEFUNC(zName, nArg, pArg, flags)
+** Used to create a scalar function definition of a function zName
+** that accepts nArg arguments and is implemented by a call to C
+** function likeFunc. Argument pArg is cast to a (void *) and made
+** available as the function user-data (sqlite3_user_data()). The
+** FuncDef.flags variable is set to the value passed as the flags
+** parameter.
+#define FUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc) \
+ SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(iArg), 0, xFunc, 0, #zName, 0, 0}
+#define VFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc) \
+ SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(iArg), 0, xFunc, 0, #zName, 0, 0}
+#define DFUNCTION(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc) \
+ SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(iArg), 0, xFunc, 0, #zName, 0, 0}
+#define FUNCTION2(zName, nArg, iArg, bNC, xFunc, extraFlags) \
+ SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(iArg), 0, xFunc, 0, #zName, 0, 0}
+#define STR_FUNCTION(zName, nArg, pArg, bNC, xFunc) \
+ pArg, 0, xFunc, 0, #zName, 0, 0}
+#define LIKEFUNC(zName, nArg, arg, flags) \
+ (void *)arg, 0, likeFunc, 0, #zName, 0, 0}
+#define AGGREGATE(zName, nArg, arg, nc, xStep, xFinal) \
+ SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(arg), 0, xStep,xFinal,#zName,0,0}
+#define AGGREGATE2(zName, nArg, arg, nc, xStep, xFinal, extraFlags) \
+ {nArg, SQLITE_UTF8|(nc*SQLITE_FUNC_NEEDCOLL)|extraFlags, \
+ SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(arg), 0, xStep,xFinal,#zName,0,0}
+** All current savepoints are stored in a linked list starting at
+** sqlite3.pSavepoint. The first element in the list is the most recently
+** opened savepoint. Savepoints are added to the list by the vdbe
+** OP_Savepoint instruction.
+struct Savepoint {
+ char *zName; /* Savepoint name (nul-terminated) */
+ i64 nDeferredCons; /* Number of deferred fk violations */
+ i64 nDeferredImmCons; /* Number of deferred imm fk. */
+ Savepoint *pNext; /* Parent savepoint (if any) */
+** The following are used as the second parameter to sqlite3Savepoint(),
+** and as the P1 argument to the OP_Savepoint instruction.
+** Each SQLite module (virtual table definition) is defined by an
+** instance of the following structure, stored in the sqlite3.aModule
+** hash table.
+struct Module {
+ const sqlite3_module *pModule; /* Callback pointers */
+ const char *zName; /* Name passed to create_module() */
+ void *pAux; /* pAux passed to create_module() */
+ void (*xDestroy)(void *); /* Module destructor function */
+ Table *pEpoTab; /* Eponymous table for this module */
+** information about each column of an SQL table is held in an instance
+** of this structure.
+struct Column {
+ char *zName; /* Name of this column */
+ Expr *pDflt; /* Default value of this column */
+ char *zDflt; /* Original text of the default value */
+ char *zType; /* Data type for this column */
+ char *zColl; /* Collating sequence. If NULL, use the default */
+ u8 notNull; /* An OE_ code for handling a NOT NULL constraint */
+ char affinity; /* One of the SQLITE_AFF_... values */
+ u8 szEst; /* Estimated size of value in this column. sizeof(INT)==1 */
+ u8 colFlags; /* Boolean properties. See COLFLAG_ defines below */
+/* Allowed values for Column.colFlags:
+#define COLFLAG_PRIMKEY 0x0001 /* Column is part of the primary key */
+#define COLFLAG_HIDDEN 0x0002 /* A hidden column in a virtual table */
+** A "Collating Sequence" is defined by an instance of the following
+** structure. Conceptually, a collating sequence consists of a name and
+** a comparison routine that defines the order of that sequence.
+** If CollSeq.xCmp is NULL, it means that the
+** collating sequence is undefined. Indices built on an undefined
+** collating sequence may not be read or written.
+struct CollSeq {
+ char *zName; /* Name of the collating sequence, UTF-8 encoded */
+ u8 enc; /* Text encoding handled by xCmp() */
+ void *pUser; /* First argument to xCmp() */
+ int (*xCmp)(void*,int, const void*, int, const void*);
+ void (*xDel)(void*); /* Destructor for pUser */
+** A sort order can be either ASC or DESC.
+#define SQLITE_SO_ASC 0 /* Sort in ascending order */
+#define SQLITE_SO_DESC 1 /* Sort in ascending order */
+#define SQLITE_SO_UNDEFINED -1 /* No sort order specified */
+** Column affinity types.
+** These used to have mnemonic name like 'i' for SQLITE_AFF_INTEGER and
+** 't' for SQLITE_AFF_TEXT. But we can save a little space and improve
+** the speed a little by numbering the values consecutively.
+** But rather than start with 0 or 1, we begin with 'A'. That way,
+** when multiple affinity types are concatenated into a string and
+** used as the P4 operand, they will be more readable.
+** Note also that the numeric types are grouped together so that testing
+** for a numeric type is a single comparison. And the BLOB type is first.
+#define SQLITE_AFF_BLOB 'A'
+#define SQLITE_AFF_TEXT 'B'
+#define SQLITE_AFF_REAL 'E'
+#define sqlite3IsNumericAffinity(X) ((X)>=SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC)
+** The SQLITE_AFF_MASK values masks off the significant bits of an
+** affinity value.
+#define SQLITE_AFF_MASK 0x47
+** Additional bit values that can be ORed with an affinity without
+** changing the affinity.
+** The SQLITE_NOTNULL flag is a combination of NULLEQ and JUMPIFNULL.
+** It causes an assert() to fire if either operand to a comparison
+** operator is NULL. It is added to certain comparison operators to
+** prove that the operands are always NOT NULL.
+#define SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL 0x10 /* jumps if either operand is NULL */
+#define SQLITE_STOREP2 0x20 /* Store result in reg[P2] rather than jump */
+#define SQLITE_NULLEQ 0x80 /* NULL=NULL */
+#define SQLITE_NOTNULL 0x90 /* Assert that operands are never NULL */
+** An object of this type is created for each virtual table present in
+** the database schema.
+** If the database schema is shared, then there is one instance of this
+** structure for each database connection (sqlite3*) that uses the shared
+** schema. This is because each database connection requires its own unique
+** instance of the sqlite3_vtab* handle used to access the virtual table
+** implementation. sqlite3_vtab* handles can not be shared between
+** database connections, even when the rest of the in-memory database
+** schema is shared, as the implementation often stores the database
+** connection handle passed to it via the xConnect() or xCreate() method
+** during initialization internally. This database connection handle may
+** then be used by the virtual table implementation to access real tables
+** within the database. So that they appear as part of the callers
+** transaction, these accesses need to be made via the same database
+** connection as that used to execute SQL operations on the virtual table.
+** All VTable objects that correspond to a single table in a shared
+** database schema are initially stored in a linked-list pointed to by
+** the Table.pVTable member variable of the corresponding Table object.
+** When an sqlite3_prepare() operation is required to access the virtual
+** table, it searches the list for the VTable that corresponds to the
+** database connection doing the preparing so as to use the correct
+** sqlite3_vtab* handle in the compiled query.
+** When an in-memory Table object is deleted (for example when the
+** schema is being reloaded for some reason), the VTable objects are not
+** deleted and the sqlite3_vtab* handles are not xDisconnect()ed
+** immediately. Instead, they are moved from the Table.pVTable list to
+** another linked list headed by the sqlite3.pDisconnect member of the
+** corresponding sqlite3 structure. They are then deleted/xDisconnected
+** next time a statement is prepared using said sqlite3*. This is done
+** to avoid deadlock issues involving multiple sqlite3.mutex mutexes.
+** Refer to comments above function sqlite3VtabUnlockList() for an
+** explanation as to why it is safe to add an entry to an sqlite3.pDisconnect
+** list without holding the corresponding sqlite3.mutex mutex.
+** The memory for objects of this type is always allocated by
+** sqlite3DbMalloc(), using the connection handle stored in VTable.db as
+** the first argument.
+struct VTable {
+ sqlite3 *db; /* Database connection associated with this table */
+ Module *pMod; /* Pointer to module implementation */
+ sqlite3_vtab *pVtab; /* Pointer to vtab instance */
+ int nRef; /* Number of pointers to this structure */
+ u8 bConstraint; /* True if constraints are supported */
+ int iSavepoint; /* Depth of the SAVEPOINT stack */
+ VTable *pNext; /* Next in linked list (see above) */
+** The schema for each SQL table and view is represented in memory
+** by an instance of the following structure.
+struct Table {
+ char *zName; /* Name of the table or view */
+ Column *aCol; /* Information about each column */
+ Index *pIndex; /* List of SQL indexes on this table. */
+ Select *pSelect; /* NULL for tables. Points to definition if a view. */
+ FKey *pFKey; /* Linked list of all foreign keys in this table */
+ char *zColAff; /* String defining the affinity of each column */
+ ExprList *pCheck; /* All CHECK constraints */
+ /* ... also used as column name list in a VIEW */
+ int tnum; /* Root BTree page for this table */
+ i16 iPKey; /* If not negative, use aCol[iPKey] as the rowid */
+ i16 nCol; /* Number of columns in this table */
+ u16 nRef; /* Number of pointers to this Table */
+ LogEst nRowLogEst; /* Estimated rows in table - from sqlite_stat1 table */
+ LogEst szTabRow; /* Estimated size of each table row in bytes */
+ LogEst costMult; /* Cost multiplier for using this table */
+ u8 tabFlags; /* Mask of TF_* values */
+ u8 keyConf; /* What to do in case of uniqueness conflict on iPKey */
+ int addColOffset; /* Offset in CREATE TABLE stmt to add a new column */
+ int nModuleArg; /* Number of arguments to the module */
+ char **azModuleArg; /* 0: module 1: schema 2: vtab name 3...: args */
+ VTable *pVTable; /* List of VTable objects. */
+ Trigger *pTrigger; /* List of triggers stored in pSchema */
+ Schema *pSchema; /* Schema that contains this table */
+ Table *pNextZombie; /* Next on the Parse.pZombieTab list */
+** Allowed values for Table.tabFlags.
+** TF_OOOHidden applies to tables or view that have hidden columns that are
+** followed by non-hidden columns. Example: "CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE x USING
+** vtab1(a HIDDEN, b);". Since "b" is a non-hidden column but "a" is hidden,
+** the TF_OOOHidden attribute would apply in this case. Such tables require
+** special handling during INSERT processing.
+#define TF_Readonly 0x01 /* Read-only system table */
+#define TF_Ephemeral 0x02 /* An ephemeral table */
+#define TF_HasPrimaryKey 0x04 /* Table has a primary key */
+#define TF_Autoincrement 0x08 /* Integer primary key is autoincrement */
+#define TF_Virtual 0x10 /* Is a virtual table */
+#define TF_WithoutRowid 0x20 /* No rowid. PRIMARY KEY is the key */
+#define TF_NoVisibleRowid 0x40 /* No user-visible "rowid" column */
+#define TF_OOOHidden 0x80 /* Out-of-Order hidden columns */
+** Test to see whether or not a table is a virtual table. This is
+** done as a macro so that it will be optimized out when virtual
+** table support is omitted from the build.
+# define IsVirtual(X) (((X)->tabFlags & TF_Virtual)!=0)
+# define IsVirtual(X) 0
+** Macros to determine if a column is hidden. IsOrdinaryHiddenColumn()
+** only works for non-virtual tables (ordinary tables and views) and is
+** always false unless SQLITE_ENABLE_HIDDEN_COLUMNS is defined. The
+** IsHiddenColumn() macro is general purpose.
+# define IsHiddenColumn(X) (((X)->colFlags & COLFLAG_HIDDEN)!=0)
+# define IsOrdinaryHiddenColumn(X) (((X)->colFlags & COLFLAG_HIDDEN)!=0)
+# define IsHiddenColumn(X) (((X)->colFlags & COLFLAG_HIDDEN)!=0)
+# define IsOrdinaryHiddenColumn(X) 0
+# define IsHiddenColumn(X) 0
+# define IsOrdinaryHiddenColumn(X) 0
+/* Does the table have a rowid */
+#define HasRowid(X) (((X)->tabFlags & TF_WithoutRowid)==0)
+#define VisibleRowid(X) (((X)->tabFlags & TF_NoVisibleRowid)==0)
+** Each foreign key constraint is an instance of the following structure.
+** A foreign key is associated with two tables. The "from" table is
+** the table that contains the REFERENCES clause that creates the foreign
+** key. The "to" table is the table that is named in the REFERENCES clause.
+** Consider this example:
+** );
+** For foreign key "fk1", the from-table is "ex1" and the to-table is "ex2".
+** Equivalent names:
+** from-table == child-table
+** to-table == parent-table
+** Each REFERENCES clause generates an instance of the following structure
+** which is attached to the from-table. The to-table need not exist when
+** the from-table is created. The existence of the to-table is not checked.
+** The list of all parents for child Table X is held at X.pFKey.
+** A list of all children for a table named Z (which might not even exist)
+** is held in Schema.fkeyHash with a hash key of Z.
+struct FKey {
+ Table *pFrom; /* Table containing the REFERENCES clause (aka: Child) */
+ FKey *pNextFrom; /* Next FKey with the same in pFrom. Next parent of pFrom */
+ char *zTo; /* Name of table that the key points to (aka: Parent) */
+ FKey *pNextTo; /* Next with the same zTo. Next child of zTo. */
+ FKey *pPrevTo; /* Previous with the same zTo */
+ int nCol; /* Number of columns in this key */
+ /* EV: R-30323-21917 */
+ u8 isDeferred; /* True if constraint checking is deferred till COMMIT */
+ u8 aAction[2]; /* ON DELETE and ON UPDATE actions, respectively */
+ Trigger *apTrigger[2];/* Triggers for aAction[] actions */
+ struct sColMap { /* Mapping of columns in pFrom to columns in zTo */
+ int iFrom; /* Index of column in pFrom */
+ char *zCol; /* Name of column in zTo. If NULL use PRIMARY KEY */
+ } aCol[1]; /* One entry for each of nCol columns */
+** SQLite supports many different ways to resolve a constraint
+** error. ROLLBACK processing means that a constraint violation
+** causes the operation in process to fail and for the current transaction
+** to be rolled back. ABORT processing means the operation in process
+** fails and any prior changes from that one operation are backed out,
+** but the transaction is not rolled back. FAIL processing means that
+** the operation in progress stops and returns an error code. But prior
+** changes due to the same operation are not backed out and no rollback
+** occurs. IGNORE means that the particular row that caused the constraint
+** error is not inserted or updated. Processing continues and no error
+** is returned. REPLACE means that preexisting database rows that caused
+** a UNIQUE constraint violation are removed so that the new insert or
+** update can proceed. Processing continues and no error is reported.
+** RESTRICT, SETNULL, and CASCADE actions apply only to foreign keys.
+** RESTRICT is the same as ABORT for IMMEDIATE foreign keys and the
+** same as ROLLBACK for DEFERRED keys. SETNULL means that the foreign
+** key is set to NULL. CASCADE means that a DELETE or UPDATE of the
+** referenced table row is propagated into the row that holds the
+** foreign key.
+** The following symbolic values are used to record which type
+** of action to take.
+#define OE_None 0 /* There is no constraint to check */
+#define OE_Rollback 1 /* Fail the operation and rollback the transaction */
+#define OE_Abort 2 /* Back out changes but do no rollback transaction */
+#define OE_Fail 3 /* Stop the operation but leave all prior changes */
+#define OE_Ignore 4 /* Ignore the error. Do not do the INSERT or UPDATE */
+#define OE_Replace 5 /* Delete existing record, then do INSERT or UPDATE */
+#define OE_Restrict 6 /* OE_Abort for IMMEDIATE, OE_Rollback for DEFERRED */
+#define OE_SetNull 7 /* Set the foreign key value to NULL */
+#define OE_SetDflt 8 /* Set the foreign key value to its default */
+#define OE_Cascade 9 /* Cascade the changes */
+#define OE_Default 10 /* Do whatever the default action is */
+** An instance of the following structure is passed as the first
+** argument to sqlite3VdbeKeyCompare and is used to control the
+** comparison of the two index keys.
+** Note that aSortOrder[] and aColl[] have nField+1 slots. There
+** are nField slots for the columns of an index then one extra slot
+** for the rowid at the end.
+struct KeyInfo {
+ u32 nRef; /* Number of references to this KeyInfo object */
+ u8 enc; /* Text encoding - one of the SQLITE_UTF* values */
+ u16 nField; /* Number of key columns in the index */
+ u16 nXField; /* Number of columns beyond the key columns */
+ sqlite3 *db; /* The database connection */
+ u8 *aSortOrder; /* Sort order for each column. */
+ CollSeq *aColl[1]; /* Collating sequence for each term of the key */
+** This object holds a record which has been parsed out into individual
+** fields, for the purposes of doing a comparison.
+** A record is an object that contains one or more fields of data.
+** Records are used to store the content of a table row and to store
+** the key of an index. A blob encoding of a record is created by
+** the OP_MakeRecord opcode of the VDBE and is disassembled by the
+** OP_Column opcode.
+** An instance of this object serves as a "key" for doing a search on
+** an index b+tree. The goal of the search is to find the entry that
+** is closed to the key described by this object. This object might hold
+** just a prefix of the key. The number of fields is given by
+** pKeyInfo->nField.
+** The r1 and r2 fields are the values to return if this key is less than
+** or greater than a key in the btree, respectively. These are normally
+** -1 and +1 respectively, but might be inverted to +1 and -1 if the b-tree
+** is in DESC order.
+** The key comparison functions actually return default_rc when they find
+** an equals comparison. default_rc can be -1, 0, or +1. If there are
+** multiple entries in the b-tree with the same key (when only looking
+** at the first pKeyInfo->nFields,) then default_rc can be set to -1 to
+** cause the search to find the last match, or +1 to cause the search to
+** find the first match.
+** The key comparison functions will set eqSeen to true if they ever
+** get and equal results when comparing this structure to a b-tree record.
+** When default_rc!=0, the search might end up on the record immediately
+** before the first match or immediately after the last match. The
+** eqSeen field will indicate whether or not an exact match exists in the
+** b-tree.
+struct UnpackedRecord {
+ KeyInfo *pKeyInfo; /* Collation and sort-order information */
+ Mem *aMem; /* Values */
+ u16 nField; /* Number of entries in apMem[] */
+ i8 default_rc; /* Comparison result if keys are equal */
+ u8 errCode; /* Error detected by xRecordCompare (CORRUPT or NOMEM) */
+ i8 r1; /* Value to return if (lhs > rhs) */
+ i8 r2; /* Value to return if (rhs < lhs) */
+ u8 eqSeen; /* True if an equality comparison has been seen */
+** Each SQL index is represented in memory by an
+** instance of the following structure.
+** The columns of the table that are to be indexed are described
+** by the aiColumn[] field of this structure. For example, suppose
+** we have the following table and index:
+** CREATE TABLE Ex1(c1 int, c2 int, c3 text);
+** CREATE INDEX Ex2 ON Ex1(c3,c1);
+** In the Table structure describing Ex1, nCol==3 because there are
+** three columns in the table. In the Index structure describing
+** Ex2, nColumn==2 since 2 of the 3 columns of Ex1 are indexed.
+** The value of aiColumn is {2, 0}. aiColumn[0]==2 because the
+** first column to be indexed (c3) has an index of 2 in Ex1.aCol[].
+** The second column to be indexed (c1) has an index of 0 in
+** Ex1.aCol[], hence Ex2.aiColumn[1]==0.
+** The Index.onError field determines whether or not the indexed columns
+** must be unique and what to do if they are not. When Index.onError=OE_None,
+** it means this is not a unique index. Otherwise it is a unique index
+** and the value of Index.onError indicate the which conflict resolution
+** algorithm to employ whenever an attempt is made to insert a non-unique
+** element.
+** While parsing a CREATE TABLE or CREATE INDEX statement in order to
+** generate VDBE code (as opposed to parsing one read from an sqlite_master
+** table as part of parsing an existing database schema), transient instances
+** of this structure may be created. In this case the Index.tnum variable is
+** used to store the address of a VDBE instruction, not a database page
+** number (it cannot - the database page is not allocated until the VDBE
+** program is executed). See convertToWithoutRowidTable() for details.
+struct Index {
+ char *zName; /* Name of this index */
+ i16 *aiColumn; /* Which columns are used by this index. 1st is 0 */
+ LogEst *aiRowLogEst; /* From ANALYZE: Est. rows selected by each column */
+ Table *pTable; /* The SQL table being indexed */
+ char *zColAff; /* String defining the affinity of each column */
+ Index *pNext; /* The next index associated with the same table */
+ Schema *pSchema; /* Schema containing this index */
+ u8 *aSortOrder; /* for each column: True==DESC, False==ASC */
+ const char **azColl; /* Array of collation sequence names for index */
+ Expr *pPartIdxWhere; /* WHERE clause for partial indices */
+ ExprList *aColExpr; /* Column expressions */
+ int tnum; /* DB Page containing root of this index */
+ LogEst szIdxRow; /* Estimated average row size in bytes */
+ u16 nKeyCol; /* Number of columns forming the key */
+ u16 nColumn; /* Number of columns stored in the index */
+ u8 onError; /* OE_Abort, OE_Ignore, OE_Replace, or OE_None */
+ unsigned idxType:2; /* 1==UNIQUE, 2==PRIMARY KEY, 0==CREATE INDEX */
+ unsigned bUnordered:1; /* Use this index for == or IN queries only */
+ unsigned uniqNotNull:1; /* True if UNIQUE and NOT NULL for all columns */
+ unsigned isResized:1; /* True if resizeIndexObject() has been called */
+ unsigned isCovering:1; /* True if this is a covering index */
+ unsigned noSkipScan:1; /* Do not try to use skip-scan if true */
+ int nSample; /* Number of elements in aSample[] */
+ int nSampleCol; /* Size of IndexSample.anEq[] and so on */
+ tRowcnt *aAvgEq; /* Average nEq values for keys not in aSample */
+ IndexSample *aSample; /* Samples of the left-most key */
+ tRowcnt *aiRowEst; /* Non-logarithmic stat1 data for this index */
+ tRowcnt nRowEst0; /* Non-logarithmic number of rows in the index */
+** Allowed values for Index.idxType
+#define SQLITE_IDXTYPE_APPDEF 0 /* Created using CREATE INDEX */
+#define SQLITE_IDXTYPE_UNIQUE 1 /* Implements a UNIQUE constraint */
+#define SQLITE_IDXTYPE_PRIMARYKEY 2 /* Is the PRIMARY KEY for the table */
+/* Return true if index X is a PRIMARY KEY index */
+#define IsPrimaryKeyIndex(X) ((X)->idxType==SQLITE_IDXTYPE_PRIMARYKEY)
+/* Return true if index X is a UNIQUE index */
+#define IsUniqueIndex(X) ((X)->onError!=OE_None)
+/* The Index.aiColumn[] values are normally positive integer. But
+** there are some negative values that have special meaning:
+#define XN_ROWID (-1) /* Indexed column is the rowid */
+#define XN_EXPR (-2) /* Indexed column is an expression */
+** Each sample stored in the sqlite_stat3 table is represented in memory
+** using a structure of this type. See documentation at the top of the
+** analyze.c source file for additional information.
+struct IndexSample {
+ void *p; /* Pointer to sampled record */
+ int n; /* Size of record in bytes */
+ tRowcnt *anEq; /* Est. number of rows where the key equals this sample */
+ tRowcnt *anLt; /* Est. number of rows where key is less than this sample */
+ tRowcnt *anDLt; /* Est. number of distinct keys less than this sample */
+** Each token coming out of the lexer is an instance of
+** this structure. Tokens are also used as part of an expression.
+** Note if Token.z==0 then Token.dyn and Token.n are undefined and
+** may contain random values. Do not make any assumptions about Token.dyn
+** and Token.n when Token.z==0.
+struct Token {
+ const char *z; /* Text of the token. Not NULL-terminated! */
+ unsigned int n; /* Number of characters in this token */
+** An instance of this structure contains information needed to generate
+** code for a SELECT that contains aggregate functions.
+** If Expr.op==TK_AGG_COLUMN or TK_AGG_FUNCTION then Expr.pAggInfo is a
+** pointer to this structure. The Expr.iColumn field is the index in
+** AggInfo.aCol[] or AggInfo.aFunc[] of information needed to generate
+** code for that node.
+** AggInfo.pGroupBy and AggInfo.aFunc.pExpr point to fields within the
+** original Select structure that describes the SELECT statement. These
+** fields do not need to be freed when deallocating the AggInfo structure.
+struct AggInfo {
+ u8 directMode; /* Direct rendering mode means take data directly
+ ** from source tables rather than from accumulators */
+ u8 useSortingIdx; /* In direct mode, reference the sorting index rather
+ ** than the source table */
+ int sortingIdx; /* Cursor number of the sorting index */
+ int sortingIdxPTab; /* Cursor number of pseudo-table */
+ int nSortingColumn; /* Number of columns in the sorting index */
+ int mnReg, mxReg; /* Range of registers allocated for aCol and aFunc */
+ ExprList *pGroupBy; /* The group by clause */
+ struct AggInfo_col { /* For each column used in source tables */
+ Table *pTab; /* Source table */
+ int iTable; /* Cursor number of the source table */
+ int iColumn; /* Column number within the source table */
+ int iSorterColumn; /* Column number in the sorting index */
+ int iMem; /* Memory location that acts as accumulator */
+ Expr *pExpr; /* The original expression */
+ } *aCol;
+ int nColumn; /* Number of used entries in aCol[] */
+ int nAccumulator; /* Number of columns that show through to the output.
+ ** Additional columns are used only as parameters to
+ ** aggregate functions */
+ struct AggInfo_func { /* For each aggregate function */
+ Expr *pExpr; /* Expression encoding the function */
+ FuncDef *pFunc; /* The aggregate function implementation */
+ int iMem; /* Memory location that acts as accumulator */
+ int iDistinct; /* Ephemeral table used to enforce DISTINCT */
+ } *aFunc;
+ int nFunc; /* Number of entries in aFunc[] */
+** The datatype ynVar is a signed integer, either 16-bit or 32-bit.
+** Usually it is 16-bits. But if SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER is greater
+** than 32767 we have to make it 32-bit. 16-bit is preferred because
+** it uses less memory in the Expr object, which is a big memory user
+** in systems with lots of prepared statements. And few applications
+** need more than about 10 or 20 variables. But some extreme users want
+** to have prepared statements with over 32767 variables, and for them
+** the option is available (at compile-time).
+typedef i16 ynVar;
+typedef int ynVar;
+** Each node of an expression in the parse tree is an instance
+** of this structure.
+** Expr.op is the opcode. The integer parser token codes are reused
+** as opcodes here. For example, the parser defines TK_GE to be an integer
+** code representing the ">=" operator. This same integer code is reused
+** to represent the greater-than-or-equal-to operator in the expression
+** tree.
+** If the expression is an SQL literal (TK_INTEGER, TK_FLOAT, TK_BLOB,
+** or TK_STRING), then Expr.token contains the text of the SQL literal. If
+** the expression is a variable (TK_VARIABLE), then Expr.token contains the
+** variable name. Finally, if the expression is an SQL function (TK_FUNCTION),
+** then Expr.token contains the name of the function.
+** Expr.pRight and Expr.pLeft are the left and right subexpressions of a
+** binary operator. Either or both may be NULL.
+** Expr.x.pList is a list of arguments if the expression is an SQL function,
+** a CASE expression or an IN expression of the form "<lhs> IN (<y>, <z>...)".
+** Expr.x.pSelect is used if the expression is a sub-select or an expression of
+** the form "<lhs> IN (SELECT ...)". If the EP_xIsSelect bit is set in the
+** Expr.flags mask, then Expr.x.pSelect is valid. Otherwise, Expr.x.pList is
+** valid.
+** An expression of the form ID or ID.ID refers to a column in a table.
+** For such expressions, Expr.op is set to TK_COLUMN and Expr.iTable is
+** the integer cursor number of a VDBE cursor pointing to that table and
+** Expr.iColumn is the column number for the specific column. If the
+** expression is used as a result in an aggregate SELECT, then the
+** value is also stored in the Expr.iAgg column in the aggregate so that
+** it can be accessed after all aggregates are computed.
+** If the expression is an unbound variable marker (a question mark
+** character '?' in the original SQL) then the Expr.iTable holds the index
+** number for that variable.
+** If the expression is a subquery then Expr.iColumn holds an integer
+** register number containing the result of the subquery. If the
+** subquery gives a constant result, then iTable is -1. If the subquery
+** gives a different answer at different times during statement processing
+** then iTable is the address of a subroutine that computes the subquery.
+** If the Expr is of type OP_Column, and the table it is selecting from
+** is a disk table or the "old.*" pseudo-table, then pTab points to the
+** corresponding table definition.
+** Expr objects can use a lot of memory space in database schema. To
+** help reduce memory requirements, sometimes an Expr object will be
+** truncated. And to reduce the number of memory allocations, sometimes
+** two or more Expr objects will be stored in a single memory allocation,
+** together with Expr.zToken strings.
+** If the EP_Reduced and EP_TokenOnly flags are set when
+** an Expr object is truncated. When EP_Reduced is set, then all
+** the child Expr objects in the Expr.pLeft and Expr.pRight subtrees
+** are contained within the same memory allocation. Note, however, that
+** the subtrees in Expr.x.pList or Expr.x.pSelect are always separately
+** allocated, regardless of whether or not EP_Reduced is set.
+struct Expr {
+ u8 op; /* Operation performed by this node */
+ char affinity; /* The affinity of the column or 0 if not a column */
+ u32 flags; /* Various flags. EP_* See below */
+ union {
+ char *zToken; /* Token value. Zero terminated and dequoted */
+ int iValue; /* Non-negative integer value if EP_IntValue */
+ } u;
+ /* If the EP_TokenOnly flag is set in the Expr.flags mask, then no
+ ** space is allocated for the fields below this point. An attempt to
+ ** access them will result in a segfault or malfunction.
+ *********************************************************************/
+ Expr *pLeft; /* Left subnode */
+ Expr *pRight; /* Right subnode */
+ union {
+ ExprList *pList; /* op = IN, EXISTS, SELECT, CASE, FUNCTION, BETWEEN */
+ Select *pSelect; /* EP_xIsSelect and op = IN, EXISTS, SELECT */
+ } x;
+ /* If the EP_Reduced flag is set in the Expr.flags mask, then no
+ ** space is allocated for the fields below this point. An attempt to
+ ** access them will result in a segfault or malfunction.
+ *********************************************************************/
+ int nHeight; /* Height of the tree headed by this node */
+ int iTable; /* TK_COLUMN: cursor number of table holding column
+ ** TK_REGISTER: register number
+ ** TK_TRIGGER: 1 -> new, 0 -> old
+ ** EP_Unlikely: 134217728 times likelihood */
+ ynVar iColumn; /* TK_COLUMN: column index. -1 for rowid.
+ ** TK_VARIABLE: variable number (always >= 1). */
+ i16 iAgg; /* Which entry in pAggInfo->aCol[] or ->aFunc[] */
+ i16 iRightJoinTable; /* If EP_FromJoin, the right table of the join */
+ u8 op2; /* TK_REGISTER: original value of Expr.op
+ ** TK_COLUMN: the value of p5 for OP_Column
+ ** TK_AGG_FUNCTION: nesting depth */
+ AggInfo *pAggInfo; /* Used by TK_AGG_COLUMN and TK_AGG_FUNCTION */
+ Table *pTab; /* Table for TK_COLUMN expressions. */
+** The following are the meanings of bits in the Expr.flags field.
+#define EP_FromJoin 0x000001 /* Originates in ON/USING clause of outer join */
+#define EP_Agg 0x000002 /* Contains one or more aggregate functions */
+#define EP_Resolved 0x000004 /* IDs have been resolved to COLUMNs */
+#define EP_Error 0x000008 /* Expression contains one or more errors */
+#define EP_Distinct 0x000010 /* Aggregate function with DISTINCT keyword */
+#define EP_VarSelect 0x000020 /* pSelect is correlated, not constant */
+#define EP_DblQuoted 0x000040 /* token.z was originally in "..." */
+#define EP_InfixFunc 0x000080 /* True for an infix function: LIKE, GLOB, etc */
+#define EP_Collate 0x000100 /* Tree contains a TK_COLLATE operator */
+#define EP_Generic 0x000200 /* Ignore COLLATE or affinity on this tree */
+#define EP_IntValue 0x000400 /* Integer value contained in u.iValue */
+#define EP_xIsSelect 0x000800 /* x.pSelect is valid (otherwise x.pList is) */
+#define EP_Skip 0x001000 /* COLLATE, AS, or UNLIKELY */
+#define EP_Reduced 0x002000 /* Expr struct EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE bytes only */
+#define EP_TokenOnly 0x004000 /* Expr struct EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE bytes only */
+#define EP_Static 0x008000 /* Held in memory not obtained from malloc() */
+#define EP_MemToken 0x010000 /* Need to sqlite3DbFree() Expr.zToken */
+#define EP_NoReduce 0x020000 /* Cannot EXPRDUP_REDUCE this Expr */
+#define EP_Unlikely 0x040000 /* unlikely() or likelihood() function */
+#define EP_ConstFunc 0x080000 /* A SQLITE_FUNC_CONSTANT or _SLOCHNG function */
+#define EP_CanBeNull 0x100000 /* Can be null despite NOT NULL constraint */
+#define EP_Subquery 0x200000 /* Tree contains a TK_SELECT operator */
+#define EP_Alias 0x400000 /* Is an alias for a result set column */
+** Combinations of two or more EP_* flags
+#define EP_Propagate (EP_Collate|EP_Subquery) /* Propagate these bits up tree */
+** These macros can be used to test, set, or clear bits in the
+** Expr.flags field.
+#define ExprHasProperty(E,P) (((E)->flags&(P))!=0)
+#define ExprHasAllProperty(E,P) (((E)->flags&(P))==(P))
+#define ExprSetProperty(E,P) (E)->flags|=(P)
+#define ExprClearProperty(E,P) (E)->flags&=~(P)
+/* The ExprSetVVAProperty() macro is used for Verification, Validation,
+** and Accreditation only. It works like ExprSetProperty() during VVA
+** processes but is a no-op for delivery.
+# define ExprSetVVAProperty(E,P) (E)->flags|=(P)
+# define ExprSetVVAProperty(E,P)
+** Macros to determine the number of bytes required by a normal Expr
+** struct, an Expr struct with the EP_Reduced flag set in Expr.flags
+** and an Expr struct with the EP_TokenOnly flag set.
+#define EXPR_FULLSIZE sizeof(Expr) /* Full size */
+#define EXPR_REDUCEDSIZE offsetof(Expr,iTable) /* Common features */
+#define EXPR_TOKENONLYSIZE offsetof(Expr,pLeft) /* Fewer features */
+** Flags passed to the sqlite3ExprDup() function. See the header comment
+** above sqlite3ExprDup() for details.
+#define EXPRDUP_REDUCE 0x0001 /* Used reduced-size Expr nodes */
+** A list of expressions. Each expression may optionally have a
+** name. An expr/name combination can be used in several ways, such
+** as the list of "expr AS ID" fields following a "SELECT" or in the
+** list of "ID = expr" items in an UPDATE. A list of expressions can
+** also be used as the argument to a function, in which case the a.zName
+** field is not used.
+** By default the Expr.zSpan field holds a human-readable description of
+** the expression that is used in the generation of error messages and
+** column labels. In this case, Expr.zSpan is typically the text of a
+** column expression as it exists in a SELECT statement. However, if
+** the bSpanIsTab flag is set, then zSpan is overloaded to mean the name
+** of the result column in the form: DATABASE.TABLE.COLUMN. This later
+** form is used for name resolution with nested FROM clauses.
+struct ExprList {
+ int nExpr; /* Number of expressions on the list */
+ struct ExprList_item { /* For each expression in the list */
+ Expr *pExpr; /* The list of expressions */
+ char *zName; /* Token associated with this expression */
+ char *zSpan; /* Original text of the expression */
+ u8 sortOrder; /* 1 for DESC or 0 for ASC */
+ unsigned done :1; /* A flag to indicate when processing is finished */
+ unsigned bSpanIsTab :1; /* zSpan holds DB.TABLE.COLUMN */
+ unsigned reusable :1; /* Constant expression is reusable */
+ union {
+ struct {
+ u16 iOrderByCol; /* For ORDER BY, column number in result set */
+ u16 iAlias; /* Index into Parse.aAlias[] for zName */
+ } x;
+ int iConstExprReg; /* Register in which Expr value is cached */
+ } u;
+ } *a; /* Alloc a power of two greater or equal to nExpr */
+** An instance of this structure is used by the parser to record both
+** the parse tree for an expression and the span of input text for an
+** expression.
+struct ExprSpan {
+ Expr *pExpr; /* The expression parse tree */
+ const char *zStart; /* First character of input text */
+ const char *zEnd; /* One character past the end of input text */
+** An instance of this structure can hold a simple list of identifiers,
+** such as the list "a,b,c" in the following statements:
+** INSERT INTO t(a,b,c) VALUES ...;
+** CREATE INDEX idx ON t(a,b,c);
+** CREATE TRIGGER trig BEFORE UPDATE ON t(a,b,c) ...;
+** The IdList.a.idx field is used when the IdList represents the list of
+** column names after a table name in an INSERT statement. In the statement
+** INSERT INTO t(a,b,c) ...
+** If "a" is the k-th column of table "t", then IdList.a[0].idx==k.
+struct IdList {
+ struct IdList_item {
+ char *zName; /* Name of the identifier */
+ int idx; /* Index in some Table.aCol[] of a column named zName */
+ } *a;
+ int nId; /* Number of identifiers on the list */
+** The bitmask datatype defined below is used for various optimizations.
+** Changing this from a 64-bit to a 32-bit type limits the number of
+** tables in a join to 32 instead of 64. But it also reduces the size
+** of the library by 738 bytes on ix86.
+typedef u64 Bitmask;
+** The number of bits in a Bitmask. "BMS" means "BitMask Size".
+#define BMS ((int)(sizeof(Bitmask)*8))
+** A bit in a Bitmask
+#define MASKBIT(n) (((Bitmask)1)<<(n))
+#define MASKBIT32(n) (((unsigned int)1)<<(n))
+** The following structure describes the FROM clause of a SELECT statement.
+** Each table or subquery in the FROM clause is a separate element of
+** the SrcList.a[] array.
+** With the addition of multiple database support, the following structure
+** can also be used to describe a particular table such as the table that
+** is modified by an INSERT, DELETE, or UPDATE statement. In standard SQL,
+** such a table must be a simple name: ID. But in SQLite, the table can
+** now be identified by a database name, a dot, then the table name: ID.ID.
+** The jointype starts out showing the join type between the current table
+** and the next table on the list. The parser builds the list this way.
+** But sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType() later shifts the jointypes so that each
+** jointype expresses the join between the table and the previous table.
+** In the colUsed field, the high-order bit (bit 63) is set if the table
+** contains more than 63 columns and the 64-th or later column is used.
+struct SrcList {
+ int nSrc; /* Number of tables or subqueries in the FROM clause */
+ u32 nAlloc; /* Number of entries allocated in a[] below */
+ struct SrcList_item {
+ Schema *pSchema; /* Schema to which this item is fixed */
+ char *zDatabase; /* Name of database holding this table */
+ char *zName; /* Name of the table */
+ char *zAlias; /* The "B" part of a "A AS B" phrase. zName is the "A" */
+ Table *pTab; /* An SQL table corresponding to zName */
+ Select *pSelect; /* A SELECT statement used in place of a table name */
+ int addrFillSub; /* Address of subroutine to manifest a subquery */
+ int regReturn; /* Register holding return address of addrFillSub */
+ int regResult; /* Registers holding results of a co-routine */
+ struct {
+ u8 jointype; /* Type of join between this able and the previous */
+ unsigned notIndexed :1; /* True if there is a NOT INDEXED clause */
+ unsigned isIndexedBy :1; /* True if there is an INDEXED BY clause */
+ unsigned isTabFunc :1; /* True if table-valued-function syntax */
+ unsigned isCorrelated :1; /* True if sub-query is correlated */
+ unsigned viaCoroutine :1; /* Implemented as a co-routine */
+ unsigned isRecursive :1; /* True for recursive reference in WITH */
+ } fg;
+ u8 iSelectId; /* If pSelect!=0, the id of the sub-select in EQP */
+ int iCursor; /* The VDBE cursor number used to access this table */
+ Expr *pOn; /* The ON clause of a join */
+ IdList *pUsing; /* The USING clause of a join */
+ Bitmask colUsed; /* Bit N (1<<N) set if column N of pTab is used */
+ union {
+ char *zIndexedBy; /* Identifier from "INDEXED BY <zIndex>" clause */
+ ExprList *pFuncArg; /* Arguments to table-valued-function */
+ } u1;
+ Index *pIBIndex; /* Index structure corresponding to u1.zIndexedBy */
+ } a[1]; /* One entry for each identifier on the list */
+** Permitted values of the SrcList.a.jointype field
+#define JT_INNER 0x0001 /* Any kind of inner or cross join */
+#define JT_CROSS 0x0002 /* Explicit use of the CROSS keyword */
+#define JT_NATURAL 0x0004 /* True for a "natural" join */
+#define JT_LEFT 0x0008 /* Left outer join */
+#define JT_RIGHT 0x0010 /* Right outer join */
+#define JT_OUTER 0x0020 /* The "OUTER" keyword is present */
+#define JT_ERROR 0x0040 /* unknown or unsupported join type */
+** Flags appropriate for the wctrlFlags parameter of sqlite3WhereBegin()
+** and the WhereInfo.wctrlFlags member.
+#define WHERE_ORDERBY_NORMAL 0x0000 /* No-op */
+#define WHERE_ORDERBY_MIN 0x0001 /* ORDER BY processing for min() func */
+#define WHERE_ORDERBY_MAX 0x0002 /* ORDER BY processing for max() func */
+#define WHERE_ONEPASS_DESIRED 0x0004 /* Want to do one-pass UPDATE/DELETE */
+#define WHERE_DUPLICATES_OK 0x0008 /* Ok to return a row more than once */
+#define WHERE_OMIT_OPEN_CLOSE 0x0010 /* Table cursors are already open */
+#define WHERE_FORCE_TABLE 0x0020 /* Do not use an index-only search */
+#define WHERE_ONETABLE_ONLY 0x0040 /* Only code the 1st table in pTabList */
+#define WHERE_NO_AUTOINDEX 0x0080 /* Disallow automatic indexes */
+#define WHERE_GROUPBY 0x0100 /* pOrderBy is really a GROUP BY */
+#define WHERE_DISTINCTBY 0x0200 /* pOrderby is really a DISTINCT clause */
+#define WHERE_WANT_DISTINCT 0x0400 /* All output needs to be distinct */
+#define WHERE_SORTBYGROUP 0x0800 /* Support sqlite3WhereIsSorted() */
+#define WHERE_REOPEN_IDX 0x1000 /* Try to use OP_ReopenIdx */
+#define WHERE_ONEPASS_MULTIROW 0x2000 /* ONEPASS is ok with multiple rows */
+/* Allowed return values from sqlite3WhereIsDistinct()
+#define WHERE_DISTINCT_NOOP 0 /* DISTINCT keyword not used */
+#define WHERE_DISTINCT_UNIQUE 1 /* No duplicates */
+#define WHERE_DISTINCT_ORDERED 2 /* All duplicates are adjacent */
+#define WHERE_DISTINCT_UNORDERED 3 /* Duplicates are scattered */
+** A NameContext defines a context in which to resolve table and column
+** names. The context consists of a list of tables (the pSrcList) field and
+** a list of named expression (pEList). The named expression list may
+** be NULL. The pSrc corresponds to the FROM clause of a SELECT or
+** to the table being operated on by INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE. The
+** pEList corresponds to the result set of a SELECT and is NULL for
+** other statements.
+** NameContexts can be nested. When resolving names, the inner-most
+** context is searched first. If no match is found, the next outer
+** context is checked. If there is still no match, the next context
+** is checked. This process continues until either a match is found
+** or all contexts are check. When a match is found, the nRef member of
+** the context containing the match is incremented.
+** Each subquery gets a new NameContext. The pNext field points to the
+** NameContext in the parent query. Thus the process of scanning the
+** NameContext list corresponds to searching through successively outer
+** subqueries looking for a match.
+struct NameContext {
+ Parse *pParse; /* The parser */
+ SrcList *pSrcList; /* One or more tables used to resolve names */
+ ExprList *pEList; /* Optional list of result-set columns */
+ AggInfo *pAggInfo; /* Information about aggregates at this level */
+ NameContext *pNext; /* Next outer name context. NULL for outermost */
+ int nRef; /* Number of names resolved by this context */
+ int nErr; /* Number of errors encountered while resolving names */
+ u16 ncFlags; /* Zero or more NC_* flags defined below */
+** Allowed values for the NameContext, ncFlags field.
+** Note: NC_MinMaxAgg must have the same value as SF_MinMaxAgg and
+#define NC_AllowAgg 0x0001 /* Aggregate functions are allowed here */
+#define NC_HasAgg 0x0002 /* One or more aggregate functions seen */
+#define NC_IsCheck 0x0004 /* True if resolving names in a CHECK constraint */
+#define NC_InAggFunc 0x0008 /* True if analyzing arguments to an agg func */
+#define NC_PartIdx 0x0010 /* True if resolving a partial index WHERE */
+#define NC_IdxExpr 0x0020 /* True if resolving columns of CREATE INDEX */
+#define NC_MinMaxAgg 0x1000 /* min/max aggregates seen. See note above */
+** An instance of the following structure contains all information
+** needed to generate code for a single SELECT statement.
+** nLimit is set to -1 if there is no LIMIT clause. nOffset is set to 0.
+** If there is a LIMIT clause, the parser sets nLimit to the value of the
+** limit and nOffset to the value of the offset (or 0 if there is not
+** offset). But later on, nLimit and nOffset become the memory locations
+** in the VDBE that record the limit and offset counters.
+** addrOpenEphm[] entries contain the address of OP_OpenEphemeral opcodes.
+** These addresses must be stored so that we can go back and fill in
+** the P4_KEYINFO and P2 parameters later. Neither the KeyInfo nor
+** the number of columns in P2 can be computed at the same time
+** as the OP_OpenEphm instruction is coded because not
+** enough information about the compound query is known at that point.
+** The KeyInfo for addrOpenTran[0] and [1] contains collating sequences
+** for the result set. The KeyInfo for addrOpenEphm[2] contains collating
+** sequences for the ORDER BY clause.
+struct Select {
+ ExprList *pEList; /* The fields of the result */
+ u16 selFlags; /* Various SF_* values */
+ int iLimit, iOffset; /* Memory registers holding LIMIT & OFFSET counters */
+ char zSelName[12]; /* Symbolic name of this SELECT use for debugging */
+ int addrOpenEphm[2]; /* OP_OpenEphem opcodes related to this select */
+ u64 nSelectRow; /* Estimated number of result rows */
+ SrcList *pSrc; /* The FROM clause */
+ Expr *pWhere; /* The WHERE clause */
+ ExprList *pGroupBy; /* The GROUP BY clause */
+ Expr *pHaving; /* The HAVING clause */
+ ExprList *pOrderBy; /* The ORDER BY clause */
+ Select *pPrior; /* Prior select in a compound select statement */
+ Select *pNext; /* Next select to the left in a compound */
+ Expr *pLimit; /* LIMIT expression. NULL means not used. */
+ Expr *pOffset; /* OFFSET expression. NULL means not used. */
+ With *pWith; /* WITH clause attached to this select. Or NULL. */
+** Allowed values for Select.selFlags. The "SF" prefix stands for
+** "Select Flag".
+#define SF_Distinct 0x0001 /* Output should be DISTINCT */
+#define SF_All 0x0002 /* Includes the ALL keyword */
+#define SF_Resolved 0x0004 /* Identifiers have been resolved */
+#define SF_Aggregate 0x0008 /* Contains aggregate functions */
+#define SF_UsesEphemeral 0x0010 /* Uses the OpenEphemeral opcode */
+#define SF_Expanded 0x0020 /* sqlite3SelectExpand() called on this */
+#define SF_HasTypeInfo 0x0040 /* FROM subqueries have Table metadata */
+#define SF_Compound 0x0080 /* Part of a compound query */
+#define SF_Values 0x0100 /* Synthesized from VALUES clause */
+#define SF_MultiValue 0x0200 /* Single VALUES term with multiple rows */
+#define SF_NestedFrom 0x0400 /* Part of a parenthesized FROM clause */
+#define SF_MaybeConvert 0x0800 /* Need convertCompoundSelectToSubquery() */
+#define SF_MinMaxAgg 0x1000 /* Aggregate containing min() or max() */
+#define SF_Recursive 0x2000 /* The recursive part of a recursive CTE */
+#define SF_Converted 0x4000 /* By convertCompoundSelectToSubquery() */
+#define SF_IncludeHidden 0x8000 /* Include hidden columns in output */
+** The results of a SELECT can be distributed in several ways, as defined
+** by one of the following macros. The "SRT" prefix means "SELECT Result
+** Type".
+** SRT_Union Store results as a key in a temporary index
+** identified by pDest->iSDParm.
+** SRT_Except Remove results from the temporary index pDest->iSDParm.
+** SRT_Exists Store a 1 in memory cell pDest->iSDParm if the result
+** set is not empty.
+** SRT_Discard Throw the results away. This is used by SELECT
+** statements within triggers whose only purpose is
+** the side-effects of functions.
+** All of the above are free to ignore their ORDER BY clause. Those that
+** follow must honor the ORDER BY clause.
+** SRT_Output Generate a row of output (using the OP_ResultRow
+** opcode) for each row in the result set.
+** SRT_Mem Only valid if the result is a single column.
+** Store the first column of the first result row
+** in register pDest->iSDParm then abandon the rest
+** of the query. This destination implies "LIMIT 1".
+** SRT_Set The result must be a single column. Store each
+** row of result as the key in table pDest->iSDParm.
+** Apply the affinity pDest->affSdst before storing
+** results. Used to implement "IN (SELECT ...)".
+** SRT_EphemTab Create an temporary table pDest->iSDParm and store
+** the result there. The cursor is left open after
+** returning. This is like SRT_Table except that
+** this destination uses OP_OpenEphemeral to create
+** the table first.
+** SRT_Coroutine Generate a co-routine that returns a new row of
+** results each time it is invoked. The entry point
+** of the co-routine is stored in register pDest->iSDParm
+** and the result row is stored in pDest->nDest registers
+** starting with pDest->iSdst.
+** SRT_Table Store results in temporary table pDest->iSDParm.
+** SRT_Fifo This is like SRT_EphemTab except that the table
+** is assumed to already be open. SRT_Fifo has
+** the additional property of being able to ignore
+** the ORDER BY clause.
+** SRT_DistFifo Store results in a temporary table pDest->iSDParm.
+** But also use temporary table pDest->iSDParm+1 as
+** a record of all prior results and ignore any duplicate
+** rows. Name means: "Distinct Fifo".
+** SRT_Queue Store results in priority queue pDest->iSDParm (really
+** an index). Append a sequence number so that all entries
+** are distinct.
+** SRT_DistQueue Store results in priority queue pDest->iSDParm only if
+** the same record has never been stored before. The
+** index at pDest->iSDParm+1 hold all prior stores.
+#define SRT_Union 1 /* Store result as keys in an index */
+#define SRT_Except 2 /* Remove result from a UNION index */
+#define SRT_Exists 3 /* Store 1 if the result is not empty */
+#define SRT_Discard 4 /* Do not save the results anywhere */
+#define SRT_Fifo 5 /* Store result as data with an automatic rowid */
+#define SRT_DistFifo 6 /* Like SRT_Fifo, but unique results only */
+#define SRT_Queue 7 /* Store result in an queue */
+#define SRT_DistQueue 8 /* Like SRT_Queue, but unique results only */
+/* The ORDER BY clause is ignored for all of the above */
+#define IgnorableOrderby(X) ((X->eDest)<=SRT_DistQueue)
+#define SRT_Output 9 /* Output each row of result */
+#define SRT_Mem 10 /* Store result in a memory cell */
+#define SRT_Set 11 /* Store results as keys in an index */
+#define SRT_EphemTab 12 /* Create transient tab and store like SRT_Table */
+#define SRT_Coroutine 13 /* Generate a single row of result */
+#define SRT_Table 14 /* Store result as data with an automatic rowid */
+** An instance of this object describes where to put of the results of
+** a SELECT statement.
+struct SelectDest {
+ u8 eDest; /* How to dispose of the results. On of SRT_* above. */
+ char affSdst; /* Affinity used when eDest==SRT_Set */
+ int iSDParm; /* A parameter used by the eDest disposal method */
+ int iSdst; /* Base register where results are written */
+ int nSdst; /* Number of registers allocated */
+ ExprList *pOrderBy; /* Key columns for SRT_Queue and SRT_DistQueue */
+** During code generation of statements that do inserts into AUTOINCREMENT
+** tables, the following information is attached to the Table.u.autoInc.p
+** pointer of each autoincrement table to record some side information that
+** the code generator needs. We have to keep per-table autoincrement
+** information in case inserts are done within triggers. Triggers do not
+** normally coordinate their activities, but we do need to coordinate the
+** loading and saving of autoincrement information.
+struct AutoincInfo {
+ AutoincInfo *pNext; /* Next info block in a list of them all */
+ Table *pTab; /* Table this info block refers to */
+ int iDb; /* Index in sqlite3.aDb[] of database holding pTab */
+ int regCtr; /* Memory register holding the rowid counter */
+** Size of the column cache
+# define SQLITE_N_COLCACHE 10
+** At least one instance of the following structure is created for each
+** trigger that may be fired while parsing an INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE
+** statement. All such objects are stored in the linked list headed at
+** Parse.pTriggerPrg and deleted once statement compilation has been
+** completed.
+** A Vdbe sub-program that implements the body and WHEN clause of trigger
+** TriggerPrg.pTrigger, assuming a default ON CONFLICT clause of
+** TriggerPrg.orconf, is stored in the TriggerPrg.pProgram variable.
+** The Parse.pTriggerPrg list never contains two entries with the same
+** values for both pTrigger and orconf.
+** The TriggerPrg.aColmask[0] variable is set to a mask of old.* columns
+** accessed (or set to 0 for triggers fired as a result of INSERT
+** statements). Similarly, the TriggerPrg.aColmask[1] variable is set to
+** a mask of new.* columns used by the program.
+struct TriggerPrg {
+ Trigger *pTrigger; /* Trigger this program was coded from */
+ TriggerPrg *pNext; /* Next entry in Parse.pTriggerPrg list */
+ SubProgram *pProgram; /* Program implementing pTrigger/orconf */
+ int orconf; /* Default ON CONFLICT policy */
+ u32 aColmask[2]; /* Masks of old.*, new.* columns accessed */
+** The yDbMask datatype for the bitmask of all attached databases.
+ typedef unsigned char yDbMask[(SQLITE_MAX_ATTACHED+9)/8];
+# define DbMaskTest(M,I) (((M)[(I)/8]&(1<<((I)&7)))!=0)
+# define DbMaskZero(M) memset((M),0,sizeof(M))
+# define DbMaskSet(M,I) (M)[(I)/8]|=(1<<((I)&7))
+# define DbMaskAllZero(M) sqlite3DbMaskAllZero(M)
+# define DbMaskNonZero(M) (sqlite3DbMaskAllZero(M)==0)
+ typedef unsigned int yDbMask;
+# define DbMaskTest(M,I) (((M)&(((yDbMask)1)<<(I)))!=0)
+# define DbMaskZero(M) (M)=0
+# define DbMaskSet(M,I) (M)|=(((yDbMask)1)<<(I))
+# define DbMaskAllZero(M) (M)==0
+# define DbMaskNonZero(M) (M)!=0
+** An SQL parser context. A copy of this structure is passed through
+** the parser and down into all the parser action routine in order to
+** carry around information that is global to the entire parse.
+** The structure is divided into two parts. When the parser and code
+** generate call themselves recursively, the first part of the structure
+** is constant but the second part is reset at the beginning and end of
+** each recursion.
+** The nTableLock and aTableLock variables are only used if the shared-cache
+** feature is enabled (if sqlite3Tsd()->useSharedData is true). They are
+** used to store the set of table-locks required by the statement being
+** compiled. Function sqlite3TableLock() is used to add entries to the
+** list.
+struct Parse {
+ sqlite3 *db; /* The main database structure */
+ char *zErrMsg; /* An error message */
+ Vdbe *pVdbe; /* An engine for executing database bytecode */
+ int rc; /* Return code from execution */
+ u8 colNamesSet; /* TRUE after OP_ColumnName has been issued to pVdbe */
+ u8 checkSchema; /* Causes schema cookie check after an error */
+ u8 nested; /* Number of nested calls to the parser/code generator */
+ u8 nTempReg; /* Number of temporary registers in aTempReg[] */
+ u8 isMultiWrite; /* True if statement may modify/insert multiple rows */
+ u8 mayAbort; /* True if statement may throw an ABORT exception */
+ u8 hasCompound; /* Need to invoke convertCompoundSelectToSubquery() */
+ u8 okConstFactor; /* OK to factor out constants */
+ u8 disableLookaside; /* Number of times lookaside has been disabled */
+ int aTempReg[8]; /* Holding area for temporary registers */
+ int nRangeReg; /* Size of the temporary register block */
+ int iRangeReg; /* First register in temporary register block */
+ int nErr; /* Number of errors seen */
+ int nTab; /* Number of previously allocated VDBE cursors */
+ int nMem; /* Number of memory cells used so far */
+ int nSet; /* Number of sets used so far */
+ int nOnce; /* Number of OP_Once instructions so far */
+ int nOpAlloc; /* Number of slots allocated for Vdbe.aOp[] */
+ int szOpAlloc; /* Bytes of memory space allocated for Vdbe.aOp[] */
+ int iFixedOp; /* Never back out opcodes iFixedOp-1 or earlier */
+ int ckBase; /* Base register of data during check constraints */
+ int iSelfTab; /* Table of an index whose exprs are being coded */
+ int iCacheLevel; /* ColCache valid when aColCache[].iLevel<=iCacheLevel */
+ int iCacheCnt; /* Counter used to generate aColCache[].lru values */
+ int nLabel; /* Number of labels used */
+ int *aLabel; /* Space to hold the labels */
+ struct yColCache {
+ int iTable; /* Table cursor number */
+ i16 iColumn; /* Table column number */
+ u8 tempReg; /* iReg is a temp register that needs to be freed */
+ int iLevel; /* Nesting level */
+ int iReg; /* Reg with value of this column. 0 means none. */
+ int lru; /* Least recently used entry has the smallest value */
+ } aColCache[SQLITE_N_COLCACHE]; /* One for each column cache entry */
+ ExprList *pConstExpr;/* Constant expressions */
+ Token constraintName;/* Name of the constraint currently being parsed */
+ yDbMask writeMask; /* Start a write transaction on these databases */
+ yDbMask cookieMask; /* Bitmask of schema verified databases */
+ int cookieValue[SQLITE_MAX_ATTACHED+2]; /* Values of cookies to verify */
+ int regRowid; /* Register holding rowid of CREATE TABLE entry */
+ int regRoot; /* Register holding root page number for new objects */
+ int nMaxArg; /* Max args passed to user function by sub-program */
+ int nSelect; /* Number of SELECT statements seen */
+ int nSelectIndent; /* How far to indent SELECTTRACE() output */
+ int nTableLock; /* Number of locks in aTableLock */
+ TableLock *aTableLock; /* Required table locks for shared-cache mode */
+ AutoincInfo *pAinc; /* Information about AUTOINCREMENT counters */
+ /* Information used while coding trigger programs. */
+ Parse *pToplevel; /* Parse structure for main program (or NULL) */
+ Table *pTriggerTab; /* Table triggers are being coded for */
+ int addrCrTab; /* Address of OP_CreateTable opcode on CREATE TABLE */
+ u32 nQueryLoop; /* Est number of iterations of a query (10*log2(N)) */
+ u32 oldmask; /* Mask of old.* columns referenced */
+ u32 newmask; /* Mask of new.* columns referenced */
+ u8 eTriggerOp; /* TK_UPDATE, TK_INSERT or TK_DELETE */
+ u8 eOrconf; /* Default ON CONFLICT policy for trigger steps */
+ u8 disableTriggers; /* True to disable triggers */
+ /************************************************************************
+ ** Above is constant between recursions. Below is reset before and after
+ ** each recursion. The boundary between these two regions is determined
+ ** using offsetof(Parse,nVar) so the nVar field must be the first field
+ ** in the recursive region.
+ ************************************************************************/
+ ynVar nVar; /* Number of '?' variables seen in the SQL so far */
+ int nzVar; /* Number of available slots in azVar[] */
+ u8 iPkSortOrder; /* ASC or DESC for INTEGER PRIMARY KEY */
+ u8 explain; /* True if the EXPLAIN flag is found on the query */
+ u8 declareVtab; /* True if inside sqlite3_declare_vtab() */
+ int nVtabLock; /* Number of virtual tables to lock */
+ int nAlias; /* Number of aliased result set columns */
+ int nHeight; /* Expression tree height of current sub-select */
+ int iSelectId; /* ID of current select for EXPLAIN output */
+ int iNextSelectId; /* Next available select ID for EXPLAIN output */
+ char **azVar; /* Pointers to names of parameters */
+ Vdbe *pReprepare; /* VM being reprepared (sqlite3Reprepare()) */
+ const char *zTail; /* All SQL text past the last semicolon parsed */
+ Table *pNewTable; /* A table being constructed by CREATE TABLE */
+ Trigger *pNewTrigger; /* Trigger under construct by a CREATE TRIGGER */
+ const char *zAuthContext; /* The 6th parameter to db->xAuth callbacks */
+ Token sNameToken; /* Token with unqualified schema object name */
+ Token sLastToken; /* The last token parsed */
+ Token sArg; /* Complete text of a module argument */
+ Table **apVtabLock; /* Pointer to virtual tables needing locking */
+ Table *pZombieTab; /* List of Table objects to delete after code gen */
+ TriggerPrg *pTriggerPrg; /* Linked list of coded triggers */
+ With *pWith; /* Current WITH clause, or NULL */
+ With *pWithToFree; /* Free this WITH object at the end of the parse */
+** Return true if currently inside an sqlite3_declare_vtab() call.
+ #define IN_DECLARE_VTAB 0
+ #define IN_DECLARE_VTAB (pParse->declareVtab)
+** An instance of the following structure can be declared on a stack and used
+** to save the Parse.zAuthContext value so that it can be restored later.
+struct AuthContext {
+ const char *zAuthContext; /* Put saved Parse.zAuthContext here */
+ Parse *pParse; /* The Parse structure */
+** Bitfield flags for P5 value in various opcodes.
+#define OPFLAG_NCHANGE 0x01 /* OP_Insert: Set to update db->nChange */
+ /* Also used in P2 (not P5) of OP_Delete */
+#define OPFLAG_EPHEM 0x01 /* OP_Column: Ephemeral output is ok */
+#define OPFLAG_LASTROWID 0x02 /* Set to update db->lastRowid */
+#define OPFLAG_ISUPDATE 0x04 /* This OP_Insert is an sql UPDATE */
+#define OPFLAG_APPEND 0x08 /* This is likely to be an append */
+#define OPFLAG_USESEEKRESULT 0x10 /* Try to avoid a seek in BtreeInsert() */
+#define OPFLAG_LENGTHARG 0x40 /* OP_Column only used for length() */
+#define OPFLAG_TYPEOFARG 0x80 /* OP_Column only used for typeof() */
+#define OPFLAG_BULKCSR 0x01 /* OP_Open** used to open bulk cursor */
+#define OPFLAG_SEEKEQ 0x02 /* OP_Open** cursor uses EQ seek only */
+#define OPFLAG_FORDELETE 0x08 /* OP_Open should use BTREE_FORDELETE */
+#define OPFLAG_P2ISREG 0x10 /* P2 to OP_Open** is a register number */
+#define OPFLAG_PERMUTE 0x01 /* OP_Compare: use the permutation */
+#define OPFLAG_SAVEPOSITION 0x02 /* OP_Delete: keep cursor position */
+#define OPFLAG_AUXDELETE 0x04 /* OP_Delete: index in a DELETE op */
+ * Each trigger present in the database schema is stored as an instance of
+ * struct Trigger.
+ *
+ * Pointers to instances of struct Trigger are stored in two ways.
+ * 1. In the "trigHash" hash table (part of the sqlite3* that represents the
+ * database). This allows Trigger structures to be retrieved by name.
+ * 2. All triggers associated with a single table form a linked list, using the
+ * pNext member of struct Trigger. A pointer to the first element of the
+ * linked list is stored as the "pTrigger" member of the associated
+ * struct Table.
+ *
+ * The "step_list" member points to the first element of a linked list
+ * containing the SQL statements specified as the trigger program.
+ */
+struct Trigger {
+ char *zName; /* The name of the trigger */
+ char *table; /* The table or view to which the trigger applies */
+ u8 op; /* One of TK_DELETE, TK_UPDATE, TK_INSERT */
+ u8 tr_tm; /* One of TRIGGER_BEFORE, TRIGGER_AFTER */
+ Expr *pWhen; /* The WHEN clause of the expression (may be NULL) */
+ IdList *pColumns; /* If this is an UPDATE OF <column-list> trigger,
+ the <column-list> is stored here */
+ Schema *pSchema; /* Schema containing the trigger */
+ Schema *pTabSchema; /* Schema containing the table */
+ TriggerStep *step_list; /* Link list of trigger program steps */
+ Trigger *pNext; /* Next trigger associated with the table */
+** A trigger is either a BEFORE or an AFTER trigger. The following constants
+** determine which.
+** If there are multiple triggers, you might of some BEFORE and some AFTER.
+** In that cases, the constants below can be ORed together.
+#define TRIGGER_AFTER 2
+ * An instance of struct TriggerStep is used to store a single SQL statement
+ * that is a part of a trigger-program.
+ *
+ * Instances of struct TriggerStep are stored in a singly linked list (linked
+ * using the "pNext" member) referenced by the "step_list" member of the
+ * associated struct Trigger instance. The first element of the linked list is
+ * the first step of the trigger-program.
+ *
+ * The "op" member indicates whether this is a "DELETE", "INSERT", "UPDATE" or
+ * "SELECT" statement. The meanings of the other members is determined by the
+ * value of "op" as follows:
+ *
+ * (op == TK_INSERT)
+ * orconf -> stores the ON CONFLICT algorithm
+ * pSelect -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... SELECT ... statement, then
+ * this stores a pointer to the SELECT statement. Otherwise NULL.
+ * zTarget -> Dequoted name of the table to insert into.
+ * pExprList -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... VALUES ... statement, then
+ * this stores values to be inserted. Otherwise NULL.
+ * pIdList -> If this is an INSERT INTO ... (<column-names>) VALUES ...
+ * statement, then this stores the column-names to be
+ * inserted into.
+ *
+ * (op == TK_DELETE)
+ * zTarget -> Dequoted name of the table to delete from.
+ * pWhere -> The WHERE clause of the DELETE statement if one is specified.
+ * Otherwise NULL.
+ *
+ * (op == TK_UPDATE)
+ * zTarget -> Dequoted name of the table to update.
+ * pWhere -> The WHERE clause of the UPDATE statement if one is specified.
+ * Otherwise NULL.
+ * pExprList -> A list of the columns to update and the expressions to update
+ * them to. See sqlite3Update() documentation of "pChanges"
+ * argument.
+ *
+ */
+struct TriggerStep {
+ u8 orconf; /* OE_Rollback etc. */
+ Trigger *pTrig; /* The trigger that this step is a part of */
+ Select *pSelect; /* SELECT statement or RHS of INSERT INTO SELECT ... */
+ char *zTarget; /* Target table for DELETE, UPDATE, INSERT */
+ Expr *pWhere; /* The WHERE clause for DELETE or UPDATE steps */
+ ExprList *pExprList; /* SET clause for UPDATE. */
+ IdList *pIdList; /* Column names for INSERT */
+ TriggerStep *pNext; /* Next in the link-list */
+ TriggerStep *pLast; /* Last element in link-list. Valid for 1st elem only */
+** The following structure contains information used by the sqliteFix...
+** routines as they walk the parse tree to make database references
+** explicit.
+typedef struct DbFixer DbFixer;
+struct DbFixer {
+ Parse *pParse; /* The parsing context. Error messages written here */
+ Schema *pSchema; /* Fix items to this schema */
+ int bVarOnly; /* Check for variable references only */
+ const char *zDb; /* Make sure all objects are contained in this database */
+ const char *zType; /* Type of the container - used for error messages */
+ const Token *pName; /* Name of the container - used for error messages */
+** An objected used to accumulate the text of a string where we
+** do not necessarily know how big the string will be in the end.
+struct StrAccum {
+ sqlite3 *db; /* Optional database for lookaside. Can be NULL */
+ char *zBase; /* A base allocation. Not from malloc. */
+ char *zText; /* The string collected so far */
+ u32 nChar; /* Length of the string so far */
+ u32 nAlloc; /* Amount of space allocated in zText */
+ u32 mxAlloc; /* Maximum allowed allocation. 0 for no malloc usage */
+ u8 printfFlags; /* SQLITE_PRINTF flags below */
+#define SQLITE_PRINTF_INTERNAL 0x01 /* Internal-use-only converters allowed */
+#define SQLITE_PRINTF_SQLFUNC 0x02 /* SQL function arguments to VXPrintf */
+#define SQLITE_PRINTF_MALLOCED 0x04 /* True if xText is allocated space */
+#define isMalloced(X) (((X)->printfFlags & SQLITE_PRINTF_MALLOCED)!=0)
+** A pointer to this structure is used to communicate information
+** from sqlite3Init and OP_ParseSchema into the sqlite3InitCallback.
+typedef struct {
+ sqlite3 *db; /* The database being initialized */
+ char **pzErrMsg; /* Error message stored here */
+ int iDb; /* 0 for main database. 1 for TEMP, 2.. for ATTACHed */
+ int rc; /* Result code stored here */
+} InitData;
+** Structure containing global configuration data for the SQLite library.
+** This structure also contains some state information.
+struct Sqlite3Config {
+ int bMemstat; /* True to enable memory status */
+ int bCoreMutex; /* True to enable core mutexing */
+ int bFullMutex; /* True to enable full mutexing */
+ int bOpenUri; /* True to interpret filenames as URIs */
+ int bUseCis; /* Use covering indices for full-scans */
+ int mxStrlen; /* Maximum string length */
+ int neverCorrupt; /* Database is always well-formed */
+ int szLookaside; /* Default lookaside buffer size */
+ int nLookaside; /* Default lookaside buffer count */
+ sqlite3_mem_methods m; /* Low-level memory allocation interface */
+ sqlite3_mutex_methods mutex; /* Low-level mutex interface */
+ sqlite3_pcache_methods2 pcache2; /* Low-level page-cache interface */
+ void *pHeap; /* Heap storage space */
+ int nHeap; /* Size of pHeap[] */
+ int mnReq, mxReq; /* Min and max heap requests sizes */
+ sqlite3_int64 szMmap; /* mmap() space per open file */
+ sqlite3_int64 mxMmap; /* Maximum value for szMmap */
+ void *pScratch; /* Scratch memory */
+ int szScratch; /* Size of each scratch buffer */
+ int nScratch; /* Number of scratch buffers */
+ void *pPage; /* Page cache memory */
+ int szPage; /* Size of each page in pPage[] */
+ int nPage; /* Number of pages in pPage[] */
+ int mxParserStack; /* maximum depth of the parser stack */
+ int sharedCacheEnabled; /* true if shared-cache mode enabled */
+ u32 szPma; /* Maximum Sorter PMA size */
+ /* The above might be initialized to non-zero. The following need to always
+ ** initially be zero, however. */
+ int isInit; /* True after initialization has finished */
+ int inProgress; /* True while initialization in progress */
+ int isMutexInit; /* True after mutexes are initialized */
+ int isMallocInit; /* True after malloc is initialized */
+ int isPCacheInit; /* True after malloc is initialized */
+ int nRefInitMutex; /* Number of users of pInitMutex */
+ sqlite3_mutex *pInitMutex; /* Mutex used by sqlite3_initialize() */
+ void (*xLog)(void*,int,const char*); /* Function for logging */
+ void *pLogArg; /* First argument to xLog() */
+ void(*xSqllog)(void*,sqlite3*,const char*, int);
+ void *pSqllogArg;
+ /* The following callback (if not NULL) is invoked on every VDBE branch
+ ** operation. Set the callback using SQLITE_TESTCTRL_VDBE_COVERAGE.
+ */
+ void (*xVdbeBranch)(void*,int iSrcLine,u8 eThis,u8 eMx); /* Callback */
+ void *pVdbeBranchArg; /* 1st argument */
+ int (*xTestCallback)(int); /* Invoked by sqlite3FaultSim() */
+ int bLocaltimeFault; /* True to fail localtime() calls */
+** This macro is used inside of assert() statements to indicate that
+** the assert is only valid on a well-formed database. Instead of:
+** assert( X );
+** One writes:
+** assert( X || CORRUPT_DB );
+** CORRUPT_DB is true during normal operation. CORRUPT_DB does not indicate
+** that the database is definitely corrupt, only that it might be corrupt.
+** For most test cases, CORRUPT_DB is set to false using a special
+** sqlite3_test_control(). This enables assert() statements to prove
+** things that are always true for well-formed databases.
+#define CORRUPT_DB (sqlite3Config.neverCorrupt==0)
+** Context pointer passed down through the tree-walk.
+struct Walker {
+ Parse *pParse; /* Parser context. */
+ int (*xExprCallback)(Walker*, Expr*); /* Callback for expressions */
+ int (*xSelectCallback)(Walker*,Select*); /* Callback for SELECTs */
+ void (*xSelectCallback2)(Walker*,Select*);/* Second callback for SELECTs */
+ int walkerDepth; /* Number of subqueries */
+ u8 eCode; /* A small processing code */
+ union { /* Extra data for callback */
+ NameContext *pNC; /* Naming context */
+ int n; /* A counter */
+ int iCur; /* A cursor number */
+ SrcList *pSrcList; /* FROM clause */
+ struct SrcCount *pSrcCount; /* Counting column references */
+ struct CCurHint *pCCurHint; /* Used by codeCursorHint() */
+ int *aiCol; /* array of column indexes */
+ } u;
+/* Forward declarations */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WalkExpr(Walker*, Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WalkExprList(Walker*, ExprList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WalkSelect(Walker*, Select*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WalkSelectExpr(Walker*, Select*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WalkSelectFrom(Walker*, Select*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprWalkNoop(Walker*, Expr*);
+** Return code from the parse-tree walking primitives and their
+** callbacks.
+#define WRC_Continue 0 /* Continue down into children */
+#define WRC_Prune 1 /* Omit children but continue walking siblings */
+#define WRC_Abort 2 /* Abandon the tree walk */
+** An instance of this structure represents a set of one or more CTEs
+** (common table expressions) created by a single WITH clause.
+struct With {
+ int nCte; /* Number of CTEs in the WITH clause */
+ With *pOuter; /* Containing WITH clause, or NULL */
+ struct Cte { /* For each CTE in the WITH clause.... */
+ char *zName; /* Name of this CTE */
+ ExprList *pCols; /* List of explicit column names, or NULL */
+ Select *pSelect; /* The definition of this CTE */
+ const char *zCteErr; /* Error message for circular references */
+ } a[1];
+** An instance of the TreeView object is used for printing the content of
+** data structures on sqlite3DebugPrintf() using a tree-like view.
+struct TreeView {
+ int iLevel; /* Which level of the tree we are on */
+ u8 bLine[100]; /* Draw vertical in column i if bLine[i] is true */
+#endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG */
+** Assuming zIn points to the first byte of a UTF-8 character,
+** advance zIn to point to the first byte of the next UTF-8 character.
+#define SQLITE_SKIP_UTF8(zIn) { \
+ if( (*(zIn++))>=0xc0 ){ \
+ while( (*zIn & 0xc0)==0x80 ){ zIn++; } \
+ } \
+** The SQLITE_*_BKPT macros are substitutes for the error codes with
+** the same name but without the _BKPT suffix. These macros invoke
+** routines that report the line-number on which the error originated
+** using sqlite3_log(). The routines also provide a convenient place
+** to set a debugger breakpoint.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CorruptError(int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MisuseError(int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CantopenError(int);
+#define SQLITE_CORRUPT_BKPT sqlite3CorruptError(__LINE__)
+#define SQLITE_MISUSE_BKPT sqlite3MisuseError(__LINE__)
+#define SQLITE_CANTOPEN_BKPT sqlite3CantopenError(__LINE__)
+** FTS3 and FTS4 both require virtual table support
+** FTS4 is really an extension for FTS3. It is enabled using the
+** SQLITE_ENABLE_FTS3 macro. But to avoid confusion we also call
+** the SQLITE_ENABLE_FTS4 macro to serve as an alias for SQLITE_ENABLE_FTS3.
+#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_FTS4) && !defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_FTS3)
+# define SQLITE_ENABLE_FTS3 1
+** The ctype.h header is needed for non-ASCII systems. It is also
+** needed by FTS3 when FTS3 is included in the amalgamation.
+#if !defined(SQLITE_ASCII) || \
+# include <ctype.h>
+** The following macros mimic the standard library functions toupper(),
+** isspace(), isalnum(), isdigit() and isxdigit(), respectively. The
+** sqlite versions only work for ASCII characters, regardless of locale.
+# define sqlite3Toupper(x) ((x)&~(sqlite3CtypeMap[(unsigned char)(x)]&0x20))
+# define sqlite3Isspace(x) (sqlite3CtypeMap[(unsigned char)(x)]&0x01)
+# define sqlite3Isalnum(x) (sqlite3CtypeMap[(unsigned char)(x)]&0x06)
+# define sqlite3Isalpha(x) (sqlite3CtypeMap[(unsigned char)(x)]&0x02)
+# define sqlite3Isdigit(x) (sqlite3CtypeMap[(unsigned char)(x)]&0x04)
+# define sqlite3Isxdigit(x) (sqlite3CtypeMap[(unsigned char)(x)]&0x08)
+# define sqlite3Tolower(x) (sqlite3UpperToLower[(unsigned char)(x)])
+# define sqlite3Toupper(x) toupper((unsigned char)(x))
+# define sqlite3Isspace(x) isspace((unsigned char)(x))
+# define sqlite3Isalnum(x) isalnum((unsigned char)(x))
+# define sqlite3Isalpha(x) isalpha((unsigned char)(x))
+# define sqlite3Isdigit(x) isdigit((unsigned char)(x))
+# define sqlite3Isxdigit(x) isxdigit((unsigned char)(x))
+# define sqlite3Tolower(x) tolower((unsigned char)(x))
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsIdChar(u8);
+** Internal function prototypes
+#define sqlite3StrICmp sqlite3_stricmp
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Strlen30(const char*);
+#define sqlite3StrNICmp sqlite3_strnicmp
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MallocInit(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MallocEnd(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3Malloc(u64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3MallocZero(u64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbMallocZero(sqlite3*, u64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbMallocRaw(sqlite3*, u64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(sqlite3*, u64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3DbStrDup(sqlite3*,const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3DbStrNDup(sqlite3*,const char*, u64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3Realloc(void*, u64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbReallocOrFree(sqlite3 *, void *, u64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3DbRealloc(sqlite3 *, void *, u64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DbFree(sqlite3*, void*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MallocSize(void*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3DbMallocSize(sqlite3*, void*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3ScratchMalloc(int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ScratchFree(void*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3PageMalloc(int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PageFree(void*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MemSetDefault(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BenignMallocHooks(void (*)(void), void (*)(void));
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3HeapNearlyFull(void);
+** On systems with ample stack space and that support alloca(), make
+** use of alloca() to obtain space for large automatic objects. By default,
+** obtain space from malloc().
+** The alloca() routine never returns NULL. This will cause code paths
+** that deal with sqlite3StackAlloc() failures to be unreachable.
+# define sqlite3StackAllocRaw(D,N) alloca(N)
+# define sqlite3StackAllocZero(D,N) memset(alloca(N), 0, N)
+# define sqlite3StackFree(D,P)
+# define sqlite3StackAllocRaw(D,N) sqlite3DbMallocRaw(D,N)
+# define sqlite3StackAllocZero(D,N) sqlite3DbMallocZero(D,N)
+# define sqlite3StackFree(D,P) sqlite3DbFree(D,P)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const sqlite3_mem_methods *sqlite3MemGetMemsys3(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const sqlite3_mem_methods *sqlite3MemGetMemsys5(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_mutex_methods const *sqlite3DefaultMutex(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_mutex_methods const *sqlite3NoopMutex(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_mutex *sqlite3MutexAlloc(int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MutexInit(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MutexEnd(void);
+#if !defined(SQLITE_MUTEX_OMIT) && !defined(SQLITE_MUTEX_NOOP)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MemoryBarrier(void);
+# define sqlite3MemoryBarrier()
+SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_int64 sqlite3StatusValue(int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StatusUp(int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StatusDown(int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StatusHighwater(int, int);
+/* Access to mutexes used by sqlite3_status() */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_mutex *sqlite3Pcache1Mutex(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_mutex *sqlite3MallocMutex(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsNaN(double);
+# define sqlite3IsNaN(X) 0
+** An instance of the following structure holds information about SQL
+** functions arguments that are the parameters to the printf() function.
+struct PrintfArguments {
+ int nArg; /* Total number of arguments */
+ int nUsed; /* Number of arguments used so far */
+ sqlite3_value **apArg; /* The argument values */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VXPrintf(StrAccum*, const char*, va_list);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3XPrintf(StrAccum*, const char*, ...);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3MPrintf(sqlite3*,const char*, ...);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3VMPrintf(sqlite3*,const char*, va_list);
+#if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) || defined(SQLITE_HAVE_OS_TRACE)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DebugPrintf(const char*, ...);
+#if defined(SQLITE_TEST)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3TestTextToPtr(const char*);
+#if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3TreeViewExpr(TreeView*, const Expr*, u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3TreeViewExprList(TreeView*, const ExprList*, u8, const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3TreeViewSelect(TreeView*, const Select*, u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3TreeViewWith(TreeView*, const With*, u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SetString(char **, sqlite3*, const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ErrorMsg(Parse*, const char*, ...);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Dequote(char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3TokenInit(Token*,char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3KeywordCode(const unsigned char*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3RunParser(Parse*, const char*, char **);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FinishCoding(Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetTempReg(Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(Parse*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetTempRange(Parse*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(Parse*,int,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ClearTempRegCache(Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprAlloc(sqlite3*,int,const Token*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3Expr(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprAttachSubtrees(sqlite3*,Expr*,Expr*,Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3PExpr(Parse*, int, Expr*, Expr*, const Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprAnd(sqlite3*,Expr*, Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprFunction(Parse*,ExprList*, Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(Parse*, Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprDelete(sqlite3*, Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppend(Parse*,ExprList*,Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(ExprList*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListSetName(Parse*,ExprList*,Token*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListSetSpan(Parse*,ExprList*,ExprSpan*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListDelete(sqlite3*, ExprList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3ExprListFlags(const ExprList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Init(sqlite3*, char**);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3InitCallback(void*, int, char**, char**);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Pragma(Parse*,Token*,Token*,Token*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResetAllSchemasOfConnection(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResetOneSchema(sqlite3*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CollapseDatabaseArray(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CommitInternalChanges(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteColumnNames(sqlite3*,Table*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ColumnsFromExprList(Parse*,ExprList*,i16*,Column**);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3ResultSetOfSelect(Parse*,Select*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OpenMasterTable(Parse *, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Index *sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(Table*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE i16 sqlite3ColumnOfIndex(Index*, i16);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StartTable(Parse*,Token*,Token*,int,int,int,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ColumnPropertiesFromName(Table*, Column*);
+# define sqlite3ColumnPropertiesFromName(T,C) /* no-op */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddColumn(Parse*,Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddNotNull(Parse*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddPrimaryKey(Parse*, ExprList*, int, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddCheckConstraint(Parse*, Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddColumnType(Parse*,Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddDefaultValue(Parse*,ExprSpan*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AddCollateType(Parse*, Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3EndTable(Parse*,Token*,Token*,u8,Select*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ParseUri(const char*,const char*,unsigned int*,
+ sqlite3_vfs**,char**,char **);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Btree *sqlite3DbNameToBtree(sqlite3*,const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CodeOnce(Parse *);
+# define sqlite3FaultSim(X) SQLITE_OK
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FaultSim(int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Bitvec *sqlite3BitvecCreate(u32);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BitvecTest(Bitvec*, u32);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BitvecTestNotNull(Bitvec*, u32);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BitvecSet(Bitvec*, u32);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BitvecClear(Bitvec*, u32, void*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BitvecDestroy(Bitvec*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3BitvecSize(Bitvec*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3BitvecBuiltinTest(int,int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE RowSet *sqlite3RowSetInit(sqlite3*, void*, unsigned int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RowSetClear(RowSet*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RowSetInsert(RowSet*, i64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3RowSetTest(RowSet*, int iBatch, i64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3RowSetNext(RowSet*, i64*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CreateView(Parse*,Token*,Token*,Token*,ExprList*,Select*,int,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ViewGetColumnNames(Parse*,Table*);
+# define sqlite3ViewGetColumnNames(A,B) 0
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3DbMaskAllZero(yDbMask);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DropTable(Parse*, SrcList*, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CodeDropTable(Parse*, Table*, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteTable(sqlite3*, Table*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AutoincrementBegin(Parse *pParse);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AutoincrementEnd(Parse *pParse);
+# define sqlite3AutoincrementBegin(X)
+# define sqlite3AutoincrementEnd(X)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Insert(Parse*, SrcList*, Select*, IdList*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3ArrayAllocate(sqlite3*,void*,int,int*,int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE IdList *sqlite3IdListAppend(sqlite3*, IdList*, Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IdListIndex(IdList*,const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE SrcList *sqlite3SrcListEnlarge(sqlite3*, SrcList*, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE SrcList *sqlite3SrcListAppend(sqlite3*, SrcList*, Token*, Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE SrcList *sqlite3SrcListAppendFromTerm(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*, Token*,
+ Token*, Select*, Expr*, IdList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SrcListIndexedBy(Parse *, SrcList *, Token *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SrcListFuncArgs(Parse*, SrcList*, ExprList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IndexedByLookup(Parse *, struct SrcList_item *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SrcListShiftJoinType(SrcList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SrcListAssignCursors(Parse*, SrcList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3IdListDelete(sqlite3*, IdList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SrcListDelete(sqlite3*, SrcList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Index *sqlite3AllocateIndexObject(sqlite3*,i16,int,char**);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Index *sqlite3CreateIndex(Parse*,Token*,Token*,SrcList*,ExprList*,int,Token*,
+ Expr*, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DropIndex(Parse*, SrcList*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Select(Parse*, Select*, SelectDest*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Select *sqlite3SelectNew(Parse*,ExprList*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,
+ Expr*,ExprList*,u16,Expr*,Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectDelete(sqlite3*, Select*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3SrcListLookup(Parse*, SrcList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsReadOnly(Parse*, Table*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OpenTable(Parse*, int iCur, int iDb, Table*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3LimitWhere(Parse*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,Expr*,Expr*,char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteFrom(Parse*, SrcList*, Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Update(Parse*, SrcList*, ExprList*, Expr*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE WhereInfo *sqlite3WhereBegin(Parse*,SrcList*,Expr*,ExprList*,ExprList*,u16,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3WhereEnd(WhereInfo*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE u64 sqlite3WhereOutputRowCount(WhereInfo*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WhereIsDistinct(WhereInfo*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WhereIsOrdered(WhereInfo*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WhereIsSorted(WhereInfo*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WhereContinueLabel(WhereInfo*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WhereBreakLabel(WhereInfo*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WhereOkOnePass(WhereInfo*, int*);
+#define ONEPASS_OFF 0 /* Use of ONEPASS not allowed */
+#define ONEPASS_SINGLE 1 /* ONEPASS valid for a single row update */
+#define ONEPASS_MULTI 2 /* ONEPASS is valid for multiple rows */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeLoadIndexColumn(Parse*, Index*, int, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumn(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int, u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnToReg(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(Vdbe*, Table*, int, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeMove(Parse*, int, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCacheStore(Parse*, int, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCachePush(Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCachePop(Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCacheRemove(Parse*, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCacheClear(Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(Parse*, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCode(Parse*, Expr*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeCopy(Parse*, Expr*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeFactorable(Parse*, Expr*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeAtInit(Parse*, Expr*, int, u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(Parse*, Expr*, int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(Parse*, Expr*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprCodeAndCache(Parse*, Expr*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCodeExprList(Parse*, ExprList*, int, int, u8);
+#define SQLITE_ECEL_DUP 0x01 /* Deep, not shallow copies */
+#define SQLITE_ECEL_FACTOR 0x02 /* Factor out constant terms */
+#define SQLITE_ECEL_REF 0x04 /* Use ExprList.u.x.iOrderByCol */
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprIfTrue(Parse*, Expr*, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprIfFalse(Parse*, Expr*, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprIfFalseDup(Parse*, Expr*, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3FindTable(sqlite3*,const char*, const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3LocateTable(Parse*,int isView,const char*, const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Table *sqlite3LocateTableItem(Parse*,int isView,struct SrcList_item *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Index *sqlite3FindIndex(sqlite3*,const char*, const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTable(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteIndex(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Vacuum(Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3RunVacuum(char**, sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3NameFromToken(sqlite3*, Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCompare(Expr*, Expr*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprListCompare(ExprList*, ExprList*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprImpliesExpr(Expr*, Expr*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggregates(NameContext*, Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprAnalyzeAggList(NameContext*,ExprList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FunctionUsesThisSrc(Expr*, SrcList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Vdbe *sqlite3GetVdbe(Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PrngSaveState(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3PrngRestoreState(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RollbackAll(sqlite3*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CodeVerifySchema(Parse*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CodeVerifyNamedSchema(Parse*, const char *zDb);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BeginTransaction(Parse*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CommitTransaction(Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RollbackTransaction(Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Savepoint(Parse*, int, Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CloseSavepoints(sqlite3 *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3LeaveMutexAndCloseZombie(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsConstant(Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsConstantNotJoin(Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsConstantOrFunction(Expr*, u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsTableConstant(Expr*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprContainsSubquery(Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprIsInteger(Expr*, int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(const Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ExprNeedsNoAffinityChange(const Expr*, char);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsRowid(const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateRowDelete(
+ Parse*,Table*,Trigger*,int,int,int,i16,u8,u8,u8,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateRowIndexDelete(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GenerateIndexKey(Parse*, Index*, int, int, int, int*,Index*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResolvePartIdxLabel(Parse*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3GenerateConstraintChecks(Parse*,Table*,int*,int,int,int,int,
+ u8,u8,int,int*,int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CompleteInsertion(Parse*,Table*,int,int,int,int*,int,int,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OpenTableAndIndices(Parse*, Table*, int, u8, int, u8*, int*, int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BeginWriteOperation(Parse*, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MultiWrite(Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MayAbort(Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3HaltConstraint(Parse*, int, int, char*, i8, u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3UniqueConstraint(Parse*, int, Index*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RowidConstraint(Parse*, int, Table*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprDup(sqlite3*,Expr*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE ExprList *sqlite3ExprListDup(sqlite3*,ExprList*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE SrcList *sqlite3SrcListDup(sqlite3*,SrcList*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE IdList *sqlite3IdListDup(sqlite3*,IdList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Select *sqlite3SelectDup(sqlite3*,Select*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectSetName(Select*,const char*);
+# define sqlite3SelectSetName(A,B)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FuncDefInsert(FuncDefHash*, FuncDef*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE FuncDef *sqlite3FindFunction(sqlite3*,const char*,int,int,u8,u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RegisterBuiltinFunctions(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RegisterDateTimeFunctions(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RegisterGlobalFunctions(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SafetyCheckOk(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SafetyCheckSickOrOk(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ChangeCookie(Parse*, int);
+#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3MaterializeView(Parse*, Table*, Expr*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BeginTrigger(Parse*, Token*,Token*,int,int,IdList*,SrcList*,
+ Expr*,int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FinishTrigger(Parse*, TriggerStep*, Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DropTrigger(Parse*, SrcList*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DropTriggerPtr(Parse*, Trigger*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Trigger *sqlite3TriggersExist(Parse *, Table*, int, ExprList*, int *pMask);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Trigger *sqlite3TriggerList(Parse *, Table *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CodeRowTrigger(Parse*, Trigger *, int, ExprList*, int, Table *,
+ int, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CodeRowTriggerDirect(Parse *, Trigger *, Table *, int, int, int);
+ void sqliteViewTriggers(Parse*, Table*, Expr*, int, ExprList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(sqlite3*, TriggerStep*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerSelectStep(sqlite3*,Select*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerInsertStep(sqlite3*,Token*, IdList*,
+ Select*,u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerUpdateStep(sqlite3*,Token*,ExprList*, Expr*, u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerDeleteStep(sqlite3*,Token*, Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteTrigger(sqlite3*, Trigger*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTrigger(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3TriggerColmask(Parse*,Trigger*,ExprList*,int,int,Table*,int);
+# define sqlite3ParseToplevel(p) ((p)->pToplevel ? (p)->pToplevel : (p))
+# define sqlite3IsToplevel(p) ((p)->pToplevel==0)
+# define sqlite3TriggersExist(B,C,D,E,F) 0
+# define sqlite3DeleteTrigger(A,B)
+# define sqlite3DropTriggerPtr(A,B)
+# define sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTrigger(A,B,C)
+# define sqlite3CodeRowTrigger(A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I)
+# define sqlite3CodeRowTriggerDirect(A,B,C,D,E,F)
+# define sqlite3TriggerList(X, Y) 0
+# define sqlite3ParseToplevel(p) p
+# define sqlite3IsToplevel(p) 1
+# define sqlite3TriggerColmask(A,B,C,D,E,F,G) 0
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3JoinType(Parse*, Token*, Token*, Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CreateForeignKey(Parse*, ExprList*, Token*, ExprList*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeferForeignKey(Parse*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AuthRead(Parse*,Expr*,Schema*,SrcList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AuthCheck(Parse*,int, const char*, const char*, const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AuthContextPush(Parse*, AuthContext*, const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AuthContextPop(AuthContext*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AuthReadCol(Parse*, const char *, const char *, int);
+# define sqlite3AuthRead(a,b,c,d)
+# define sqlite3AuthCheck(a,b,c,d,e) SQLITE_OK
+# define sqlite3AuthContextPush(a,b,c)
+# define sqlite3AuthContextPop(a) ((void)(a))
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Attach(Parse*, Expr*, Expr*, Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Detach(Parse*, Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FixInit(DbFixer*, Parse*, int, const char*, const Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixSrcList(DbFixer*, SrcList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixSelect(DbFixer*, Select*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixExpr(DbFixer*, Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixExprList(DbFixer*, ExprList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FixTriggerStep(DbFixer*, TriggerStep*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AtoF(const char *z, double*, int, u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetInt32(const char *, int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Atoi(const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Utf16ByteLen(const void *pData, int nChar);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Utf8CharLen(const char *pData, int nByte);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3Utf8Read(const u8**);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE LogEst sqlite3LogEst(u64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE LogEst sqlite3LogEstAdd(LogEst,LogEst);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE LogEst sqlite3LogEstFromDouble(double);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE u64 sqlite3LogEstToInt(LogEst);
+** Routines to read and write variable-length integers. These used to
+** be defined locally, but now we use the varint routines in the util.c
+** file.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PutVarint(unsigned char*, u64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE u8 sqlite3GetVarint(const unsigned char *, u64 *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE u8 sqlite3GetVarint32(const unsigned char *, u32 *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VarintLen(u64 v);
+** The common case is for a varint to be a single byte. They following
+** macros handle the common case without a procedure call, but then call
+** the procedure for larger varints.
+#define getVarint32(A,B) \
+ (u8)((*(A)<(u8)0x80)?((B)=(u32)*(A)),1:sqlite3GetVarint32((A),(u32 *)&(B)))
+#define putVarint32(A,B) \
+ (u8)(((u32)(B)<(u32)0x80)?(*(A)=(unsigned char)(B)),1:\
+ sqlite3PutVarint((A),(B)))
+#define getVarint sqlite3GetVarint
+#define putVarint sqlite3PutVarint
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(sqlite3*, Index*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3TableAffinity(Vdbe*, Table*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3CompareAffinity(Expr *pExpr, char aff2);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IndexAffinityOk(Expr *pExpr, char idx_affinity);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3ExprAffinity(Expr *pExpr);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Atoi64(const char*, i64*, int, u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3DecOrHexToI64(const char*, i64*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ErrorWithMsg(sqlite3*, int, const char*,...);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Error(sqlite3*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3HexToBlob(sqlite3*, const char *z, int n);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE u8 sqlite3HexToInt(int h);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3TwoPartName(Parse *, Token *, Token *, Token **);
+#if defined(SQLITE_NEED_ERR_NAME)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3ErrName(int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3ErrStr(int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ReadSchema(Parse *pParse);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3FindCollSeq(sqlite3*,u8 enc, const char*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3LocateCollSeq(Parse *pParse, const char*zName);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3ExprCollSeq(Parse *pParse, Expr *pExpr);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprAddCollateToken(Parse *pParse, Expr*, const Token*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprAddCollateString(Parse*,Expr*,const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3ExprSkipCollate(Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CheckCollSeq(Parse *, CollSeq *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CheckObjectName(Parse *, const char *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VdbeSetChanges(sqlite3 *, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AddInt64(i64*,i64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SubInt64(i64*,i64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MulInt64(i64*,i64);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AbsInt32(int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FileSuffix3(const char*, char*);
+# define sqlite3FileSuffix3(X,Y)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE u8 sqlite3GetBoolean(const char *z,u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const void *sqlite3ValueText(sqlite3_value*, u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ValueBytes(sqlite3_value*, u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ValueSetStr(sqlite3_value*, int, const void *,u8,
+ void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ValueSetNull(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ValueFree(sqlite3_value*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_value *sqlite3ValueNew(sqlite3 *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3Utf16to8(sqlite3 *, const void*, int, u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ValueFromExpr(sqlite3 *, Expr *, u8, u8, sqlite3_value **);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ValueApplyAffinity(sqlite3_value *, u8, u8);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const unsigned char sqlite3OpcodeProperty[];
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const char sqlite3StrBINARY[];
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const unsigned char sqlite3UpperToLower[];
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const unsigned char sqlite3CtypeMap[];
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const Token sqlite3IntTokens[];
+SQLITE_PRIVATE SQLITE_WSD struct Sqlite3Config sqlite3Config;
+SQLITE_PRIVATE SQLITE_WSD FuncDefHash sqlite3GlobalFunctions;
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3PendingByte;
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RootPageMoved(sqlite3*, int, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Reindex(Parse*, Token*, Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterFunctions(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterRenameTable(Parse*, SrcList*, Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3GetToken(const unsigned char *, int *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3NestedParse(Parse*, const char*, ...);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExpirePreparedStatements(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CodeSubselect(Parse *, Expr *, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectPrep(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectWrongNumTermsError(Parse *pParse, Select *p);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3MatchSpanName(const char*, const char*, const char*, const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ResolveExprNames(NameContext*, Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ResolveExprListNames(NameContext*, ExprList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResolveSelectNames(Parse*, Select*, NameContext*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ResolveSelfReference(Parse*,Table*,int,Expr*,ExprList*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ResolveOrderGroupBy(Parse*, Select*, ExprList*, const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ColumnDefault(Vdbe *, Table *, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterFinishAddColumn(Parse *, Token *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AlterBeginAddColumn(Parse *, SrcList *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3GetCollSeq(Parse*, u8, CollSeq *, const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE char sqlite3AffinityType(const char*, u8*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Analyze(Parse*, Token*, Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3InvokeBusyHandler(BusyHandler*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FindDb(sqlite3*, Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FindDbName(sqlite3 *, const char *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3AnalysisLoad(sqlite3*,int iDB);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DeleteIndexSamples(sqlite3*,Index*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3DefaultRowEst(Index*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3RegisterLikeFunctions(sqlite3*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3IsLikeFunction(sqlite3*,Expr*,int*,char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SchemaClear(void *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Schema *sqlite3SchemaGet(sqlite3 *, Btree *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3SchemaToIndex(sqlite3 *db, Schema *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE KeyInfo *sqlite3KeyInfoAlloc(sqlite3*,int,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3KeyInfoUnref(KeyInfo*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE KeyInfo *sqlite3KeyInfoRef(KeyInfo*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE KeyInfo *sqlite3KeyInfoOfIndex(Parse*, Index*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3KeyInfoIsWriteable(KeyInfo*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3CreateFunc(sqlite3 *, const char *, int, int, void *,
+ void (*)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value **),
+ void (*)(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value **), void (*)(sqlite3_context*),
+ FuncDestructor *pDestructor
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OomFault(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3OomClear(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ApiExit(sqlite3 *db, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3OpenTempDatabase(Parse *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumInit(StrAccum*, sqlite3*, char*, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumAppend(StrAccum*,const char*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(StrAccum*,const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AppendChar(StrAccum*,int,char);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE char *sqlite3StrAccumFinish(StrAccum*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3StrAccumReset(StrAccum*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3SelectDestInit(SelectDest*,int,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE Expr *sqlite3CreateColumnExpr(sqlite3 *, SrcList *, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BackupRestart(sqlite3_backup *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BackupUpdate(sqlite3_backup *, Pgno, const u8 *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AnalyzeFunctions(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Stat4ProbeSetValue(Parse*,Index*,UnpackedRecord**,Expr*,u8,int,int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Stat4ValueFromExpr(Parse*, Expr*, u8, sqlite3_value**);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Stat4ProbeFree(UnpackedRecord*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Stat4Column(sqlite3*, const void*, int, int, sqlite3_value**);
+** The interface to the LEMON-generated parser
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void *sqlite3ParserAlloc(void*(*)(u64));
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ParserFree(void*, void(*)(void*));
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3Parser(void*, int, Token, Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3ParserStackPeak(void*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3AutoLoadExtensions(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3CloseExtensions(sqlite3*);
+# define sqlite3CloseExtensions(X)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3TableLock(Parse *, int, int, u8, const char *);
+ #define sqlite3TableLock(v,w,x,y,z)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Utf8To8(unsigned char*);
+# define sqlite3VtabClear(Y)
+# define sqlite3VtabSync(X,Y) SQLITE_OK
+# define sqlite3VtabRollback(X)
+# define sqlite3VtabCommit(X)
+# define sqlite3VtabInSync(db) 0
+# define sqlite3VtabLock(X)
+# define sqlite3VtabUnlock(X)
+# define sqlite3VtabUnlockList(X)
+# define sqlite3VtabSavepoint(X, Y, Z) SQLITE_OK
+# define sqlite3GetVTable(X,Y) ((VTable*)0)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabClear(sqlite3 *db, Table*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabDisconnect(sqlite3 *db, Table *p);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabSync(sqlite3 *db, Vdbe*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabRollback(sqlite3 *db);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabCommit(sqlite3 *db);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabLock(VTable *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabUnlock(VTable *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabUnlockList(sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabSavepoint(sqlite3 *, int, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabImportErrmsg(Vdbe*, sqlite3_vtab*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE VTable *sqlite3GetVTable(sqlite3*, Table*);
+# define sqlite3VtabInSync(db) ((db)->nVTrans>0 && (db)->aVTrans==0)
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabEponymousTableInit(Parse*,Module*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabEponymousTableClear(sqlite3*,Module*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabMakeWritable(Parse*,Table*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabBeginParse(Parse*, Token*, Token*, Token*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabFinishParse(Parse*, Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabArgInit(Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3VtabArgExtend(Parse*, Token*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabCallCreate(sqlite3*, int, const char *, char **);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabCallConnect(Parse*, Table*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabCallDestroy(sqlite3*, int, const char *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VtabBegin(sqlite3 *, VTable *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE FuncDef *sqlite3VtabOverloadFunction(sqlite3 *,FuncDef*, int nArg, Expr*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3InvalidFunction(sqlite3_context*,int,sqlite3_value**);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE sqlite3_int64 sqlite3StmtCurrentTime(sqlite3_context*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3VdbeParameterIndex(Vdbe*, const char*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3TransferBindings(sqlite3_stmt *, sqlite3_stmt *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ParserReset(Parse*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Reprepare(Vdbe*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3ExprListCheckLength(Parse*, ExprList*, const char*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE CollSeq *sqlite3BinaryCompareCollSeq(Parse *, Expr *, Expr *);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3TempInMemory(const sqlite3*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE const char *sqlite3JournalModename(int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3Checkpoint(sqlite3*, int, int, int*, int*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3WalDefaultHook(void*,sqlite3*,const char*,int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE With *sqlite3WithAdd(Parse*,With*,Token*,ExprList*,Select*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3WithDelete(sqlite3*,With*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3WithPush(Parse*, With*, u8);
+#define sqlite3WithPush(x,y,z)
+#define sqlite3WithDelete(x,y)
+/* Declarations for functions in fkey.c. All of these are replaced by
+** no-op macros if OMIT_FOREIGN_KEY is defined. In this case no foreign
+** key functionality is available. If OMIT_TRIGGER is defined but
+** OMIT_FOREIGN_KEY is not, only some of the functions are no-oped. In
+** this case foreign keys are parsed, but no other functionality is
+** provided (enforcement of FK constraints requires the triggers sub-system).
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FkCheck(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FkDropTable(Parse*, SrcList *, Table*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FkActions(Parse*, Table*, ExprList*, int, int*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FkRequired(Parse*, Table*, int*, int);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE u32 sqlite3FkOldmask(Parse*, Table*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE FKey *sqlite3FkReferences(Table *);
+ #define sqlite3FkActions(a,b,c,d,e,f)
+ #define sqlite3FkCheck(a,b,c,d,e,f)
+ #define sqlite3FkDropTable(a,b,c)
+ #define sqlite3FkOldmask(a,b) 0
+ #define sqlite3FkRequired(a,b,c,d) 0
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3FkDelete(sqlite3 *, Table*);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE int sqlite3FkLocateIndex(Parse*,Table*,FKey*,Index**,int**);
+ #define sqlite3FkDelete(a,b)
+ #define sqlite3FkLocateIndex(a,b,c,d,e)
+** Available fault injectors. Should be numbered beginning with 0.
+** The interface to the code in fault.c used for identifying "benign"
+** malloc failures. This is only present if SQLITE_OMIT_BUILTIN_TEST
+** is not defined.
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3BeginBenignMalloc(void);
+SQLITE_PRIVATE void sqlite3EndBenignMalloc(void);
+ #define sqlite3BeginBenignMalloc()
+ #define sqlite3EndBenignMalloc()
+** Allowed return values from sqlite3FindInIndex()
+#define IN_INDEX_ROWID 1 /* Search the rowid of the table */
+#define IN_INDEX_EPH 2 /* Search an ephemeral b-tree */
+#define IN_INDEX_INDEX_ASC 3 /* Existing index ASCENDING */
+#define IN_INDEX_INDEX_DESC 4 /* Existing index DESCENDING */
+#define IN_INDEX_NOOP 5 /* No table available. Use comparisons */
+** Allowed flags for the 3rd par